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The Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) online

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intellectual needs; and that I might be filled
with all grace and knowledge, so that I might
meet the wants of my pupils, fulfil all the
duties of my arduous calling, and prove my-
self a workman that needeth not to be asham-
ed of his work. Each day I would endeavour
to come to the recitations better prepared
myself, as well as to make my pupils do the
same. I svould, by conversation and experi-
ments, by anecdotes and facts, by examples
and illustrations, and by all other ways which
my ingenuity could invent, constrain them to
give attention, and bring them to the love and
the acquisition of knowledge. It may be, I
should not succeed in every instance, or suc-
ceed at best but very imperfectly. This is
also quite possible on the compulsory process.
Nobody has yet discovered the sure method
of making every body a scholar. I have no
confidence in the salutary influence of the rod
neither, I will add, of premiums, and appeal:
to the principle of emulation. This quicken
ing of the mind by torturing the flesh, is no
in harmony with the relations of humanity to
the world, of which we make a part. It
not the remedy which an enlightened philo-
sophy will apply to the disease of an inactive,
incurious mind. My reader may smile and
say, ' The rod is the best medicine for indo-
lence, dulness, and neglect. It works wonder-
ful cures, and that very speedily.' But in say-
ing this, (for I must be plain,) you betray
your own moral and spiritual blindness, and

entire unfitness for teaching. Lessons pre-
pared under the influence of the rod, are reci-
ted and forgotten. They impart no real
aliment to the soul. VVithout awakened
curiosity, inward, spontaneous action, they
cannot enter into the intellectual being, and
iriake a part of its expansive, quickening, life-
giving power. This sort of mental discipline
m the school-room is not unfrequently the
cause of irreconcilable antipathy in future life
to books and schools, and all the ordinary
processes of intellectual training. And let me
ask the teacher, who is so certain that he
cannot keep school without using the rod, a
plain questions. What has he done to
qualify himself for the responsible station he
has assumed? Has he replenished his intellect
with a knowledge of things, of history, of hu-
man nature? Has heelevated and strengthened
his motives by a contemplation of duty ? Has
he stored his mind with the thoughts and
views of others on the sphere of duty he has
ventured to select as his profession? Or has
he preferred to read Scott, and Bulwer, and
Maryatt, and Dickens, and even the miserable
love stories in the newspapers, to reading
what concerns his own success, and the wel-
fare of his charge. Has he systematically
turned his back upon the lights in the path of
duty, and does he now say that he knows no
higher motives or allurements to diligence and
to good conduct than the rod. And how should
he know ? How should he have the requisite
knowledge and the sustaining impulse, with-
out ever having laboured, and studied, and
reflected to acquire them? Let me say, that
in such a case of omission as I have supposed,
inability is voluntary. A quack may as well
administer deadly nostrums to a patient, and,
when they have done their fatal work, say, —
I knew no better. It was his duty, as it is
your duty, to know better ; because we are
answerable for the consequences of the igno-
rance we might have removed.

"Again, in the treatment of cases of indo-
lence and bad lessons, the teacher should be
able to take into account the natural tempera-
ment of the pupil, the domestic and other
influences under which he has been brought
up, &c., &c., and make allowance on this be-
half, if he would do justice to the party
interested. ' Non omnia possvmvs omnes' [all
cannot do all things.] Some have as little taste
for geography as for poetry ; sottie hav
peculiar incapacity for grammar; and others
for arithmetic. It is my sober conviction,
and I will declare it, that of bad recitations in
schools, a greater share is to be laid to the
account of teachers than of scholars. Teach-
ers ! the reform must begin with yourselves.
Let it begin speedily, and be carried on unto

It is more than time that I should answer
the other part of the question, — ' What will
you do with the boy who is habitually refrac-
tory and disobedient ; — who returns to your
commands nothing but defiance and menace?'
I reply : — after trying all other methods, I
might, as a possible remedy, resort to the rod;
— for there must be subordination and order
in every good school. But I would resort to
the rod only in cases where I was not allowed
by the committee or general regulations of
the school to dismiss au incorrigible pupil. I
think dismission from school is better than
resorting to corporal punishment. But let me
give my views at large.

" I am persuaded that instances of violent
outbreak, defiance and settled opposition to
authority, among scholars, are matters of rare
occurrence; and that they would occur nmch
more rarely than they do, if teachers were
what they ought to be, and would do what
they ought to do. If a man or woman, inex-
perienced, passionate, jealous, full of self-es-
teem, and, withal, but ill-acquainted with the
branches of study which he may alteni|)t to
teach, goes in to take charge of a school, I
will not undertake to point out how he or she
may get sXong without the use of the rod ; for
I have no confidence in such a person as a
teacher. I do not believe that such teachers,
male or female, can get along in any desirable
way. There is a moral certainty that they
will fail. I think they should forthwith throw
down the badges of oftice, quit the school-
room, arid abandon the profession. Under
such a leader there can be no true progress.
There must be confusion and every evil
work; — all of which may be traced directly
to the impatience, uneven temper, partiality,
indiscretion, pusillanimity, or, in a word, the
disqualification of the teacher. He has no
consistency of character, no dignity, no moral
courage, no confidence in humanity; in a
word, nothing on which the afiection, confi-
dence, and respect of his pupils may rest. He
is passionate, selfish, and variable. He ap-
peals continually to fear; puts forth his threats
plentifully, and then feels obliged to sustain
them by blows. Such a teacher is not /)re-
/wrfd /.he is not self-educated; he does not
govern himself, and, therefore, he cannot go-
vern his pupils. Hence occur most of those
occasions in school, which are thought to jus-
tify, yea, to demand, the use of the rod. I
say, i have no advice or directions to give to
such persons, but — either to quit teaching
entirely, or put themselves in the way of learn-
ing first how to teach. But, let a person, well
acquainted with the branches which he pur-
poses to teach, (and this, by the way, is very
important, for nothing is so irritating to some
temperaments as to get puzzled and appear



ignorant before a school,) feeling a deep inter-
est in his business, possessing moral courage,
— one, who can be uniformly kind, and uni-
formly firm, — and all this, not for a single
day or week, and when things go smoothly,
but for every day, and under all circumstan-
ces, letting ' patience have her perfect work ;'
— let such a person go into a school, and he
will surely succeed, and in ninety-nine cases
out of a hundred, he will succeed without the
rod. In ninety-nine cases out of a hun-
dred, scholars need punishing, because teach-
ers need re-form-ing. Let the reform com-
mence at the right end, — with the teachers.
But you say, ' Here is a little girl very trou-
blesome ; a little boy very idle and playful;
and a larger one, disobedient and obstinate,
having shown disregard to rule and authority
before the whole school. My authority and
the interests of the school are in jeopardy. 1
have talked with them all repeatedly, in niy
best manner, and they have all, once and
again, promised better things. Still they do
not reform.' So be it. Do not give them up.
Persevere. Be firm. Be not discouraged. .Some
impression has been made on their young
hearts, though not so deep and lasting a one
as is to be wished. Talk with them again;
admonish ; rebuke with all long-siijfmng.
That little girl and that little boy have made
good resolutions, and nobly resisted more than
one temptation, in consequence of the labour
bestowed upon them. ' Yes,' it may be re-
plied, ' they make resoUiiions very plentiful,
and very good ; but they do not stick to them.
They need some external stimulus to strength-
en, if not to quicken their volitions.' Ay, —
they do not keep their resolutions ! Indeed !
and so the birch is to be applied ! Before ope-
rations commence, let us consider to how
many of our own resolutions and vows we
have proved unfaithful ; and let it teach thee
mercy. Who is there that keeps all his reso-
lutions and purposes, especially resolutions of
reform. No, my friend ! Proceed no further.
Lay aside the rod ; turn to the children, and
talk witli them again. Solemnly and affec-
tionately admonish them. Have compassion
on their infirmities, and be ready to forgive
their transgressions. Change their seats, —
put them alone, or put them into better com-
pany ; and aid them in every way to carry
out their good purposes, and to give a more
satisfactory demonstration of their regard to
the wishes of their teacher, and the orders of
the school. In most of these cases, it may be
in all, there have been great strivings and
conflicts of spirit against temptation and sin,
even where there has been little outward de-
monstration of the fact. Some of these
offenders have great natural infirmities to con-
tend with, besides the force of education, or
rather the neglect of education. In one,
mirthfulncss has almost a diseased excitabili-
ty, and is all but uncontrollable ; another is
by nature passionate ; a third is dull in his
perceptions, sluggish in all his movements, and
seems quite indifferent to what is going for-
ward. It is as natural for him to be so, as it
is for another to be observant of every thing
that is transpiring before him, and quick in all
his movements." [7'o be continued.]

A Hint to Garden Owners. — So long as
the fruit is green, it possesses to a certain
extent the physiological action of a leaf, and
decomposes carbonic acid under the influences
of light ; but as soon as it begins to ripen, this
action ceases, and the fruit is wholly nourish-
ed by the sap elaborated by the leaves. Thus
the fruit has, in common with the leaves, the
power of elaborating sap, and also the power
of attracting sap from the surrounding parts.
Hence we see, that where a number of fruits
are growing together, one or more of them
attract the sap or nutriment from all the rest,
which in consequence drop off. As the food
of the fruit is prepared under the influence of
the solar light, it follows that the excellence
of the fruit will depend chiefly on the excel-
lence of the leaves; and that if the latter are
not sufKciently developed, or not duly exposed
to the action of the sun's rays, or placed at too
great a distance from the fruit, the latter will
be diminutive in size, and imperfectly ripened,
or may drop off before attaining maturity.
Hence the inferiority of fruits which grow on
naked branches, or even on branches where
there is not a leaf close to the fruit; as in the
case of a bunch of grapes, where the leaf
immediately above it has been cut off, or in
that of a gooseberry, where the leaf immedi-
ately above it has been eaten by a caterpillar.
Hence it is evident that the secretions formed
by the fruit are principally derived from the
matter elaborated in the leaf or leaves next to
it ; and as the sap of all the leaves is more or
less abundant according to the supply re-
ceived from the roots, the excellence ot fruit
depends ultimately on the condition of the
roots, and the condition, position, and exposi-
tion of the leaves. — Loudon^s Suburban Hor-

Quantity of Breath in Man and Woinan.—
The French are a most experimenting race,
and their discoveries in arts and sciences pro-
verbially in advance of other nations. By
experiments made at the Paris Academy of
Sciences, and arrived at by an ingenious spe-
cies of mask being placed over the face of the
person whose breath was to be examined, it
was ascertained that man gives out a larger
quantity than woman, and this diflerence is
most striking between the ages of sixteen and
forty, at which latter period the quantity of
carbonic acid given out by the male is double
that of the female. In the male, the quantity
goes on increasing from the age of eiiiht years
to thirty, after which it begins to diminish ;
and, as a man becomes older and older, the
diminution goes on in an increased degree. In
old age, the quantity is not greater than it was
at the age of ten. — Late Paper.

American Tin. — Dr. Jackson, of Boston
Mass., has forwarded to the National Institute
at Washington, an ingot of fine tin, which he
extracted from an average lot of the tin ore
discovered by him in New Hampshire in
1840. He says the compact tin ore yields
seventy-three per cent, of pure tin, and the
ore, as it is usuall)- got out by blasting, yield;

thirty-five to forty per cent. There is every
probability that the mine will prove profitable,
when skilfully and economically worked.

Communicated f jr " The Friend."

At an annual meeting of the Tract Associ-
ation of Friends, held 'I'hird month, 1B43, the
following Friendswere appointed officers of the
Association for the ensumg year, viz. : —

Clerk. — .loseph Kite.

Treasurer. — John G. Hoskins.

Managers. — George M. Haverstick, Na-
than Kite, John C. Allen, Wm. M. Collins,
Joseph Scatteruood, Edward Ritchie, Josiah
H. Newbold, Paul W. Newhall, Horatio C.
Wood, Samuel Bettle, jr., Wm. C. Ivins,
Wm. H. Brown, Charles Evans, Saujuel F.
Troth, Joseph E. Maule.

Annual Report.
To the Tract Association of Friends.
The Board of Managers submit the follow-
ing statement of their proceedings during the
past year : —

Our stock of Tracts on hand at the
Depository Third mo. 1st, 184"^,
was 125,906

We have printed since 104,443



Disposed of during the year ending

Third mo. 1st, 1843, 127,980

On hand Third mo. 1st, 184-3, 102,369

Of those disposed of, 12,270 have been
taken by Auxiliaries; 15,118 by the New
England Tract Association ; 5,372 have been
sold at the Depository ; and the balance have
been distributed under the direction of the
Managers, or other members of the Associ-
ation. Of these last, 5,913 were for the use
of scholars at First-day, and other schools, in
and near the city ; 625 were given to coloured
persons at some of their places of worship ;
200 to Jews; 50 to cabmen; 1,323 to indi-
viduals who came for aid to Soup Houses, and
other public charities; 250 were given to the
buyers and sellers at the First-day morning
market, Moyamensing ; 750 to the frequent-
ers of Universalist Meeting-houses; 6U0 to
City Firemen ; 200 to the inmates of the
Sailor's Home ; 500 to the Seamen's Friend
Society ; 9,945 were given to Seamen, or
placed on board vessels for their use; 200
were distributed at the Naval Asylum ; 2,100
at the Navy Yard ; 3,097 among the boatmen
on the Schuylkill ; 437 among passengers in
rail-road cars leaving this city ; 2,004 among
the inmates in Moyamensing Prison, and the
Eastern Penitentiary ; 550 to those in the
House of Refuge; 1,000 to those in Moy-
amensing and Blockley Alms-houses, and 156
to those in Friends' Asylum. Besides these,
7,000 have been furnished to other readers
in the limits of the cily and county of Phila-
delphia ; 9,824 have been taken to various
parts of Pennsylvania, and distributed in coal-

mines, factories, schools, caiml-boats, rail-
road cars, stages, hotels, and grog-shops.

We have furnished for distribution, in
Maine 106; New Hampshire 1,000; Connec-
ticut l,-208; Massachusetts 105; New Eng-
land, without specifying which state, 1,08S;
in New York city and state :J,523 ; New Jer-
sey 2,539 ; Delaware 869 ; Maryland 813 ;
Virginia 269 ; North Carolina 166 ; Arkan-
sas 380; Kentucky 316; Missouri 30; Illi-
nois 58 ; Indiana 2,232 ; Ohio 1,737 ; Michi-
gan 100; St. Domingo 50; China 165, and
Africa 55. 300 were forwarded to members
of Congress.

An edition of 7,500 Moral Almanacs for
the year 1843 has been printed and disposed
of. Some matter has been selected towards
one for 1844.

Owing to the limited amount of our re-
sources, we have felt discouraged from pre-
paring or issuing new tracts. One only has
been adopted by the Board, and that has nut
yet been stereotyped. It waits the replenish-
ing of our Treasury. It is an abridged account
of the life of John Davis, and exemplifies in a
remarkable manner the power of Divine
Grace, in raising from the depths of moral
and spiritual degradation those who submit
to its operations.

Three auxiliaries have been acknowledged
during the past year. One entitled the Rah-
way Tract Association, situated in the neigh-
bourhood of Rahway, New Jersey.

One the Centre 'I'ract Association, auxili-
ary to the Tract Association of Friends, at
Wilmington, Ohio.— And

One entitled Cross Creek Tract Associ-
ation, auxiliary to the Tract Association of
friends, at Cross Creek, Jeflerson county,

We have addressed communications to the
Managers of the Tract Association of Lon-
don, to that of Stockport and Manchester, and
to that of Dublin, with a view of furthering a
beneficial interchange of sentiment on the
important work in which we are severally
engaged, as well as of securing an early re-
ception of such new Tracts as they may
respectively publish.

Such is a brief outline of the proceedings
of the Board since its last report. We are
not willing, however, to close without calling
the attention of the members of the Associ-
ation to the fact, that during the past year our
labour has been obstructed, and our usefulness
diminished by the want of adequate funds.
We have felt restrained from seeking with
the activity of former years for new channels
through which to distribute our productions;
and have been obliged in some instances to lay
a restrictive hand on those already opened. It
is true that ihe amount distributed has been
large, — larger than at any former period,
excepting the immediately preceding year.
This has been effected by our not putting
forth any new Tracts, by reducing the stock
on hand, during the year, 23,537, and by our
referring a bill of about $150 for payment,
after our annual collections shall have been
made. All this shows evidently that unless our
receipts during the coming year are greatly
increased, our distribution must be very mate-


rially diminisheil. — Signed on behalf and by
direction of the Managers.

Joseph Scattekgood, Cleric.
Nathan Kite, corner of Fourth and Apple-
tree Alley, is the corresponding clerk.

Ministry. — Now of late I feel a stop in the
appointment of meetings, not wholly but in
part ; and I do not feel at liberty to appoint
them so quick one after another as I have

The work of the ministry being a work of
Divine love, I feel that the openings thereof
are to be waited for in all our appointments.

Oh, how deep is Divine wisdom ! Christ
puts forth his ministers, and goeth before
them; and oh, how great is the danger of
departing from the pure feeling of that which
leadeth safely.

Christ knowelh the state of the people;
and in the pure feeling of the gospel ministry,
their slates are opened to his servants.

Christ knoweth when the fruit-bearing
branches themselves have need of purging.

Oh, that these lessons may be remembered
by me ; and that all who appoint meetings
may proceed in the pure feeling of duty. —
John Woolman^s Journal.

Prayer. — The place of prayer is a precious
habitation ; for I now saw that the prayers of
the saints were precious incense, and a trumpet
was given me, that I might sound forth this
language, that the children might hear it, and
be invited together to this precious habitation,
where the prayers of the saints, as precious
incense ariseth up before the throne of God
and the Lamb. I saw this habitation to be safe,
to be inwardly quiet when there were great
stirrings and commotions in the world.

Prayer in this day, in pure resignation, is a
precious place ; the trumpet is sounded, the
call goes forth to the church, that she gather
to the place of pure inward prayer, and her
habitation is safe. — John Woohnan.

For " The Friend."

Their attention having been turned to the
comet which has been recently visible, I sup-
pose many readers of " The Friend" will be
interested in a brief account of some of the
most remarkable bodies of this kind which
have been observed in foreign countries. I
have accordingly extracted such an account
from a modern work, entitled " Dictionary of
Dates," and forward it for insertion.

S. E.

The first comet that was discovered and
described accurately was by Nicephorus. At
the birth of the great Milhridates two large
comets appeared, which were seen for seven-
ty-two days together, and whose splendour
eclipsed that of the mid-day sun, and occu-
pied forty-five degrees, or the fourth part of
the heavens, one hundred and thirty-five years
before the Christian era. A remarkable one
was seen in England in the year 1337, during
the reign of Edward III. These phenomena


were first rationally explained by Tycho
Brache, about 1577. A comet which terrified
the people from its near approach to the earth,
was visible from Eleventh month 3d, 1679, to
Third month 9th, 1680. The orbits of comets
were proved to be ellipses by Newton, 1704.
A most brilliant comet appeared in 1769,
which passed within two millions of miles of
the earth. One still more brilliant appeared
in the Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh months,
1811, visible all the autumn to the naked
eye. Another brilliant comet appeared in

Dr. Halley, the celebrated English astrono-
mer, first proved that many of the appearan-
ces of comets were but the periodical returns
of the t^ame bodies; and he demonstrated that
the comet of 1682, which has been named
after him, was the same with the comet of
1456, uf 1531, and 1607, deducing this fact
from a minute observation of the first men-
tioned comet, and being struck by its wonder-
ful resemblance to the comets described as
having appeared in those years. Halley,
therefore, first fixed the identity of comets,
and first predicted their periodical returns.
The revolution of Halley's comet is performed
in about seventy-six years : it appeared in
1759, and came to its perihelion Third
month 13th; and its last appearance was in

A comet was first discovered by Pons,
Eleventh month 16th, 1818, but was justly
named by astronomers after Professor Encke,
from his success in detecting its orbit, mo-
tions, and perturbations; it is one of the three
comets which have appeared according to pre-
diction, and its revolutions are made in three
years and fifteen weeks.

A comet which has been an object of fear
to many, on account of the nearness with
which it has approached, not the earth, but a
point of the earth's path, was first discovered
by an Austrian officer, named Biela, Second
month v28lh, 1826, and has been named after
him. It is another of the three comets whose
re-appearance was predicted, its revolution
being performed in six years and thirty-eight
weeks. Its second appearance was in 1830,
when the time of its perihilion passage was
Eleventh month 27th. Its third appearance
was of course in 1839.


From an Epistle o/"1751.

Dear beloved young Friends, we in much
affection and tenderness exhort you, above all
things, to give diligent heed and attention to
the voice of the Spirit of Christ, speaking in
the secret of your consciences, reproving for
evil, and speaking peace when you do well ;
for this, as it is closely and reverently regard-
ed, will not only season your minds with an
holy fear, and dread of offending the Majesty
of heaven, and thereby preserve you from the
vices, vanities, and allurements of this world,
but will also influence you to seek after, and
pray earnestly for the wisdom which is from
above, " In whose right hand are length of
days, and in her left are riches and honour."

Online LibraryRobert SmithThe Friend : a religious and literary journal (Volume 16) → online text (page 81 of 154)