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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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ascension one hour forty-five minutes and one
second, and its declination south eleven de-
li rees tliirty-five minutes twenty-three seconds.
It is understood that arrangements have been
made to observe its place with care at the ob-
servatory. It is on such occasions that the
importance of an established and well endow-
ed observatory is ielt."

A young man, a member of the Society of
Friends, who has had several years experi-
ence in teaching, wishes to obtain a situation
in a Friend's School, as teacher of the usual
branches of English education, including
mathematics. Good testimonials will be pro-
duced. For furlher particulars, inquire of
the agent of" The Friend."

The subscriber wishes to take two boys,
members of the Society of Friends, as board-
ing scholars. They will (if required) be care-
fully instructed in the various branches of a
solid English education, viz.: Orthographj',
Reading, Writing, Geography, English Gram-
mer. Composition, Historv, Arithmetic, the
Elementary branches of Mathematics, Natu-
ral Philosophy, and Chemistry. The charge
for board, washing, and tuition, will be $30
per quarter, one half payable in advance.
Geokgk M. Glover.

Burlington, Third mo. ISth, 1843.


Reuben J. Peckham, Providence, R. I.,
who has very acceptably acted as agent for
that vicinity, is now released at his own re-
quest. We should be glad if our Providence
subscribers would name a successor.

Correction.— No. 24, page 185, third
column, in third line from bottom, for " cloth-
ing," read " teaching. Second line from bot-
tom, for " sustaining ■■ • ■

id " instructing.'

Married, at Friends' IMeeling, Bolton,
uinty, Mass., on llic iUh instanl, Amos Wilbur Col-
l^s, of North Stonington, Ct., to Lucv T. Fkv, daugh-
!r of Jonathan Fry.

Seventh and Carpenter Streets.



XTO. 26.



Price two dollais per annum, payabhin advance.

Subscriptions and Payments received by




For " The Friend.'

Pictures and Sketches of Petershurgh.

(Continued from page 104.)

It must not, however, be supposed that the
Petersburgher lets all the ice of the iNeva
float away, to cool the liquor of the fishes in
I lie Baltic. The liussian is too fond of ice to
be a single day without it, if he can get it.
Throughout the summer every liquid is iced,
not even excepting tea, and an ice-house is
of all others the appendage that a Russian
menage is least inclined to dispense with.
Even the peasant's cottage is rarely without
one, and Petersburgh is supposed to contain
no less than 10,001). It must of course re-
quire the work of inany hands to fill all these
cellars with ice, for each cellar is supposed to
afford accommodation for fifty sledge-loads.
Supposing each cellar to be filled, and there
are few that are not, this would give .500,000
sledge-loads of ice for the consumption of the
capital, or about one sledge-load for every
man, woman and child in the place. The
most extensive commerce carried on during
winter is decidedly that in ice, and many
thousands find constant employment in fishing
up this cooling produce from its " native ele-
ment," the water of the Neva. The men who
make it their business to raise the ice, go
about it in a most artist-like way, sawing and
chopping their raw material in such equal and
mathematical shapes as may most conveni-
ently be packed, first in the sledge, and after-
wards in the cellar ; but we will allow our
author to describe the operation in his own

" Tliey begin by clearing away the snow
from the surface, that they may draw more
distinctly the outline of their work. A large
parallelogram is then sketched upon the ice,
and is divided by cross lines, into a number of
squares, to suit the dimensions of the sledges.
The next step is to loosen the great parallelo-
gram, which is done by digging a trench all
round, and as the ice is often one and a-half
to two ells in thickness, the stooping labour-
ers are at last as completely lost to sight, as
though they were so many miners working in
a mine. Under their feet they must leave a

coating of ice sufiicient to bear their own
weight, and the whole is afterwards loosened
by the aid of poles. The subsequent sub-
division of the parallelogram is a compara-
tively easy task ; into each fragment a hook
is then fastened, and airiid shouts and accla-
mations, the beautiful, clear, green crystals
are drawn to land. The Neva ice is of a
sparking emerald green, or at least looks so
when laid on the snow. The glassy store is
then piled upon the sledges, the drivers seat
themselves on their cool thrones, and amid
songs and jests they drive away to the habi-
tations of their several employers. It aflbrds
no little amusement to visit these ice-quarries
on the Neva, and to observe the Russians
when engaged in an occupation so congenial
to their habits and character.

" In the ice-cellars the fragments are buil
up with mathematical exactness, but in such
a manner as to leave shelves and nitches for
the reception, in summer, of milk, butter,
meat, and other articles likely to be damaged
by the heat. This description applies to
what may be considered well-managed estab-
lishments ; but into many cellars the ice is
flung in good Russian fashion, without the
least attempt at order. So completely are the
Russians accustomed to these ice-cellars, that
they cannot imagine a well-ordered household
without one. It may safely be calculated that
the ice consumed in Petersburgh, during the
warm months, costs the inhabitants at least
two or three millions of rubles."

Over the four principal arms of the Neva
no permanent bridge has yet been erected, but
over the smaller branches, which have been
made to assume the appearance of canals, —
the Fontanka,the Ligofka, the Moika, &c. —
the number of bridges can scarcely fall short
of sixty. These are far from being sutKcient,
for at several of them constant stoppages oc-
cur, and policemen are obliged to be stationed
there to keep the carriages in proper order.
The bridges over the main branches of the
river, composed merely of boards resting on
pontoons, are taken to pieces on the approach
of winter, and put together again in spring.
It sometimes happens that a gale of wind will
break up the whole of the ice in the Constadt
Bay, before the ice of the Neva has put itself
in motion. In such cases the whole body of
the ice in the Neva, as the sides become loos-
ened, glides down the river in a mass. No
satisfactory plan has yet been proposed fur pro-
viding a power of resistance against so enor-
mous a pressure. Nevertheless, the inconve-
nience often felt, of having all communication
cut olT, for day's together, between the several
parts of the cily, is so great, that a remedy
will, no doubt, be some day found.

Of these bridges of boats there are nine.

The longest is the Trotzkoi Mort (Trinity
Bridge) more than 800 yards in length ; but
by far the most important to the inhabitants
of Petersburgh is the Isaac's Bridge, which
connecis I be largest and wealthiest part of the
cily with Vasiliefskoi Island, on which stands
the Exchange, and on which the foreign mer-
chants find It most convenient to reside.

" During the summer, the pontoons on
which they rest, lie firmly anchored in the
river, but as soon as the ire begins, in autumn,
to make its appearance in large masses, the
bridges are taken to pieces. 'I'o each bridge
a regular commandant is appointed, who has
a number of workmen under his orders. As
soon as the ice stands the bridges are recon-
structed, for as the Neva ice presents a very
uneven surface, every one prefers the artifi-
cial to the natural bridge. In spring, the
bridges are kept standing till the booming
artillery from the citadel sends forth the offi-
cial announcement that winter is departing.
Upon this signal, the bridges immediately
vanish, a passage for the pontoons having
been carefully provided before-hand, by ma-
king open channels in the ice. As soon as
the masses of ice have floated by, the bridges
are put together again, to be again removed,
on the arrival of a fresh reinforcement. So
great is the inconvenience felt when the com-
munication is interrupted, that every moment
of liberty is taken advantage of, and, though
the mere putting together of the Isaac's
Bridge costs each time several hundred ru-
bles, it has often been taken to pieces, and
built up again two or three times in one day.
In one spring, this operation has been repealed
no less than three-and-twenty times. It may
easily be supposed, therefore, that these
wretched wooden bridges are any thing but
economical constructions. The frequent taking
asunder and putting together again greatly ac-
celerates the wear and tear of the material,
while the upper boards are rapidly destroyed
by the great number of carriages constantly
passing over. The Isaac's Bridge alone has
probably cost more, during the short time of
Is existence, than has ever been expended on
he massive Dresden Bridge, 1420 feet long,
vhich has now stood for more than three cen-

While the bridges are down, the inhabi-
tants of the several islands on which the city
stands, become, for day's together, so many
separate communities. Relations are unable
to hear from one another; the public ofiicers
receiving no commands from their superiors,
are reduced to the necessity of acting on their
own responsibility ; merchants are unable to
receive communications from one another;
teachers cannot visit their pupils, nor those
the schools; the isvoshtshicks, or hackney



coachmen, are forced to confine their courses
within narrower limits; and the dinner par-
ties and soir6es have often to dispense witli
more than half their guests. In spring, there-
fore, us well as in autumn, when the bridges
are down, every advantage is taken of the ice,
however insecure it may be. Boards are laid,
side bv side, till a complete path has been
formed' across. When the danger of these
supplementary bridges is thought to have he-
coins imminent, they are prohibited, and
policemen are stationed on both sides to pre-
vent people from venturing across. Some-
times, however, messages of such importance
have to be conveyed, that high rewards are
oflered to the mushik, bold enough to brave a
watery grave, and all the horrors of the po-
lice cane. On these occasions, crowds assem
ble on the quays, to admire the boldness and
activity of the mushik, who, armed with a
light board, makes his way nimbly from one
flake to the other, and generally contrives to
give the slip to the soldiers, who are watching
for his landing. Often, of course, the attempt
fails, and tlie unfortunate messenger is swal-
lowed up by the remorseless Neva. Indeed
it may safely be assumed, that in no city are
there so many people drowned in the year as
in Petersburgh."

During the warm and beautiful clear nights
of the brief Russian summer, the Neva pre-
sents a scene of remarkable animation, far
surpassing, while it lasts, what even the canals
of Venice are able to olfer. A Petersburgh
night, at this season of the year, is merely a
short transition inlo twilight, to mark the
limits of the departing and the coming day.
The gay colours of the flowers remain visible
in their minutest shades, and even the little
birds think it scarcely worth while to go to
roost, but keep chirruping away till morning.
On such a night, let the reader imagine a
river like the Neva, in some places upwards
of half a mile broad, and winding with its
several branches, for nearly fifteen miles,
amid palaces, gardens, and villas. The open
sea is close at hand for those of a more ad-
venturous turn. The English captains in
their light boats are proud to display their
nautical superiority ; the pompous gondolas of
the Russian nobles are rowing about with
bands of music; the humbler classes enliven
the scene by their favourite national songs ;
and thousands come to admire a spectacle, to
the gaiety of which they themselves contri-

The immense extent of ground on which
Petersburgh has been built, the width of the
streets, the vast space occupied by the squares
or parade places, and the separaticn of the
several quarters or " sides" of the city, by the
great surface of water which the branches of
the Neva present, contribute to prevent that
bustlingand populous appearance of the streets,
that characterises the more ancient capitals of
Europe. Along the Neva Quays, in the vici-
nity of the Admiralty, and in the Nievkoi
Prospekt, there is at all times much life and
activity ; but in the other parts of the town the
appearance of solitude and desolation is at
times oppressive. Vast open, unpavcd spaces
occur of many acres in extent, over which

solitary droskhy will now and then be seen
wending its way, like a small boat on the open
ocean ; and streets of palaces succeed each
llier, with but one or two pedestrians to en-
ven the scene, having the eflect rather of
skulking banditti, lurking about a rocky gorge,
tlian of the denizens of one of the gayest cities
in the world.


Mules, it seems, are, most certainly, beasts
of bulky burthens, if not of luavy ones, in
Mexico. Kendall, in one of his amusing
sketches, remarks, that it is singular enougli
with what facility the muleteers can confine
almost any burthen upon the hacks of these
animals. " Frequently we met," he adds,
" moving fodder slacks along the road — many
of them nearly the size of a common load of


-and as not a

life or living thing

could be seen about them, their appearance at
first struck us as curious in the extreme.
Large bodies of wheat straw, square and com-
pact, and reaching to within an inch of the
ground, would be seen approaching us, and it
was only when we bent close to the earth,
that the locomotive power which set them in
motion could be seen. Then, and not till
then, the four feet of the animal beneath the
stack could be discovered — head, body, and
ears, all being alike concealed under the bulky,
although light load, which was packed wiiii
the greatest regard to symmetry upon the
back of the animal. Nearly the entire trans-
portation business of the country is carried on
in this way, and the traveller sees boxes, bales,
barrels — in short, every species of merchan-
dize, taken from one point to another, securely
packed upon the backs of mules." — Latepaptr.

A SeJf-tavght Man. — At a meeting of the
Synod of Alabama, on the third week in last
First month, contributions were called for to
purchase a coloured man, a slave, of extraor-
dinary character. It was stated that he was
a good clerical scholar, and wholly self-taught
He is a blacksmith ; and it was stated on the
floor of the Synod, by members, and others
who knew him, that he first learned the let-
ters of the alphabet, by inducing his master's
children, and others, to make the letters, one
at a time, on the door of his shop. In this
way he familiarized himself with the letters
and their names. He then learned to put ihem
together, and make words, and soon was able
to read. He then commenced the study of
arithmetic, and then English grammar and
geography. It was also stated, that he is now
able to read the Greek Testament with ease,
has some knowledge of the Latin language,
but relinquished it in consequence of not having
suitable books. It was stated, that he studied
at night till eleven or twelve o'clock, and that
in conversing with him, they felt themselves
in the presence of their equal. He is between
thirty and thirty-five years of age, and is wil-
ling to go out as a missionary to Africa, un-
der the Assembly's Board.

Conimunicated fjr " The Friend."

Matthew Hale, Chief Justice of England.

Sir iMatthew Hale, lord chief justice of
England, was born in Gloucestershire in the
year ItiUt); and, by the care of a wise and
religious father, had great attention paid lo
his education.

In his youth, he was fond of company, and
fell into many levities and exlr.ivagances.
But this propensity and conduct were correct,
ed by a circumstance, that made a consider-
able impression on his mind during the rest of
his life. Being one day in company with
other young men, one of the parly, through
excess of wine, fell down, apparently dead, at
their feet. Young Hale was so aflccted on
this occasion, that he immediately retired to
another room, and shutting the door, fell oq
his knees, and prayed earnestly to God that
his friend might be restored to life, and that
he himself might be pardoned for having given
countenance to so much excess. At the same
time he made a solemn vow, that he would
never again keep company in that manner,
nor drink a health while he lived. His friend
recovered, and Hale religiously observed his
vow. — After this event, there was an entire
change in his disposition ; he forsook all dissi-
pated company, and was careful lo divide his
lime between the duties of religion, and the
studies of his profession.

He became remarkable for his solid and
grave deportment; his inflexible regard to
justice, and a religious tenderness of spirit,
which appear to have accompanied him
through lite. His retired meditations on re-
ligious subjects nianifest a pious and humble
frame of mind, and a solenmity well adapted
to excite kindred emotions in the breast of the

" True religion," says he, " teaches the
soul a high veneration for Almighty God; a
sincere and upright walking, as in the pres-
ence of the invisible, all-seeing God. It makes
a man truly love, honour, and obey him, and
therefore careful to know what his will is. It
renders the heart highly thankful to him as
the Creator, Redeemer, and Benefactor. It
makes a man entirely depend on him, seek
him for guidance, direction, and protection,
and submit to his will with patience and resig-
nation of soul. It gives the law, not only to
his words and actions, but to his very thoughts
and purposes; so that he dares not entertain
any which are unbecoming the presence of
that God by whom all our thoughts are legi-
ble. It crushes all pride and haughtiness,
both in a man's heart and carriage, and gives
hiin a humble state of mind before God and
men. It regulates the passions, and brings
Ihem into due moderation. It gives a man a
right estimate of this present world, and sets
his heart and hopes above it ; so that he never
loves it more than it deserves. It makes the
wealth, and the glory of this world, high
places, and great prefermenls, of but little
consequence to him; so that he is neither
covetous, nor ambitious, nor over-solicitous,
concerning the advantages of them. It makes
him value the love of God and the peace of
his own conscience, above all the wealth and

honour in the world, and to be very diligent
in preserving them. He performs all his du-
ties to God with sincerity and humility ; and,
whilst he lives on earth, his conversation, his
hope, his treasures are in heaven, and he
endeavours to walk suitably to such a hope.

" Ttiey who truly fear God, have a secret
guidance from a higher wisdom than what is
barely human, namely, the Spirit of truth and
goodness, which does really, though secretly,
prevent and direct them. Any man that sin-
cerely and truly fears Almighty God, and
calls, and relies upon him for his direction,
has it as really as a son has the counsel and
direction of his father ; and though the voice
be not audible, nor discernable by sense, yet
it is equally as real as if a man heard a voice,
saying, ' I'his is the way, walk in it.'

"Though this secret direction of Almighty
Gf)d is principally seen in matters relating to
the good of the soul ; yet even in the concerns
of this life, a good man fearing God, and beg-
ging his direction, will, very often, if not at
all times, find it. I can call my own expe-
rience to witness, thai, even in the temporal
affairs of my whole life, I have never been
disappointed of the best direction, when 1
have, in humility and sincerity, implored it.

"In the course of my life, I have been in
as many stations and places as most men. 1
have experienced almost continual motion ; and
although of all earthly things, I have most
desired rest, and a fixed private station, yet
the various changes that I have seen and
found, the public employments that, without
my seeking, and against my inclination, have
been put upon ine, and many other interven-
tions, as well private as public, have made it
literally my experience, that I have here no
continuing city. When I had designed for
myself a settled mansion in one place, and had
fitted it to my convenience and repose, 1 have
been presently constrained by my necessary
employments to leave it, and repair to another;
and when again 1 thought to find repose there,
and had fitted it to my convenience, some
other necessary occui-rences have diverted me
from it. And thus, my dwellings have been
like so many inns to a traveller, of longer con-
tinuance, indeed, but of almost equal instability.
" This unsettledness of station, though
troublesome, has given me a good and prac-
ticable moral ; namely, that I must not expect
my rest in this lower world ; but must con-
sider it as the place of my journey and pil-
grimage, and look further for complete happi-
ness. And truly, when I reflect, that it has
been the wisdom of Almighty God to exer-
cise, with this kind of discipline, those
worthies whom he has exhibited as patterns
to the rest of mankind, I have no reason to
complain of it as a ditficulty or an inconve-
nience, but to be thankful to him for it, as an
insi ruction and document, to put me in re-
membrance of a belter home, and to incite
me to make a due provision for it ; even that
everlasting rest which he has provided for
thnm that love him ; it is his gracious design,
by pouring me thus from vessel to vessel, to
keep me from fixing myself too much upon
this world below.

" But the truth is, did we consider this life


as becomes us, even as wise men, we might
easily find, without the help of such discip-
line, that the world below neither was intend-
ed (or, nor indeed can be a place of rest ; but
that it is only a laboratory, to fit and prepare
the souls of the children of men, for a belter
and more abiding state ; a school to exercise
and train us up in habits of patience and obe-
dience, till we are fitted for another station ;
a little narrow nursery, wherein we may be
dressed and pruned, till we are fit to be
transplanted into paradise.

" 1 he greater part of mankind make it their
whole business to provide for rest and happi-
ness in this world ; they make the acquisition
of wealth and honour, and the preferments
and pleasures of life their great, if not their
only business and happiness ; and which is
yet a higher degree of frenzy, they esteem
this the only wisdom, and think that the care-
ful provision for eternity, is the folly of a few
weak, melancholy, fanciful men ; whereas, it
is a truth, and in due time it will evidently
appear, that those men only, who are solici-
tous for the attainment of their everlasting
rest, are the truly wise men, and shall be
acknowledged to be so, by those who now
despise tliein. ' We fools accounted his life
madness, and his end to be without honour;
how is he numbered among the children of
God, and his lot is among the saints.' "

For " The Friend."

Remarkable case of a Repentant Convict.

The following account is given in one of the
letters of James Backhouse, whilst engaged in
a religious visit to Van Dieman's Land, New
South Wales, and South Africa. He and his
companion visited the Penal Settlement at
Macquani Harbour, in the Sixth month, 1832.
On the 7th, he relates —

" We returned to dine with our kind host,
who went with us in the evening to the adult
school, in which eighteen prisoners are making
pleasing progress. Amongst them is a man
who lost his arm a few months ago, and who,
by this accident, had his attention turned to
the things belonging to salvation. He now
seems to be a sweet spirited Christian, having
put on the meekness and gentleness that is in
Christ, in place of the contentious spirit he
formerly lived in. Whilst others pity him for
the loss of his arm, he says, he thinks it the
greatest blessing of his life ; he is learning to

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 75 of 154)