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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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public.

In saying a few words on the advantages of
cash over credit, I shall not attempt to exam-
ine the theories above referred lo, in their
connection with this branch of political eco-
nomy. Such an examination would only tend
to confuse what I wish to present in a plain
and practical manner. Indeed, so clear are
the truths in support of cash transactions,
under all circumstances, that they seem almost
self-cvidenl. So much error prevails, however,
and so false, mistaken, and ruinous, are the
current opinions and practices, that such a
view of the subject, as I propose, will not, I
hope, be entirely useless.

By cash, I mean an immediate payment for
whatever is purchased or sold, either in
money or its equivalent, so that no farther
claim will exist, either on the one side or the
other. By credit, I mean the purchasing or
selling of properly on mere promises of pay-
ment, without any express or certain appro-
priation of means for so doing.

The purpose for which this essay is de-
signed renders it necessary that I shall be
brief in my statements, and aftbrds but litlle
room for proofs and illustrations. I shall pro-
ceed, first, with an enumeration of some of
the advantages of cash transactions to pur-
chasers.

The first and most obvious advantage is in
the cost of the article purchased. As a gene-
ral fact, this is fully equal to twice the com-
mon interest, or say 12J percent. To one
whose earnings, or whose income afford a
mere support, this would equal one-eighth of
said income or earnings — whilst to the me-
chanic, or trader, who buys to sell again, it
would equal nearly or quite the whole of the
net profits of his sales. To this may be added
Ihe saving of time, much of which invaluable
treasure, worth, indeed, infinitely more than
money, is inevitably lost in providing for, and
making payments.

The next advantage is security against
excess in expenditure, overtrading in business,
and hazardous speculations. The tendency
lo these errors, whilst credit is free, is almost
universal. How many individuals and fami-
lies are thus led into habits of life which they
are unable lo sustain, and Ihe result is disap-
pointment, if not disgrace ! How many me-
chanics, merchants, and farmers, are templed
to contract engagements which they cannot



THE FRIEND.

claims some notice in tliis journal. We al-
lude lo the terrible Earthquake on the 8th of
'2d month last, in several of the West India
Islands. 'I'he following is an abstract of one
of tiic most detailed statements that have
come under our notice :

We have advices from most of the West



212

fulfil, from the evil effects of which they
never recover! And how many of all classes
are led into unjustifiable speculations, which
end in irretrievable ruin ! He who pays for
every thing, and owes nothing, can hardly fall
into these errors.

Again — the cash principle guards one al-
most wholly aiiainst sudden changes and [ India Islands, in the range of the late appal-
ling earthquake. Only the windward, or east-
ernmost cluster of those islands, have suffered
material damage. Guadaloupe, (on which the
town of Point Petre was situated,) and the
hbouring small island of Montseiat, ap-
pear to have been the focus of the explosion.
A volcano on the former island was seen by
the captain of the Gridon, arrived at St.
Thomas, to issue thick and successive volumes
of (lames ; and Montserat is stated to have
been enveloped in smoke or dust, as if thrown
up from a volcano. We think the report of
the sinking of this island will prove to be
incorrect. We proceed to give some details.
Guadaloupe. — Captain Knowles, of schoon-
er Ellen, which arrived here yesterday in 17
days from St. Thomas, stales that before he
efl, news had been received tVom Point Petre,
Guadaloupe, that every building was thrown
down by the concussion, and from 10,0UtJ to
I o,0U0 persons killed.

The scene was terrific. It Vas breakfast
hour with the inhabitants. Captain Fisher,
of an American vessel, when the shock com-
menced, was sitting in the lower story of a
store fronting the water, and sprang for his
boat, at the end of a sliort wharf. In an
instant he was at the end of the wharf, but
the wharf and the boat both rocked so fear-
fully that he hesitated. Just then, the ground
opened beneath his feet, and with a leap he
reached the boat, and was saved. Several
other captains were with Captain Fisher at
the time, and all saved. Vessels were so much
shaken as to be in great danger.

Ridgeley, from Philadelphia, was on

the lower floor of a hotel, and sprang into the
street. On all sides he saw men throwing
themselves upon their faces on the ground.
In another instant the stone walls fell, and
buried all beneath them, except a few who
were so fortunate as to find themselves above

the ruins. When Ridgeley recovered

himself, he was unharmed, though all the per-
sons he had just seen were hopelessly buried.

The earth rocked so that a man could not
keep his feet. It opened in several places, and
closed again, swallowing up people and build-
ings, and in some instances, the water spouted
up sixty and seventy feet. Many large open-
ings remained. About two-thirds of the in-
habitants perished. Of the garrison of eight
hundred men, only seventy survived.

A furious fire broke out immediately after
the earthquake, which raged for some days,
adding greatly to the horrors of the scene.
Some persons, after having been almost extri-
cated from the rubbish, were necessarily aban-
doned to their fate, on account of the approach
of the fire. The cries of people buried under
the ruins were heard for several days, and a
large number were dug out in a mutilated and
sulicring condition. Some, it was hoped,
would survive, but others died after their de-



reverses. Could this principle be generally
adopted, the changes and reverses now so com-
mon, would be almost wholly unknown. In-
deed, they are now nearly or quite unfelt and
unknown b)- those who steadily pursue this
principle, except in the increased advantages
their position affords them during periods of
general disaster.

The cash-payer is free from the anxiety
inseparably connected with credit. The
debtor who has not the means in hand, or
certainly within his control, to meet his en-
gagements, is subject to an anxiety by no
means favourable to happiness, or to improve-
ment in mind, body, or estate. The cash-
payer knows, too, at all times, the exact state
of his affairs, and is in no way liable to do
injustice to his fellow-men, from inability to
pay his just dues.

The cash-payer, and he alone, is truly inde-
pendent. Whatever he possesses is his own,
without any incumbrance or drawback; whilst
no one can feel that the food he eats, the coat
he wears, or the house he lives in, are truly
his own, imtil they are paid for. Not only
the cash-payer's possessions, but his opin-
ions, his actions, are his own, subject to no
man's will or caprice. In the words of a
recent poet,

" He looks the whole world in the face,
For he owes not any man ;"

whilst unerring wisdom declares that " the
borrower is servant to the lender."

Again — the cash-payer encourages no false
expectations in his family or others, by the
possession of property unpaid for. He can
expend for himself or family, or, if charitably
disposed, he can give lo objects of benevo-
lence, without injustice to any one. And
then, above all, he can die without the re-
proachful consideration that his affairs are
embarrassed, and that he will leave his fa-
mily a legacy of perplexity and perhaps dis-
grace.

One other consideration I will name, and
by no means the least, in favour of cash pay-
ments, viz., they promote integrity of cha-
racter. The man who contracts debts that
he finds it difficult or inconvenient to pay, is
often strongly tempted wholly to get rid of
paying them. This is true to a lamentable
extent in our country ; whole communities,
and even states, having been led to forget
their obligations to creditors.



liverance. The stench from sulphur at first,
and from the decaying bodies after two days,
was intolerable.

Four thousand bodies had been dug out of
the ruins of Point Petre, by the sailors in the
harbour, and taken out to sea in boats, in or-
der to prevent a pestilence.

The survivors were reduced lo such awful
extremities for food, that they rushed out to
intercept cartloads of canes, which had been
ordered in for them from the country.



[Wonl of space oblige,
to next week ]



I postpone the



THE FRIEND.



FOURTH MONTH, 1, 1843.



The occurrence, in close proximity to our
own shores, of one of those awful convul-
sions of nature so calculated to fill the minds
of men with fearfulness and dismay, properly



A meeting of " The Philadelphia Associa-
tion of Friends for the Instruction of Poor
Children," will be held at 7^ o'clock, on Se-
cond-day evening. Fourth month 3d, at the
usual place.

JosEi'ii Kite, Clerk.

WEST TOWN SCHOOL.

The Committee to superintend the Board-
ing School at West Town, will meet there, on
Sixth-dav, the seventh of next month, at ten
o'clock, A. M.

The Committee on Instruction meet the
preceding evening, at half past seven o'clock.

The Semi-Annual Examination is to com-
mence on Third-day morning of the same
week, and to continue till Fifth-day evenino-.
The scholars to disperse as usual on Sixth and
Seventh-days.

Thomas Kimbeh, Clerk.

Philada., 3d Mo., 25th, 1843.

A slated annual meeting of the " Bible
Association of Friends in America," will
he held in the Committee-room, Mulberry
Street Meeting-house, on the evening of Se-
cond-day, the 17th of Fourth month, at eight
o'clock.

Samuel Bettle, Jr., Sec'ry.

An annual meeting of " The Institute for
Coloured Youth," will be held at the commit-
tee-room, on Mulberry street, on Third-day
evening, the 18th of Fourth month, at eight
o'clock.

]\r. C. Cope, Sec'ry.

Third mo. 29th, 1843.

SCHOOL FOR BOYS.

The subscriber feeling encouraged by past
success, has prepared a large and desirable
school-room, near his former location, in the
vicinity of the car-office, Germantown, six
miles north-west of the city of Philadelphia.
Where he hopes to merit an additional num-
ber of students, desirous of improvement in a
general extended English education, and in
the classics.

Terms for boarding and tuition, thirty-five
dollars per quarter, of twelve weeks. For
tuition, ten dollars per quarter.

Charles Jones.

References. — Germantown, Samuel B. Mor-
ris; Haverford School, Daniel B. Smith ; Phi-
ladelphia, Samuel Alsop, Principal of Friends'
Select School, and Charles Ellis, No. 56
Chesnut street.



For " The Friend.'
WATER BAPTISM.



Again, we learn what the gospel baptism is,
together with its saving efficacy, from the fol-
lowing passages : Malachi, iii. 1, 2, and Matth.
iii. 10, 11, 12. Malachi begins his chap. iii.
with a note of attention. " Behold, I will send
my messenger, and he shall prepare the way
before me ; and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall
suddenly come to his temple. But who may
abide the day of his coming? and who shall
stand when he appeareth 1 for he is like a
refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and he
shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and
he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge
them as gold and silver, that they may offer
an offering in righteousness." John the Bap-
tist, is the messenger, who was sent to prepare
the way before Christ. He gives the same
view of the coming of the Messiah ; he says,
"whose fan is in his hand, and he will tho-
roughly purge his floor ;" and when speaking
in direct reference to baptism, he says, " his
own baptism was only unto repentance," (as a
preparatory dispensation,) but he that came
after him was tu baptize with the Holy Ghost,
and with fire ; or to use the language of Ma-
Jachi, he was to sit as a refiner, and purifier
of silver, &,c.

Once more. We learn from the Apostle
Paul the nature and design of this spiritual
baptism, in Romans vi. 1st and 8th inclusive.
In the conclusion of the foregoing chapter,
the apostle had been dwelling on the abundant
provision that had been made for man's re-
demption ; and shows that notwithstanding
sin had so much abounded in our world, it had
not exceeded the grace of God in Christ
Jesus ; but, that although sin had abounded,
yet grace did much more abound, to the
family of Adam. After having made a state-
ment of his subject, he anticipates a misap-
prehension of his views, on the part of his
readers, as though he was inculcating the
doctrine that sin was advantageous, and pro-
ceeds to let thein know that this abundance of
grace was given, not to encourage them to sin,
that grace might abound, but to give them to
understand that however sin might abound,
yet the grace of God in Christ Jesus, was
sufficient to destroy if, and was vouchsafed for
that purpose. This the apostle had done in
the words immediately following the antici-
pated objection, which stands thus: ("what
shall we say then? shall we continue in sin
that grace may abound?) God forbid, how
shall we that are dead to sin live any longer
therein?" The apostle then proceeds to ex-
plain what he means by being dead to sin ;
this he has accomplished by the introduction
of three figures. The first is a death and
burial, the second is a planting, where the old
seed dies, and a new germ springs up into
newness of life ; the third is a being crucified,
that the body of sin might be destroyed.
These three figures are all of the same' im-
port, all intended to illustrate the point of
doctrine he had just introduced, viz. : a sal-
vation from sin by the baptism of the Holy
Ghost.



THE FHIEND.

We are aware of this passage in part, bein|_
strongly urged by baptists as a proof, not
only of the doctrine of water baptism but its
mode also ; but we think a few reflections
j will be sufficient to satisfy the candid reader,
that there is nothing in this whole chapter,
'from which to draw such a conclusion, but
eveiy thing necessary to prove that it was the
baptism of the Holy Ghost, the apostle had in
view. To make this plain, we will inquire
what point the apostle was aiming to establish?
[Surely no person would undertake to say, that
the subject with which the apostle closed the
fifth chapter, and commenced the sixth, had
any connection at all with water baptism ; if
not, is it reasonable to suppo.se that the apostle
would drop a point, he had barely introduced,
vvithout finishing it, and take up another with
which it had no connection? 'J he idea is pre-
I posterous. The whole context goes to show
ithat the single point upon which the apostle
1 had fixed his eye, and to which his attention
I was directed, was the destruction of the car-
nal mind, and the death of the body of sin:
the whole of the figures he has introduced
go to prove this point. He commences by
saying, " how shall we who are dead to sin
live any longer therein ?" He then presents
them with the instrument of this death, viz. :
the baptism of the Spirit ; " know ye not,"
saith he, " that so many of us as were bap-
tized into Jesus Christ (not into water) were
baptized into his death. Therefore we are
(at the present time) buried with him by bap-
tism into death ;" not into water. We have
said, at the present time, to show that the
apostle, when speaking of the instrument or
agent, viz., the baptism of the Holy Ghost,
speaks in the past sense, " were baptized into
his death." But when he speaks of the effects
produced by this instrument, viz., a death
and burial to sin, he speaks in the present
tense, " are buried with him by baptism into
death." Now this could not be true of water
baptism. The apostle could not inean that he
and those to whom he was then writing were
then buried under water, but it was literally
true, at the time he was writing, that they
were buried into a slate of death to sin.

Again: that the apostle could not, by the
term buried, mean immersion, as those con-
tend, who bring forward this text, is evident
from (he following reason: if the word bap-
tism, in the original, means immersion, as we
are willing to admit, then the apostle has been
guilty of tautology, and according to the
views of the baptists, the passage should read
thus: — therefore we are immersed with him
by immersion into death. This would be a
species of tautology that would make non-
sense.

We now come to his second figure. " For
if we have been planted together in the like-
ness of- his death, we shall be also in the
likeness of his resurrection." 'J'his figure is
taken from planting seed in the groimd ; the
body of the old seed perishes, and a new germ
springs up into newness of life. This is beau-
tifully illustrative of a death to the body of
sin, and a new principle of life and action
springing up in the soul. 'I'his plain and pal-
pable application of the figure has been en-



213

tirely unseen and overlooked, by those who
suppose that the apostle is here treating on
water baptism. They suppose the apostle
meant by planting, a putting under the water,
thus interpreting this figure, as well as the
former, to mean water baptism by immersion;
giving both figures a literal allusion to water
baptism. Will this latter figure bear this
allusion ? — we think not. Seeds are not planted
under water, they are planted under ground,
and to understand the apostle literally, we
must suppose those of whom, and to whom, he
was writing, were literally planted with Christ
under ground. This construction would ex-
actly agree with the apostle's third figure,
provided we also give that a literal interpre-
tation ; " knowing this," says he, " that our
old man is crucified with him, that the body
of sin might be destroyed." Surely if we are
crucified with him, we should be buried with
him, and if the burial is a literal burial, the
death mtist be a literal death also! This is
the inevitable conclusion to which the pre-
mi,*es conduct us. What reason have wc to
believe that the two former figures ought to
be understood literally any more than the lat-
ter? was it not the same point he was en-
deavouring to illustrate by the use of all those
figures, viz., a death to sin; if so, the bap-
tism spoken of in this passage is the baptism
of the Holy Ghost, as no other baptism will
wash away sin.

Fourth. — We come now to our fourth pro-
position, that Christ never commanded water
baptism as an ordinance of the gospel church.

We are aware of the prejudice we have to
encounter on this part of our subject. Every
denomination, as far as we know, except the
Society of Friends (Quakers) practice water
baptism from a conviction that Christ com-
manded it, and commissioned the gospel minis-
try to administer it. How this opinion be-
came so universal, we are at a loss to tell,
unless we ascribe it to apostolic practice, since
Christ has no where commanded water bap-
tism. Were we to admit that he did, we must
admit either that there are two baptisms be-
longing to the gospel, or that the baptism of
the Holy Ghost has ceased ; neither of which
is supported by one shadow of proof from
Scripture, as we purpose showing before we
are done.

The whole stress of this system, so far as
the authority of Jesus Christ is concerned,
derives its support from three passages of
Scripture, one only of which is in the form of
a command, and in which water is not men-
tioned. Matth. xxviii. 19. " Go teach all na-
tions, baptizing them in the name of the
father, the .son^ and the Holy Ghost." This
has been thought to be conclusive in
favour of water baptism for the following
reason : — the apostles, it is said, could not
baptize with the Holy Ghost, therefore it
must have been water baptism. This argu-
ment has been thought by the advocates of
water baptism to be invincible, in proof that
Jesus Christ did command the continuance of
that ordinance ; but we think a little attention
to the following particulars, will show the
weakness and fallacy of this argument.

First. — That the apostles were endowed



214

with the gift of conferring the Holy Crhost
by the laying on of hands, is too evident to
need any other proof than to recite the pas-
sages wiiere this fact is established. Acts viii.
it", " 'I'hen laid they their hands on them,
and they received the Holy Ghost." Acts v.
11, " And when Simon saw that through the
laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy
Ghost was given, &c." Again Acts xix. 0,
" And when Paul had laid his hand upon them
the Holy Ghost came on them."

What evidence is there to be found any
where in the New Testament, to prove that
our Lord meant water baptism in this com-
mission, rather than the baptism of the Holy
Ghost! We think that the evidence is all in
favour of the latter.

We have already shown that the adminis-
tration of Waaler baptism by the apostles, com-
menced during our Lord's ministry, and there-
fore was not the result of a commission given
after our Lord's death and icsurrection ;
whereas, the administration of the baptism of
the Holy Ghost by the instrumentality of the
apostles, did not commence until after they
received this commission from Christ.

From whence did the apostles derive their
authority, and t

Holy Ghost, if not from this passage : .. i.. .. i
be said, that the gift to confer the Holy Ghost
by laying on the apnstles' hands was a miracu-
lous gift, bestowed on the apostles with other
gifts of a miraculous nature, which were to
continue for a time, and then to cease in
the church, and so could not be that bap-
tism, in the administration of which, Christ
promised his concurrence to the end of the
world]

To which we answer, this miraculous gift
was not the whole of the power conferred on
the apostles by this commission, for although
miraculous powers were bestowed for the pur-
pose of confirming the first converts to Chris-
tiaiity in the Divine mission of the apostles,
yet something more was needful to support the
faith of the church when miracles should
cease. This additional gift is that baptizing
power that accompanies the administration
of the gospel ministry, wherever that minis-
try is the result of inspiration from on high.
Paul says, Thes. i. 5, " Our gospel came
not unto you in word only, but also in power
and in the Holy Ghost." I'Cor. 2. 4. He says,
" My speech and my preaching was not with
enticing words of man's wisdum, but in de-
monstration of the Spirit and of power, that
your faith should not stand in the wisdom of
men, but the power of God." These texts
show conclusively, that it was the baptism of
the Holy Ghost, which was included in the
commission. Math, xxviii. 19. See the lan-
guage of our Lord on that occasion.

Why did our Lord say, " All power is
given unto me in heaven and in earth ; go ye
therefore," &c. Did the apostles stand in need
of supernatural ag'-ncy to enable them to
teach and baptize with water? Not so ; had
our Lord meant water baptism, it would have
been a mere verbal commission that any man
of oratorinl abilities might perform, without
supernatural power from on high. But to
preach in demonstration of the Spirit and of



THE FRIEXD.



power, they must be qualified by the " Holy
Ghost sent do«n from heaven." Thuspreach-



prei
ed, the gospel is a baptizing ministry ; this is
the power which Jesus encouraged them to ex-
pect, when he said, " Go ye therefore and
teach all nations, baptizing them in the name
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost."

The gospel of Jesus Christ never was
preached, but by the Holy Ghost sent down
from heaven. First Peter i. 12. " But unto us
they did minister the things which are now
reported unto you, by them that have preach-
ed the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost
sent down from heaven," &c. The gospel
thus preached in the demonstration of the
Spirit, and of power, is a baptizing ministry,
for as Peter spake, " The Holy Gliost fell on
them" that heard ; " then, says he, (Acts xi.
15, 16,) remembered I the word of the Lord,
how that he said, John indeed baptized with
water, but ye shall be baptized with the Holy
Ghost."

Third. — Matth. xxviii. 18, reads as follows :
— " And Jesus came and spake unto thtm,
saying," " All power is given t
heaven and in earth ; go ye the
power to baptize with the ; and lo I am with you even unto the end of the
-• Will it I world." With them, how ? See Luke xxiv.
47. " Behold 1 send the promise of my Father
upon you ; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusa-
lem, until ye be endued with power from on



Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 79 of 154)