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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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fully as it approaclied the outlet, whence it
issued, ever and anon, with fresh explosions,
like terrific peals of thunder. In the prodi-
gious blaze of light, we could not for some
time perceive that the lava did not, as we at
first supposed, brim over the lip of the cup,

but burst a passage through the side of the
cone, some 300 feet below the top, whence it
gushed forth in an impetuous flood, and pre-
sently flowed in bubbling runnels of liquid fire
that ran along the ground, at first in narrow
streams, sometimes as fine as chains of forked
lightning linked together, flashing along tiie
snow ; but these, as they descended, fell into
one another, and united into one wide, mean-
dering lava flood.

" Another current swept down the hill-side
with a statelier march, the flood of fire occa-
sionally overflowing its banks, and flinging a
golden glare upon the surrounding snow, till,
at a distance of about two miles from its
source, it struck against a tall rock, overhang-
ing a shelving precipice, many hundred feet
deep, and splitting itself on the rock into two
divided torrents, like the falls of the Rhine, at
Schoff"hausen, it leaped into twin cascades of
fiery flood, sheer down into the gulf of deso-
lation that yawned below. Occasionally, we
could see huge rocks spouted out from this
fall of fire, and shot away in separate masses
into the ravine, thundering along the blocks of
old lava in the Val del Bove, into which this
fresh stream poured, stretching, like strings
of burning beads, along the distant snow.
When the first excitement which this sight,
' horribly beautiful,' produced, had partially
subsided, we began to feel the pinching cold
in.suflerably. Our feet were stony, as if all
circulation had departed ; and on dismounting
from our mules, it was with great diflicull_v
that we could stand. Indeed, no wonder, for
we were within a hundred feet of the line of
perpetual snow; and the wind, though hap-
])ily very moderate, cut through us like a
razor, bringing water to our eyes, and freez-
ing our ears and noses. But any temporary
suflerings, any toil, would have been amply
repaid by tlie splendor and magnificence of
the majestic sight upon which we were gazing.
It is pleasant to know that the eruption has
not caused, and it is not likely to cause, much
damage, by reason of the desolate soil over
which the lava has this time directed its
course. It is nut expected to last much

Difference between Iron and Steel.

Steel is iron passed through a process which
is called cementalion, the object of which is
to impregnate it wilh carbon. Carbon exists
more abundantly in charcoal than in any other
fusible substance, and the smoke that goes up
from a charcoal forge, is carbon, in a fluid
state. Now if you can manage to confine that
smoke, and put a piece of iron into it for
several days, and heat the iron at the same
time, it would becotne steel. Heating the iron,
opens its pores, so that the smoke, or carbon,
can enter into it.

The furnace for this purpose is a conical
building of brick, in the middle of which are
two troughs of brick or fire stone, which hold
about four tons of bar iron. At the bottom is
a large grate for the fire. A layer of char-
coal dust is put upon the bottoms of the
troughs, then a layer of bar iron ; and so on
alternately, until the troughs are full. They


are then covered over wilh clay, to keep out
the air, which, if admitted, would prevent the
cementation. The fire is then communicated
to the wood and coal wilh which the furn
is filled, and continued until the conversion of
the iron into steel is completed, which gene
rally happens in about eight or ten days. This
is known by the blisters on the bars, which the
workmen occasionally draw out in order to
determine. When the conversion is completed,
the fire is then left to go out, and the bars
main in the furnace about eight days more, to

The bars of steel are then taken out, and
either sold as blister steel, or drawn to a con-
venient size, when it is called tilted steel. Ger-
man steel is made out of this blister steel, by
breaking the bars into short pieces, and weld-
ing them together, drawing them down to a
proper size for use.

Cast steel, which is quite a late improve-
ment, is made from the common blister stee"
The bars are broken into very short piecei
and put into large crucibles with a flux of
antimony. The crucible is then closed up
with a lid of the same ware, and placed in a
wind furnace. By the introduction of a great-
er or less quantity of flux, the steel is made of
a harder or softer quality.

This flux separates the impurities, dissi-
pates the iron qualities, and renders the tex-
ture of the steel uniform, fine, and adhe-
sive. When the fusion is complete, the
metal is cast into ingots, and then drawn
down to a proper size for use. — Biscalaquis

From Chanibiir




Condition of Swiss Population.
To compare the condition of Switzerland
with that of England would be absurd. There
is not the slightest resemblance between them.
The Swiss have pitched their standard of
happiness at a point which, as far as things,
not feelings, are concerned, could with great
ease be reached by the bulk of the British
population. And here what may be called the
unfavourable features of Swiss society become
prominent. There is little cumulative capital
in Switzerland. It is a country of small
farmers and tradesmen, in decent but not
wealthy circumstances. An active man among
them could not get much. If he and his
family wrought hard they would not starve,
and whatever thej' got would be their own.
On all occasions, in speaking to respectable
residents, the observation on the people was
— " They labour hard, very hard ; but, they
have plenty of food, and they are happy."
Now, it is my opinion, that if any man labour
hard in either England or Scotland, exercise
a reasonable degree of prudence, and be tem-
perate and economical, he can scarcely fail in
arriving at the same practical results as the
Swiss: nay, I go farther, and will aver that
he has an opportunity of reaching a far
higher standard of rational comfort than was
ever dreamt of by the happiest peasant in
Switzerland. The condition of the Swiss is
blessed, remotely, no doubt, from the simple


form of government, but immediately and
chiefly from the industry, humble desires, and
economic habits of the people.
The Swiss Artisan — the British Operative.
Switzerland is unquestionably the paradise
of the working-man; but then it cannot be
called a paradise for any other; and 1 doubt
if the perfection of the social system — if the
ultimate end of creation — is to fix down man-
kind at peasant and working-man pitch. Both
Bowring and Symons are in raptures wilh the
cottage system of the Swiss artisans. 1 own
it is most attractive, and, as I have said, is
doubtless productive of much happiness. But
who prevents English artisans from having
equally good houses with the Swiss? With a
money wage of some seven or eight shillings
a week, it is said the Swiss operative realizes,
by means of his free cottage, bit of ground,
and garden, equal to thirty shillings in Eng-
land. My own conviction is, that fourteen or
fifteen shillings would be nearer the mark ;
but taking it at a larger sum, let us inquire if
English workmen may not attain similar ad-
vantages. All perhaps could not, but I feel
assured that every skilled artisan could — that
is, every man receiving from fifteen to twenty
shillings per week, of whom there is no small
nun)her. British operatives are faxed to a
monstrous degree ; almost every thing they
put in their mouths being factitiously raised in
])rice in a manner perfectly shameful. But
they possess a freedom known no where on the
continent. They can travel from town to
town at all times without begging for pass-
ports ; they are not called upon for a single
day's drill ; in short, their time is their own,
and they may do with it as they please. Ex-
ercising the same scrupulous economy as the
Swiss, and in the same manner refraining
from marriage till prudence sanctioned such a
step, I do not see what is to prevent a skilled
and regularly employed British operative from
becoming the proprietor of a small house and
garden, supposing his taste to lie that way.
I know several who have realized this kind of
property ; indeed, a large proportion of the
humbler class of tradesmen in the Scottish
country towns, villages and hamlets, are the
proprietors of the dwellings in which ihey
reside. Now, if some so placed contrive to
realise property, why may not others do so ?
The answer is, that a vast mass of our work-
ing population think of little beyond present
enjoyment. Gin — whisky ! — what misery is
created by these demons, every city can bear
sorrowful witness. Cruelly taxed, in the first
place, by the state, the lower classes tax them-
selves still more by their appetites. Scotland
spends four millions of pounds annually on
whisky, and what England disburses for gin
and porter is on a scale equally magnificent.
Throughout the grand rue of Berne, a mile in
length, and densely populated, I did not see a
single spirit-shop or tavern ; I observed, cer-
tainly, that several of the cellars were used
forthesaleof wines. In the Highstreel of Edin-
burgh, from the Castle to Holyrood House,
the same in length as the main street of Berne,
and not unlike it in appearance, there are one
hundred and fifty taverns, shops, or places of


one kind or anotlier in wliicli spirituous liquors
are sold ; and in Rose street, a niucli less
populous thorough!'

I Swit-

the number
one. I did not see a drunken person
zeriand ; Sheriff Alison speaks of ten thousand
persons being in a slate of intoxication every
Saturday night in Glasgow.

Moral Habits of the Swiss.
I take the liberty of alluding to these prac-
tices, not fur the purpose of depreciating the
character of the operative orders, but to show
at least one pretty conclusive piece of evidence
why they do not generally exhibit the same
kind of happy homes as the Swiss. In a word,
Bowring and Symons, and, I may add, Laing,
seem to lead to the inference, that every thing
excellent in the Swiss operative and peasants'
condition is owing to institutional arrange-
ments; whereas, without undervaluing these,
I ascribe fully more, as already stated, to the
temperance, humble desires, and extraordi-
nary economic habits of the people. That
the practical advantages enjoyed by Swiss
artisans are also, somehow, inferior to those
of similar classes in Britain, is evident from
the fact that Swiss watch-makers emigrate to
England for the sake of better wages than
they can realize at home ; and that some thou-
sands of unskilled labourers leave Switzer-
land annually, to better their condition in
foreign lands, is, I believe, a fact which admits
of no kind of controversy. Let us then con-
clude with this impartial consideration, that
if our working population have grievances to
complain of, (and I allow these grievances are
neither few nor light,) they at the same time
enjoy a scope, an outlet for enterprise and
skill, a means of enrichment and advancement,
which no people in Continental Europe can
at all boast of. Switzerland, as has been said,
is the paradise of the working man. It might
with equal justice be added, that a siniilar
paradise can be realized in the home of every
man who is willing to forego personal indul-
gences, and make his domestic hearth the
principal scene of his pleasures, the sanctuary
in which his affections are enshrined."

From the annual report of the Commission-
er of the Patent Office, we learn that 517
patents have been issued during the past year,
of which thirteen were reissues, and fifteen
for additional improvements. During the
same period, 352 patents have expired. The
receipts of the office, during the past year,
amounted to .$35,790, the expenditures to
823,154. The whole number of patents
issued by the United States, previous to Janu-
ary, 1843, is 12,992.— P/»i/ad. Gaz.

Beware of that which would exalt itself in
the vision of heavenly things, and take the
vision for a possession, as too many have done.
In times of openings and discoveries keep
low, and be of a plain and single heart before
the Lord; for vision is for encouragement, and
not for exaltation. Whosoever makes images
of those things they have seen, will also bow
down to them, and endeavour to make others


bow too, and thence comes a worse babel, and
worse idolatry, than that which is set up
among those who never yet ran into heavenly
things, and so only can make images of
thinLTSon earth, and bow, and cause others to
bow thereunto. Therefore, if the Lord en-
large thy sight of Divine things, by his pure
Spirit and Light in thy inward parts, walk
humbly before him in fear, that thou mayest
feel his gentle leadings into the enjoyment
and possession of what thou hast seen, and
mayest witness forth his praise to the sons and
dauffhters of men.

For ■' The Friend."

Bury me among mine own people.
Wlieii tlie fruil cord thai binds me here

Sliall loose its silver tic,
When every hope, wlicn every fear,

From this lone heart sh.ill fly,
When the freed spirit shall have fled
Beyond the confines of the dead,
Oh, lay me not where pnmp has traced

Wilh chiselled art so fair,
The cosily stones wilh trophies graced,

With sculptor's nicest care ;
Oh, place me not in vaulted tomb.
But let my dust with dust consume !
Oh, let no lettered legend tell.

Who lies beneath the mould,
No monumental marble swell

Above my ashes cold ;
Ah, no ! the narrow house should be,
A dwelling of simplicity 1
Oh, lay me not, for friendship's sake,

Where soaring pillars rise,
Where fashions daily inroad make,

Where pomp wilh splendour vies —
But lay me, where my frame shall n st,
Willi mother earth above my breast I
Soft whispering winds may sigh around

As pensive as they please,
Bright little flowers may deck my mound,—

My Father's works are these, —
But let not arl adorn the spot.
By all but kindred soon Ibrgol !
For sure the narrow house should be,
A dwelling of simphcity !

Let none be weary of tribulations, knowing
that the glory of God and the gospel is there-
by advanced ; and the send that is sown in this
generation through sufferings, shall come up
in the next, in great glory and dominion,
Therefore be of good courage; your work,
service, tribulations, and supplications will
never be forgotten.

Love of the World. — There is nothing to
be gotten by the world's love; nothing to be
lost (but its love) by its hate. Why then
should I seek that love that cannot profit me,
or fear that malice that cannot hurt me ! Let
it then hate me, and 1 will forgive it ; but if
it love me, I will never requite it. For since
its love is hurtful, and its hate harmless, I
will contemn its hate, and hate its love.


THIRD MONTH, 4, 1843.

American Beef.—S. London paper of the
first ult. savs, that the first parcel of American
beef cured'to suit the English market in par-
ticular, was landed a day or two since in the
St. Catharine dock.

We have intended to notice the Report for
1842, being the second since the Institution
has been in operation, of the Pennsylvania
Hospital for the Insane. It is a document, in
our opinion, of no ordinary interest, creditable
alike to the head and the heart of the writer,
Dr. Thomas S. Kirkbride, Physician to the
Institution; and furnishes matter, accompa-
nied with ample statistical tables, of much
value and importance in relation to the treat-
ment of insane persons, meriting the serious
attention of philanthropists and men of sci-
ence, here and elsewhere. Since the date of
the last report, it appears, the contractor has
completed the lodges, or detached buildings,
for such patients as from habitual noise or
other causes, were likely to prove an annoy-
ance to those who resided in the main hospi-
the entire plan of the buildings is now
complete, and the full scheme of organization
ly carried out. Satisfactory evidence is
given that the Institution is fulfilling the anti-
cipation of its benevolent founders, is render-
ing a great amount of service to the commu-
nity, and extending relief to a large amount of
human suflering.

A stated annual meetingof the Contributors
to the Asylum fi)r the relief of persons de-
prived of' the use of their reason, will be
held at the Committee-room, Mulberry street
Meeting-house, on Fourth-day afternoon, the
15th instant, at 3 o'clock.

Samuel Mason, Clerk.
Third month, 1843.


The summer term of Whiteland Boarding
School will commence, if sufficient encourage-
ment be given, on Second-day, the first of
Fifth month next.

The price of board and tuition, which has
been seventy dollars per term, will be reduced
to sixty. Applications should be made early
to John C. Allen, 180 South Second street, or
Yardley Warner, Warren Tavern, P. O.,
Chester county. Pa.

American Visiters. — Immense flights of
wild pigeons, supposed to be visiters from
America, recently appeared in the vicinity
of the lakes and hills of Cumberland, Eng-

MARRiEn, on Fifth. day, the ICth ult., at the Falls
Meeting of Friends, Rucks county. Pa., B.
Jones, of Newlon, N. J., lo Lydia, daughter of Christo-
pher and Sarah Hcaly, of the former place.

DifD, on the morning of the 16lh ult., Ruth J. Di.x-
o.N, widow of the late Joseph Di.xon, of this city, in the
ooth year of her ngc.



For " The Friend."

In a late volume of the Foreign Quarterly
Review, (London,) tlie subject of one its arti-
cles is — Travels in Abyssinia, by Dr. E. Ri'ip-
pell ; from which we extract the following : —
The island of Massovva is founded upon one
of the coral formations so frequent in the Red
Sea, and is the ordinary starting point to the
interior of Abyssinia from Egypt, and the
great outlet of the Abyssinian trade, which is
conveyed to it by the caravans, the merchan-
dize being principally slaves, elephants' tusks,
uiusk, wax, coflee, &c.

Before pursuing his journey to the interior
of Abyssinia, Dr. Riippell resolved upon an
excursion northwards to the valley of Modat,
for the purpose of making a collection of the
many animals and plants with which that
beautiful country abounds.

The direct distance from Massowa to Ailat,
the principal town in the valley of Modat, is
about twenty-four miles, but the fatigue of the
journey is considerably increased by the moun-
tainous nature of the country to be traversed,
no less than the constant winding of the road.
The general character of the country between
Massowa and the valley consists in a succes-
sion of hills formed of sandstone and mica,
and rocks of volcanic structure, intersected by
narrow ravines, along the edge of which runs
the road or path, and scantily dotted here and
there with low slender trees and stunted thorn
bushes, for little nourishment is afforded to
veo'etation by a soil composed in a great meas-
ure of lava, and but sparingly irrigated by
springs of tainted water. The weariness of
threading this sterile district is, however, am-
ply repaid by the beauties and natural treas-
ures of Modat.

" The only habitations in the valley of Mo-
dat are slight huts, formed of twigs, and cover-
ed with dry rush-grass, and calculated to stand
only for a very short time, as from the annoy-
ance of the termites and other^ej-min, frequent
change is necessary in the praces of encamp-
ment. They are in general very small, of a
circular shape, and are entered through a low
doorway; some few square and cage-like
dwellings are built more solidly of trunks of
trees; but they are all penetrated by the rain
which falls in from above, to the utter despair
of the collector of objects of natural history.
These huts are always erected in groups, and
surrounded by a hedge formed of the large
branches of thorn-bearing trees, and the en-
trance is stopped up by a thorn bush pushed
forward into the cavity. Within the enclo-
sure the numerous herds of sheep and goats
arc driven for the night, and a partial protec-
tion is afforded from the attacks of the beasts
of prey which prowl in great numbers about
the valley, and consist of hyaenas, lynxes,
leopards, and occasionally a lion and his mate.
" The hyoena of this valley, called by the
natives karai, is the spotted kind, the only one
found in Abyssinia ; but in the north, from the
seventeenth degree of latitude, this species
disappears, and the striped hyaena alone is
seen. These animals are of a cowardly na-
ture, except when rendered daring by extreme

hunger, on which occasions they enter the
houses even in the day-time and carry oft'
young children, although they have never
been known to attack men. W hen the flocks
are returning home in the evening, they often
spring upon any sheep that may have straggled
or loitered behind, and generally succeed in
carrying off their prey in spite of the pursuit
of the shepherds. Dogs are not kept here, as
hey are found to be utterly useless against
beasts of prey. The inhabitants caught
ral large hytenas for us by digging
trenches across a path enclosed by thorn
bushes, and tying a young kid at one end of
it. The ravenous beast, attracted by the
bleating of the little animal for it's dam,
rushes to the spot and falls into the pit, which
is carefully covered over with twigs and sand,
and is immediately killed before he has time
to free himself by scraping a path out. The
power of scent possessed by these animals is
very extraordinary. A lion with a lioness
and cubs infested the valley of Modat during
the time we were staying there ; the spot they
had selected for their lair was well known,
and they had already carried off several
camels and other cattle, but the chase of these
beasls is extremely dangerous, and they can
only be expelled by the efforts of several men
uniting to ibrma battue ; but the Abyssinians
are wholly destitute of any spirit of union, and
so far from associating for any common pur-
pose, each man rejoices over any misfortune
that may befal his neighbour. During our
stay at Modat, a lion sprang in the night-time
over one of the thorn bush fences described
above, tore to the ground two shepherds who
attempted to oppose him, and, seizing a bul-
lock in his powerful jaw, cleared the hedge
again, and went off with his booty. Besides
hyoenas and lions, which are called Assat
here as in Arabia, there are numerous other
kinds of wild beast in this part of the country.
There are, in particular, several species of
foxes, whose plaintive howl is often heard
breaking in upon the stillness of the night,
whilst the smothered moan of the hyffina gives
indication of his undesired proximity to the
flocks. Numerous herds of wild swine, armed
with enormous tusks (Phascochoeres Aeliani)
ploughed up the dry and sterile beds of the
mountain torrents in search of roots; the
dwarf-like bushes swarmed with hares and
small gazelles, which frequent the pasturages
in couples ; the larger antelopes only come
here at periodical times, and in herds more
or less numerous; the great antelope, with
ihe powerful spirally curved horns, (strepsice-
ros,) which is only found upon rocky hills, and
of which species we killed two, is more rarely
seen. None of these animals are hunted by
the natives. The elephant alone, of whom a
solitary one sometimes strays into this valley
from the Abyssinian mountains, is attacked
by the hunters. In this chase, long match-
locks are used, which carry balls of a quarter
of a pound in weight, and arc so heavy that
they require two men to use them, one sup-
porting the long barrel upon his shoulder,
whilst the other fires. As their powder is
extremely bad, it is only by approaching close
to the animal that they can succeed in inflict-

ing a mortal wound. The elephants scent the
smoke of the match at a great distance oft",
and can only be approached therefore against
the wind; Iheir organs of sight are, however,
inferior. The natives procured two elephants
for us whilst we were in the valley of Modat.
They were of the species called by the natu-
ralists jE/e/>/i

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 67 of 154)