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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

its i*^- Ili i 1

Cliap.._..^... Copy^rigM No.

Shell J{.A..C> 1.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



LONGMANS' ENGLISH CLASSICS

■ EDITED BY

GEORGE RICE CARPENTER, A.B.,

Professor of Rhetoric and English Composition in Columbia College.

This series is designed for use in secondary schools in accordance
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George Eliot's Silas Marner. Edited, with introduction and notes,
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Shakspere's Merchant of Venice. Edited, wit«h introduction and
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Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America. Edited, with
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Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. Edited, with
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Southey's Life of Nelson. Edited, with introduction and notes, by
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Carlyle's Essay on Burns. Edited, with introduction and notes, by
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Shakspere's Macbeth. Edited, with introduction and notes, by
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*^* See list of the series at end of volume for books prescribed for
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LONGMANS' ENGLISH CLASSICS

EDITED BY

GEORGE RICE CARPENTER, A.B.

PKOFESSOR OP RHETORIC AND ENGLISH COMPOSITION IN COLUMBIA COLLEGE



ROBERT SOUTHEY



THE LIFE OF NELSOE"



LOJSTGMAlSrS' EJN'GLISH CLASSICS

mh full Notes, Introductions, Bibliographies, and other Explanatory and
Illustrative Matter. Crown Svo. Cloth.



Shakspere's Merchant of Venice.
Edited by Frauds B. Gummere,Ph.D.,
Professor of English in Haverford
College.

Shakspere's As You Like It. With
an Introduction by Barrett Wendell,
A.B,, Assistant Professor of English
in Harvard University, and Notes by
William Lyon Phelps, Ph.D., Instruc-
tor in English Literature in Yale
University.

Shakspere's A Midsummer Night's
Dream. Edited by George Pierce
Baker, A. B., Assistant Professor of
English in Harvard University.

Shakspere's Macbeth. Edited by
John Matthews Manly, Ph.D., Pro-
fessor of the English Language in
Brown University.

Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseboso,
CoMus, AND Lycidas. Edited by
William P. Trent, A.M., Professor of
English in the University of the South.

Milton's Paradise Lost. Books I.
AND II. Edited by Edward Everett
Hale, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Rhetoric
and Logic in Union College.

Pope's Homer's Iliad. Books I.,
VI., XXII., AND XXIV. Edited by
William H. Maxwell, A.M., Ph.D.,
Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Brooklyn, N. Y., and Percival Chubb,
Instructor in English, Manual Training
High School, Brooklyn.

Defoe's History of the Plague in
London. Edited by Professor G. R.
Carpenter, of Columbia College.

The Sir Roger de Coverlet Papers,
from "The Spectator." Edited by
D, O. S. Lowell, A.M., of the Roxbury
Latin School, Roxbury, Mass.

Goldsmith's The Vicar or Wakefield.
Edited by Mary A. Jordan, A.M.,
Professor of Rhetoric and Old English
in Smith College.

Burke's Speech on Conciliation with
America. Edited by Albert S. Cook,
Ph.D., L.H.D., Professor of the Eng-
lish Language and Literature in Tale
University.



Scott's Woodstock. Edited by Bliss
Perry, A. M., Professor of Oratory
and jEsthetic Criticism in Princeton

College.

Scott's Marmion. Edited by Robert
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fessor of English in the University of
Chicago.

Macaulay's Essay on Milton. Edited
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New York, formerly Assistant Pro-
fessor of Greek in Harvard University.

Macaulay's Life of Samuel Johnson.
Edited by the Rev. Huber Gray
Buehler, of the Hotchkiss School,
Lakeville, Conn.

Irving's Tales of a Traveller. With
an Introduction by Brander Matthews,
Professor of Literature in Columbia
College, and Explanatory Notes by the
general editor of the series.

Webster's First Bunker Hill Ora-
tion, together with other Addresses
relating to the Revolution. Edited by
Fred Newton Scott, Ph.D., Junior
Professor of Rhetoric in the University
of Michigan.

Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner. Edited by Herbert Bates,
A.B., formerly Instructor m English
in the University of Nebraska.

Southey's Life OF Nelson. Edited by
Edwin L. Miller, A.M., of the Engle-
wood High School, Illinois.

Carlyle's Essay on Burks. Edited
by Wilson Farrand, A.M., Associate
Principal of the Newark Academy,
Newark, N. J.

De Quincey's Flight of a Tartar
Tribe (Revolt of the Tartars).
Edited by Charles Sears Baldwin,
Ph.D., Instructor in Rhetoric in Yale
University.

Tennyson's The Princess. Edited by
George Edward Woodberry, A.B.,
Professor of Literature in Columbia
College.

George Eliot's Silas Marner. Edited
by Robert Herrick, A.B., Assistant
Professor of Rhetoric in the University
of Chicago,



Other YoluTn,es are in Preparation.




ADMIRAL LORD NELSON

(After the painting by John Hoppner)



Congntang* @nglisli Qllasslcs



ROBERT SOUTHEY'S



LIFE OF NELSON



EDITED

WITH NOTES AND AN INTRODUCTION
BY

EDWIN L. MILLER, A.M.

INSTBTJCTOB IN ENGLISH IN THE ENGLEWOOD HIGH SCHOOIi, ILLINOIS







NEW YORK
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

LONDON AND BOMBAY
1896



THE UBRA&Y
OV CONGREtS

WASfllNQTON



Copyright, 1896

BT

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.



All rights reserved



Press of J. J. Little & Co.
Aster Place, New York






?i6#



PEEFACE



A GOOD biography is calculated oftentimes to perform
for the young student a service which it would be vain to
expect from any other kind of book. It is the natural
stepping-stone from the lower to the higher realms _ of
literature. Possessing at once the attractiveness of fiction
and the sobriety of fact, it has 'the charm of the novel
combined with the usefulness of the history. It is easy
to read yet valuable to remember. Many a writer has
conceived a noble ideal, cherished throughout years of
earnest and successful toil, owing to a perusal of Trevel-
yan^s " Macaulay.'''' Many a successful scholar has caught
his first impulse from the pages of Franklin^s ^^ Autobi-
ography^^ or BoswelFs ^^Life of Johnson. ^^ Many a man
of the world, who has risen high above his fellows, can
trace the inception of the resolve that led him onward
and upward to the inspiration that he drank in from the
old Plutarch with the battered cover. Lives of great men
all remind us we can make our lives sublime. To boys
and girls at a certain period of development, therefore,
biography is more useful than any other branch of litera-
ture. And of English biographies, Southey's ^''Life of
Nelson " is probably better fitted than any other to interest,
to instruct, and to inspire the beginner.

In the reading of this book these three objects should
be kept in view ; all others are secondary. The student
should be led to feel that the story is real, human, better
than a bloody and impossible narrative of desperadoes
who never existed, and more interesting than a cheap
pursuit of the vulgar pastimes of the playground. The
days of Nelson^s glory should be made to live in his
mind's eye. The example of the great sailor should set
his heart on fire with a burning wish, not, perhaps, to
fight and die if need be for his country's glory, but at
least to do what thing soever it may be his duty to do,



vi PREFACE

with such zeal, such enthusiasm, and such determination
as to wrest success, no matter how adverse the circum-
stances may be, silence jealousy, and compel admiration.

The teacher who is to succeed in this effort, like the
orator of old, will have need of three gifts. The first is
fire ; the second is fire ; and the third is fiee. The
instructor thus endowed will melt down with little
trouble all the stubborn elements that oppose him. The
book is so exactly calculated to promote the ends out-
lined that nothing save utter lack of enthusiasm and
sympathy can lead to failure.

The text is reproduced, with the exception of one or two
palpable misprints, from the last edition published during
Southey's lifetime. The punctuation and the capitaliza-
tion have not been modernized, as it has been felt that to
do so would be in some measure to destroy the flavor of
the book.

EDvrm L. Miller.

Englewood, III., June, 1896.



CONTENTS

Introduction :

PAGE

I. Robert Southey ix

II. The Life of Nelson xx

Suggestions for Teachers and Students .... xxv

Chronological Table xxxiii

Author's Note 4

Chapter I. Nelson's Birth and Boyhood — He is entered on
board the Raisonnable — Goes to the West Indies in a Mer-
chant-ship ; then serves in the Triumph — He sails in Captain
Phipp's Voyage of Discovery — Groes to the East Indies in the
Seahorse, and returns in ill Health — Serves as acting Lieu-
tenant in the Worcester, and is made Lieutenant into the
Lowestoffe, Commander into the Badger Brig, and Post into
the Hinchinbrooh — Expedition against the Spanish Main —
Sent to the North Seas in the Albemarle — Services during
the American War 5

Chapter II. Nelson goes to France during the peace — Re-ap-
pointed to the Boreas, and stationed at the Leeward Islands
— His firm conduct concerning the American interlopers and
the contractors — The West Indies — Marries and returns to
England — Is on the point of quitting the service in disgust —
Manner of life while unemployed — Appointed to the Aga-
memnon on the breaking out of the war of the French Revo-
lution 35

Chapter III. The Agamemnon sent to the Mediterranean —
Commencement of Nelson's acquaintance with Sir W. Ham-
ilton — He is sent to Corsica, to co-operate with Paoli — State
of affairs in that island — Nelson undertakes the siege of
Bastia, and reduces it — Takes a distinguished part in the
siege of Calvi, where he loses an eye — Admiral Hotham's
action — The Agamemnon ordered to Grenoa to co-operate
with the Austrian and Sardinian forces — Gross misconduct
of the Austrian General 54

Chapter IV. Sir J. Jervis takes the command — Genoa Joins
the French — Buonaparte begins his career — Evacuation of
Corsica— Nelson hoists his broad pendant in the Minerve —



viii CONTENTS



PAGE

Action with the Sabina — Battle off Cape St. Vincent — Nel-
son commands the inner squadron at the blockade of Cadiz
— Boat action in the Bay of Cadiz — Expedition against
Teneriffe — Nelson loses an arm — His sufferings in England,
and recovery 88

Chapter V. Nelson rejoins Earl St. Vincent in the Vanguard
— Sails in pursuit of the French to Egypt — Returns to
Sicily, and sails again to Egypt — Battle of the Nile . .117

Chapter VI. Nelson returns to Naples — State of that Court
and Kingdom^General Mack — The French approach Naples
— Flight of the Royal Family — Successes of the Allies in
Italy — Transactions in the Bay of Naples — Expulsion of the
French from the Neapolitan and Roman States — Nelson is
made Duke of Bronte — He leaves the Mediterranean and
returns to England 147

Chapter VII. Nelson separates himself from his wife — Northern
Confederacy — He goes to the Baltic under Sir Hyde Parker
— Battle of Copenhagen, and subsequent Negotiation — Nel-
son is made a Viscount 193

Chapter VIII, Sir Hyde Parker is recalled, and Nelson ap-
pointed Commander — He goes to Revel — Settlement of
Affairs in the Baltic — Unsuccessful Attempt upon the Flo-
tilla at Boulogne — Peace of Amiens — Nelson takes the
Command in the Mediterranean on the Renewal of the War
— Escape of the Toulon Fleet — Nelson chases them to the
West Indies, and back — Delivers up his Squadron to Ad-
miral Cornwallis, and lands in England .... 227

Chapter IX. Sir Robert Calder falls in with the combined
Fleets — They form a Junction with the Ferrol Squadron,
and get into Cadiz — Nelson is reappointed to the Com-
mand — Battle of Trafalgar — Victory, and Death of Nelson. 267

Glossary, and Index to Notes 299



PLANS

Battle of Cape St. Vincent 100

Battle of the Nile 132

Battle of Copenhagen . 208

Battle op Trafalgar 280



INTRODUCTION



I. Egbert Southey.

Robert Southey ^ came into this world a little less
than one month before the first Continental Congress met
at Philadelphia. Nelson was then a boy of six and Na-
poleon had not reached the age of five. Before Southey
was ten, the Independence of America had been won;
before he was sixteen, France was struggling to throw off
the yoke of her ancient kings and laws. At the age of
thirty-one he had witnessed the perversion of the princi-
ples of that inspiring struggle into a justification of all
that is low, bloody, and barbarous; had beheld the conver-
sion of the French Eepublic into a military despotism; had
stood aghast at the amazing conquests of Napoleon; and
had rejoiced in the brilliant victories of Nelson, while sor-
rowing at his untimely fall. Ten years later he was filled
with a fierce exultation at the news of Waterloo. In com-
mon with all the literary men of his day he was deeply
influenced by these stupendous events. Indeed, it would
not be too much to say that the brilliant summer time of
literature which in England followed the close of Napoleon's
career was in large measure due to the sense of national
security and national supremacy which the downfall of
Napoleon had produced. If to the battle of Trafalgar and
the battle of Waterloo we owe the present conformation of
the map of Europe, we owe to them no less the writings of
Coleridge and A¥ordsworth, Byron and Shelley, Macaulay,
Scott, and Carlyle. In an especial degree do we owe to
them also the writings of Robert Southey.

Southey was the son of a dreamy and impecunious
linen-draper of Bristol, in which city he was born August

^ Pronounced Sowth-ey or SWi-ey.



X INTRODUCTION

12, 1774. Through the kindness and generosity of an
ancient aunt of the Betsey Trotwood type, he was sent,
at the age of six, to a school the master of which compen-
sated in some measure for his unorthodoxy as to the doc-
trine of the Trinity by sound traditional views as to the
uses of the cane. At this and other schools he imbibed
much miscellaneous information, much French radicalism
dangerous for an English boy to possess, a startling liber-
ality of theological opinion, and a superficial knowledge of
the foreign languages in the curriculum; moreover, he
wrote prose and verse with great industry and little appar-
ent success. He found Oxford, whither he went to finish
his education, infested with men remarkable only for big
wigs and little wisdom. The vulgar riot of college life
had no charms for him; he was bored by lectures and
nearly driven into rebellion by examinations; all, he said,
that he learned was a little swimming and a little boat-
ing. He did, indeed, make a few valued friends at Ox-
ford, but he entered the place without enthusiasm and left
it without regret. His college years, however, were not
fruitless ones. In his independent groping for intellectual
food he chanced upon the works of Epictetus, and the
stoical philosophy of the Greek slave entered into the
fibre of his being and colored all the aims and ideals of
his after career. Nor was his |)en idle. During his resi-
dence at Oxford he wrote a socialistic drama called "Wat
Tyler," and shortly after bidding adieu to his Alma Mater
he had an epic poem called "Joan of Arc," in twelve
books, ready for the publisher.

Neither of these productions, both of which had been
inspired by the French Eevolution, was given at once to
the world. Already Sou they 's radicalism was beginning
to evaporate. The executions of Marie Antoinette, of
Madame Eoland, and of Brissot, followed hard as they
were by a carnival of butchery, gave fatal shocks to his
enthusiasm. For awhile he thought of organizing a
band of republicans to liberate Greece; for awhile he had
dreams of a cottage in America, Financial reasons pre-
vented the realization of either plan. Though hard
pressed for money, the strength of his conscience would
not, as Emerson's would not, permit him to obtain the
relief which he could have secured at once by taking



INTRODUCTION xi

orders; and the weakness of his nerves prevented him
from seeking it in a profession which makes familiarity
with the dissecting room imperative. While he was in this
frame of mind there came to visit him one day in 1794 a
young man with a spirit as radical, a mind as fiery, and a
temperament as unpractical as his own. .This was Samuel
Taylor Coleridge. He too had already suffered adversity
and written poetry. Between him and Southey a warm
friendship sprang up. Inspired by common aspirations
and common disappointments, they resolved to leave the
old world of rotten thrones and corrupt manners, seek the
young republic beyond the sea, and found on the banks
of the Susquehanna a community which was to rest on the
two fundamental principles that all property should be
held in common and that each member should take unto
himself a wife. The second of these requirements was
promptly complied with by both of the projectors of Pan-
tisocracy, by which fine word they designated their scheme,
Coleridge shortly afterward marrying an estimable young
woman called Sara Fricker, and Southey becoming the hus-
band of her sister Edith; but the first, inasmuch as there
was no property to hold in common or otherwise, caused at
first the postponement, and, finally, the abandonment of
the plan. After various ineffectual efforts to raise funds,
it was laid aside; Southey, with a confidence in his own
powers that is half heroic, in spite of the foolishness of the
transaction, borrowed money to defray the expenses of his
wedding; and directly after the ceremony, at the invitation
of an uncle who was chaplain of the English colony at Lis-
bon, sailed, without his wife, for Portugal, his intention
being to spend a year among strange people in the study of
new customs and foreign idioms.

He was always slow, however, to make new acquaint-
ances, either of men or places; he was naturally impa-
tient to be at the side of his young wife; and though he
luxuriated in the indolent glory of the southern clime,
and went eagerly to work to make himself familiar with
Portuguese books and babble, as he himself said, his
departure from the South was marked by no feeling of
regret.

In 1796, shortly after his return to England, his poem
'* Joan of Arc " was published at Bristol, in an ambitious



xii IN TROD UCTION

quarto, by his friend Cottle,^ the same who had lent him
money to buy his wedding ring. It was praised in the re-
views and bought by the people, the effect on the author
being that he began to have a sort of " Helicon dropsy,"
as he said, and would rather leave off eating than poetizing
— certainly an alarming result. Poetizing, however, did
not produce pence, and the Penates being exacting in their
demands for ' ' dues of fire and salt, for the firstlings of
fruits, and for offerings of fine flour," the bard made a
heroic effort to study law. To his own intense delight his
attempt ended in complete failure. Only one means of
support was left — the pen, and to the pen he betook him-
self with an energy and an industry that remain unparal-
leled to this day. From this time on literature was his
sole financial resource.

For forty years he toiled at his desk, and his pen fell at
last from his wearied hand only when his tired brain had
ceased to think. His punctuality, his precision, and his
energy in the labor of his chosen profession, indeed, have
become proverbial. He himself has left us the record of it
all in a letter to a friend. " Three pages of history after
breakfast (equivalent to five in small quarto printing);
then to transcribe and copy for the press or to make my
selections and biographies, or what else suits my humor
till dinner-time; from dinner till tea I read, write letters,
see the newspaper. . . . After tea I go to poetry, and
correct, and rewrite, and copy till I am tired." Fearful,
indeed, is the tribute of nerves and brain tissue which
Apollo exacts from those who seek to win bread by the
pen; unremitting in a unique degree the slavish toil; and
ever imminent the danger of collapse physical or mental.
Of all this Southey was acutely conscious. As he could
not afford to rest, his method of guarding against break-
down was to have a variety of work always on hand.
''You wonder," he wrote to Landor, "that I can think
of two poems at once. It proceeds from weakness, not

' Byron paid his respects to this estimable gentleman, who some-
times wooed the Muses himself, immortalizing him by one line in
English Bards and Scotch Reviewers :

" O Amos Cottle ! Phoebus, what a name I "

Once, he said, Cottle was a seller of books he did not write, and
now a writer of books he does not sell.



INTRODUCTION . xiii

from strength. I could not stand the continuous excite-
ment which you have gone through in your tragedy." In
spite of all his precautions, however, he found himself
threatened, after three years of this life, with complete
prostration. Change seemed absolutely necessary; his
uncle invited him again to Lisbon; a friend gave him £100;
and in April, 1800, he was once more on his way to Por-



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