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A commentary on Catullus online

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54. ulmo marito, ' to the elm as her husband,' contrasts with Quin-
tilian's maritam ulmum viii. 3. 8. Is it impossible that Catullus meant
marito to be adjective, and notwithstanding retained the termination in o,
where a feminine sign was out of place ? Ennius used cupressus, Cato ficus
masc. Servius on G. iv. 145 adds spinus, Priscian platanus populus laurus,
Donatus pinus (Neue Formenl. i. 645); fagus seems to be masculine in
a poem ascribed by Biicheler to the age of Nero, Riese Anthol. L. 726.
16: Horace uses leptis, Plautus elephantus feminine, where the notion of
sex made it natural or necessary, S. ii. 4. 44, Stich. i. 3. 14 : see Bentley
on the former passage. Riese and Bahrens retain marita of the Thuaneus,
both as nominative. But the light a sound at the end of a hexameter is
avoided by Catullus. It would be better to take it as abl. after coniuncta,
a construction often found in Cicero 1 .

55. accoluere, 'till about,' a sense which seems not found elsewhere.

56. inculta, 'untended,' 'uncared for.' senescit, cf. Lysist. 593

Hep! TU>V Se Kopuiv ev rols 6a\d[j.ois yijpacrKovcrcov dviS)

57. par, 'with one that is her equal,' 6/naXo? ya/uo? Prom. 901, Ovid
Heroid. ix. 29-32 Quam male inaequales ueniunl ad aratra iuuenci, Tarn
premitur magno coniuge nupta minor. Non honor est sed honus, species
laesura ferentem. Si qua uoles apte nubere, nube pari.

1 Aufrecht in Rhein. Mus. xxxv. p. 320 thinks that originally only feminine trees like
oliua, uitis were called maritae when joined to trees of a larger growth (elms, poplars
&c.), and that the application of maritus adj. to these last was later, when the original
feeling of the word had been obscured.


58. inuisa. Eurip. fr. Nauck 944 Km iraiSas tlvai irarpl pi] (TTvyov-
ptvovs. Catullus uses a strong expression for the distaste which a
parent feels at the sight of an unmarried daughter. Passerat quotes
from Menander 'AXtels fr. 6. Mein., 18 Kock XaAr<H ye Bvydrrjp KT^O

KOI SvaoiddfTov, and 'Avf^iol fr. 2, Kock 60 Qvydnjp KTrjfjL ea-Tiv fpyS>8fg

varpt, and Meineke a fr. of the philosopher Lycon ap. Diog. Laert.

V. 65 /3apii (popTiov Trarpl Koprj 8a OTTUVIV irpoiKos fKTpexovo-a TOV aKfuiiov TTJS

fjXiKias Kaipov. Possibly there is a reference to the increased importance
which a childless parent, at least in later times, obtained, Sen. Cons.
ad Marciam 1 9 adeo senectutem solitudo ad potentiam duett ut quidam odia
filiorum simulent et liberos eiurent et orbitatem manu faciant. But family
affection was not a Roman virtue. Fronto p. 135 Naber Nihil minus in
iota mea uita Romae repperi quam hominem sincere <pi\6<rropyov, ut putem,
quia reapse nemo est Romae (piXoo-ropyos, ne nomen quidem huic uirtuti esse
Romanum. ib. p. 176 philostorgus cuius rei nomen aput Romanes nullum
est. parent!. Horn. H. Cer. 136 Aolei> Kovpiftiovs avdpas, KOI TCKVO rt-

Ktffdai, 'Qs fdf\ovcri TOKrjfs.

69-65. Final apostrophe to the bride, in close connexion with the
lines immediately preceding, and enforcing them. The youths take up
the thought which would be most predominant at such a time, the loss
of virginity, and remind the bride that this is a possession which she
can only call partly her own ; the larger share her parents and her
husband claim. In two fragments of Sappho the bride dwells similarly
on the approaching loss of her virginity, fr. 102 Bergk'H p eVi irapBevLas
7rtaXXo/ie ; and fr. 109 which seems to represent the struggle of mind

in the form of a dialogue, flapdevia, napdevia, irol p.e XITTOIO-' o'i\rj OvKfTt fju>

<Tf, OVKCTl l<i>.

60. Callim. H. Apoll. 25 KOKOV p-cucapta-a-iv epifiv.

63. This arithmetical division of the whole into three parts is well

known from Pindar's ev Trap' eo-\bv Trij^ara <rvv 8vo baiovrat Pporols 'Addvarot.
P. Hi. 8 1 Bergk, cf. Aesch. Supp. 1069 TO fifKrfpov KO.KOV KOI TO dipoipov alvS>.

Soph. fr. 129 Nauck ra>v rp&v p,iav Xafieiv Ev<roiav dpKcl. ' This leaning to
the threefold was also Pythagorean: cf. de Caelo i. i. 268 a 10 KaOdnep

yap <j)a<ri KOI ol Tlvdayopfioi, TO irav KOI TO. irdvra rois Tpialv Supurrat . . . Aristotle

himself is inclined to say reXevra 8' ej rpia-l irdvra.' W. L. Newman, Politics
of Aristotle, ii. p. 298.

64. pugnare duobus. Plat. Legg. xi. 919 irpbs 8vo pdxfv6ai <a\

fvavria ^aXeTroV. Phaed. 89 npos 8vo ovS' 'H/jaxX^y. It was a proverb


65. genero. Cat. may have introduced this word from Sappho. Ser-
vius on G. i. 3 1 Generum pro marito positum multi accipiunt iuxta Sappho,
quae in libro\ qui inscribitur 'EmdaXafjua, ait \alpt vvp(pa, x ai P f p ie yapfip*
Tj-oXXa, dvT\ TOV vvp.<pif, sic et Pindarus tv TO'IS 7raia<nv (quoted by Fiirst in
his Molk dissertation 1887 P- 3 1 )- cum dote. Dig. xxiii. 3. 5 Pro-

fecticia dos est quae a patre uel parente profecta est de bonis uel facto eius.
There could be no matrimonium without a dos, ib. 3.



IN the Attis Catullus presents an idea which, by contrast, works into
the series of poems connected with marriage, the frenzy of self-emascula-
tion, and the agony of mind which its reaction produces. Common as
the sight of the eunuch priests of the Great Mother must have been in
antiquity, and frequent as are the allusions to the worship in Greek and
Roman writers, it cannot be said to have greatly influenced their poetry.
The externals of the cultus are indeed often mentioned ; the short Homeric
hymn els prjTfpa 6t5>v already speaks of her as a power

T Hi Kpora\cov rvnavuv T' ta^ij (rvv Tf Ppopos aii\>v
TLva8ev f)be \VK.O>V *Aayyq ^aponS>v Tf Aedira>i>,
Ovped T Tjxrjfvra Kal v\r]evTfs IWvAot.

Pindar, in a dithyramb of which Strabo has preserved a fragment, x. 469,

Marep /uyaAa, irdpa pd/i/3ot
EJ> fie Kf^Adfietv KpdraA', aWopfva fie fias virb av0ai(ri

(Bergk fr. 57 B).

Sophocles, identifying the Great Mother with Earth, invokes her as ' the
blessed one who sits on bull-slaughtering lions,' Philoct. 400 ; and Eu-
ripides, besides numerous allusions to her rites scattered through his
plays, e.g. Orest. 1453, identifies her, Hel. 1301, with Demeter, and
describes the search she made for her daughter over the snowy woods of
Ida, to the sound of cymbals and tambourines. (Cf. rj 0X17 TT/S 'Ptas Paus.
viii. 10.) The dithyrambic poet Telestes (circ. 400 B.C.) associates the
introduction of Phrygian music into Greece with the Mountain Mother
(Athen. 625)

HpStroi Trapa Kparf/pas 'EAAdvcoi' ev av\ols
SworraSot H(\OTTOS fJ-arpos opfias
Qpvyiov aetcrav vop,ov (Bergk fr. 5)*

Diogenes tragicus ap. Athen. 636 speaks of noble Phrygian ladies as
celebrating her rites

KaiVot K\VCO fj.ev Acrto'Soy /ju.Tprj(p6povs
Ku^e'Aap yvvaiKas, TralSar o\j3io)v
TvTrai/otcrt KO.I po'/i)3o(cr( Kai

2o0^i/ 6fu>v vfWGidbv larpov ff a/xa.

A custom which found its way to Greece, and was ridiculed by Menander
in his comedy 'itptia. (See Meineke Fragm. Com. Grace, iv. p. 140, Kock
245.) We may form some conception of the extravagant behaviour of these
women from the description of Nicander Alex. 215-220. Speaking of
a particular form of madness he compares the shrieks which attended
it to those of a priestess of Rhea (Kfpvo<p6pos di<opos /Seo/u'o-Tpta 'PeiV) on
the ninth day, when she makes those whom she encounters in the streets
tremble at the hideous howl of the Idaean Mother.

The earliest connexion of these rites with Attis is perhaps traceable in
Aristoph. Aues 875-877, where Cybele is mentioned with Sabazius; for


the cry Even 2a/3ol, "frjs "Amjs, "ATTTJS "Yrjs , associates if it does not identify
Sabazius with Attis. Anecd. Bekk. ZOZ'ATTJS vrjs, TO piv vrjs vlos, TO 8e aTrjs

0tos SajSfifior. *AXXot 8e "Yr}v TOV Aiovvvov (Lob. Aglaoph. 1045). TheO-

pompus, who belonged partly to the old, partly to the new comedy,

quoted by SuidaS i. p. 370 * ATI-IS irapa Qpvgl /udXtora TipaTcu wj irpo<nro\os
TTJS firjTpbs T>V Qetav. "Amv, ou^l "Ama" Arjfjioa-dfvrjs, Karap^ets Tols Sa/Sots'
"ATTIS "Yif, "ATTIS. 6eo7ro/x7rof eV KaTn/Xurt (Kock i. p. 740)

KoXacro/xat <r' eycb
Kai TOV <rbv ATTIV

is already familiar with Attis ; and this appears to be the first actual notice
of him. About a century later Hermesianax the elegiac poet, a friend
and disciple of Philetas, wrote a poem on Attis, an abstract of which is
given in Paus. vii. 17. 9. This account made him the eunuch son of a
Phrygian Calaus ; he migrated to Lydia, there instituted the rites of the
Mother, and was killed by a boar, sent by the anger of Zeus. Attis is
also mentioned with Cybele in the Anacreontea 1 1 Bergk, but the date
of these is very uncertain; in Theocritus xx. 40 *at TV 'Pea K\alfis TOV
/3o>KoXoj>, Cybele's passion for him is a familiar story, like that of the
moon for Endymion, and of Aphrodite for Anchises and Adonis; Apol-
lonius in the passage describing the rites performed near Cyzicus by the
Argonauts in honour of Rhea i. 1092-1152 does not speak of Attis;
but in the Alexipharmaca of Nicander 8, the underground chambers
(0aXa'/wu) where the votaries of Rhea underwent castration, and the place
of Attis' mysterious rites (opyao-T^ptoj/ *Arra>) are combined as a descrip-
tion of that town. To the same period 1 perhaps belongs the earliest
extant specimen of the Galliambic metre peculiarly associated with the
cultus (Hephaestion xii. p. 39 Westphal) TaXXal fjujTpbs opeiijs (p<Xd#vp<rot

8pop.d8fs, Ais fVTea Trarayeirat Kal ^aX/cea KpoYaXa. NeantheS of Cyzicus

(circ. 250 B.C.) wrote a /ivtmxos Xoyo? on Attis (Harpocrat. s. v. "ATTTJS).
Alexander Polyhistor, a contemporary of the dictator Sulla, in the
third book of his work irepl Qpvyias, spoke of the Galli; Gallus and
Attis both castrated themselves; Gallus gave his name to the river
Tyras where he had settled after his castration, and from the river the

1 Bergk Poet. Lyr. fr. adesp. 121 inclines to ascribe these verses to the writer of
Priapea, cited by Hephaestion xvi. p. 57 Westphal as Euphorion Chersonesita, by
Strabo 382 as Euphronius. Meineke (Anal. Alex. pp. 341-348) makes it probable
that this Euphorion (so he prefers to name him) was a contemporary of Ptolemaeus
Philopator, whom he celebrated as 6 vtos Aiovvvos. If so, his date would be 222-205
B.C. But the Galliambic metre had been used before by Callimachus (Schol. Hephaest.
p. 194 Westphal) and Wilamowitz, Hermes xiv. p. 197, concludes from this scholion
that the two Galliambics cited by Hephaestion were written by Callimachus. The
words of the scholion S (?<2) ai KaAAi>axos x/"7 Tat no doubt indicate that the metre
was used by Callimachus, and this would agree with Wilamowitz' view that the in-
ventor belonged to the creative period of Greek poetry, therefore not later than the
first half of the third century B.C. But these very words seem to me to disprove the
attribution of the two Galliambics in question to Callimachus. The natural sense of
the Scholion is that amongst the poets who had employed the Galliambic metre de-
scribed by Hephaestion was Callimachus. If the Scholia call the two w. Ta\\al
/iTjrpos K.T.\. rd Tro\vOpv\\ijTa TavTa irapaSdy/MTa, this in no way proves that they
were written by the only poet who could be called iro\v0pv\\r)Tos among the vturtpoi.
I cannot therefore accept Couat's words, ' II reste surtout que le metre galliambtque
doit etre ajoute au metre sotadique parmi les inventions du lyrisme alexandrin.' Poesie
Alexandr. p. 197.


name passed to similar votaries generally. (Steph. B. s. v. ToXXos, cf. s. v.


These passages are quoted from writers anterior to Catullus; but it
is from writers of his own or later periods that we derive most of our
information as to the origin and details of the cultus, especially in its con-
nexion with Attis. Its original seat, so far as it can be traced historically,
was Phrygia. Marmor Parium Epoch. 10 (1506 B.C.) in Miiller's Fragm.

Hist. Graec. vol. i. p. 544 (p. 6 in Flach.) [ftperas 0]ei> nrjrpos tyavrj tv
Ku/3eXoty, KOI "Yayvis 6 &pv aiiXovs Trp&ros yvpfv <y/c[fXja[t]i'at[s TroXet T^ls
&p[vyias KOI appopiav TTJV Ka\]ovp.evr)v ^pvyia-rl irptaros rjvXija-e Kal aXXovs vopovs

Mt]Tpos, Aiovvcrov, Havos. Strabo 472 (prjcrl 8e 6 SKTJ^IOS (Demetrius of

Scepsis, fl. circa 190 B.C.) ev rrj Kpijri; ras TTJS 'Peas Tifj,as ^r/ vopie<r6ai fir)8e
idfciv. . . . dXX' ev Ty &pvyiq povov Kal 777 Tpcad8i. ib. 469 ot 8f Bepe-
$>pvyu>v TI (pv\ov Kal oTrXw? ot <&pvy(s KOI ratv Tpoxai/ ot Trtpl rf]v *]8r)i>
'Ptav fifv Kal avTol rifiSxn KOI 6pyidovcri ravrij, pyrepa KaXovvres
*A.y8i(TTiv Kal 'bpvyLav 6eov /ifyaX);!', anb 8e T>V TOTTOHV 'l8aiav Kal Aiv~
Kal 2nrv\T)vr)v Kal UfacnvovvTiSa Kal KvfttXrjv, It was in an especial

manner connected with the town of Pessinus ; at Pessinus Attis was
buried (Paus. i. 4. 5), and a coin of Pessinus containing the heads of
Cybele turrita and Attis in a Phrygian cap and a pine-crown with stars,
and on the reverse a lion with his paw on a tympanum, and two crotala,
is stated to be the earliest relic of the worship. (Labatut in Revue
Numismatique Beige for 1868.) Pessinus was on the southern slope
of Mount Dindymon, or, as it seems also to have been called, Agdistis
(Paus. i. 4. 5, Strabo 567), a word peculiarly local and which was some-
times used to denote the goddess herself (Strabo 469 and 567, Hesychius
s. v. "AySiorty) as well as the mythical hermaphrodite who sprang from
the seed of Jupiter and from whose own genitals Attis was said to have
arisen (Paus. vii. 17. n, Arnob. v. 5).

The Phrygian language was Indo-European, as may be inferred from
the extant inscriptions (see that on the tomb of Midas, and another quoted
from Texier's Asie Mineure ii. 157, in Rawlinson's Herodotus i. 692), in
which the verbal and substantival suffixes closely resemble those of Latin
or Greek; from the assertion of Plato Cratyl. 410 that irvp vScap nvves
existed with slight variations in Phrygian ; and from the fact that many
Phrygian names are found in Zend, Persian or other Indo-European
languages, e.g. Ba-yolo?, the Phrygian Zeus (Hesych.) = Old Persian baga,
Zend bagha, Ind. Baghavat, Slavonic bogh; Mazeus (6 Zevj -n-apa $pu|t
Hesych.) = Medineus the Lydian Zeus (ib.) = Zoroastrian Mazda ; Men,
the lunar god (Strabo 557, 57 7) = ^17 mensis mond month (Rawlinson
i. 692 note, Robiou Hist, des Gaulois d'Orient p. 137): and it might
seem that the worship of Cybele was Indo-European 1 were it not
that other names connected with it are either doubtful, as Ma the mother,
Rhea perhaps = Rt, the Baylonian word by which the Great Goddess of
the Assyrians Bilta or Mulita is commonly known, (Sir H. Rawlinson in
Rawlinson's Herod i. p. 627), or distinctly Semitic a,sJVana the legendary
eater of the almond from which Attis is conceived, cf. Babylonian Nana,
modern Syrian Nani (Sir H. Rawlinson p. 658). However this may be,

1 Robiou thinks Bactrian, and many names connected with the cultus are traceable
in Zend, e.g. BcrecyntusBerezat, Coryt>antes = GereuantS, Labatut p. 286.


the worship of Cybele rapidly spread over the whole of Asia Minor;
Herodotus iv. 76 describes it as fully established at Cyzicus in the sixth
century B.C., mentions the burning of her temple at Sardis v. 102, and
knows her by the name of the Dindymenian Mother i. 80. From Poly-
aenus viii. 53. 4 it would seem that about 500 B.C. the rites were already
solemnized in Caria with eunuchs, women, flute- and tambourine-players ;
Herodotus iv. 76 adds night-processions: perhaps a Greek addition,
Pindar fr. 57 B. In Greece itself Achaia seems to have been a special
seat of the worship ; temples of the Dindymenian Mother and Attis are
mentioned at Dymae and Patrae (Paus. vii. 17. 9, vii. 20. 3). In
Phrygia proper, its native seat, the cultus was of far greater antiquity :
tradition ascribed it to Midas (Justin xi. 7, Clem. Al. Protrept. 13
Dindorf *) : Arrian, quoted by Eustathius on Dionys. Periegetes 809,

Says Atyovrai &pvyes TraXatoVaTot dvOpairmv yeveo-Qai Kal on /uaiVoj/rai rjj 'Pea
*cat irpos 'K.opv^dvrav KaTt^ovraC orav 8f aiirovs KaTao-\rj TO 6fiov, fXavvo/jLtvoi
Kal fifya /Sowvrer KOI dpxovp.tvoi irpodnriovcri ra fif\\ovra 6fO(popovp,evoi KOI

fjiniv<'>fi{voi. Diodorus Sic. iii. 58, 59 gives a condensed account of the
collective traditions which had gathered round the Mother and her votary.

IlapaSeoVrai 8e TTJS deov ravrijs Kal Kara TTJV Qpvyiav yfVfO~is. Ol yap eyx&pioi
fi.v6o\oyov(Ti TO 7ta\aibv ytveo~6ai /SacnXea &pvyias Kal AnSiaj M^ova' yr)p.avra
8e &iv8vfi.rjv yevvT)O~ai ftfV Trai8iov dfjXv, rpffpfiv 8" avrb pf) /SovXo/xei/oi/ ds opos
tK0flvai TO Trpoa'ayopfvofj.evov KvftfXov. 'Evravda TO> rraibim KO.TO. Tiva dfiav
Trpovoiav TOS TrapSaXeis Kai Tiva TWV a\\u>v TO>V d\Kr) 8ia(pfp6vra>v dijplwv
irapexc&dat TTJV 6ij\fiv Kal 8iarp((pfi,v. Tvvaia 8e Tiva irapa TOV TOTTOV noi^aL-
vovra KaTtStiv TO yivop.fvov, Kal davudcravra TTJV TrepnreTfiav dve\e(rdai TO J3pe(pos,
KO\ IT poaay opevo-ai. Ku/SeXqi/ dno TOV TOTTOU. AvgofJLfinjv 8e TTJV iratSa TO) re
xaXXci Kal o~<t>(ppoo~vvTj SicvfyKfiv, ert 8e crvvfcrti yeveo-dat TTJV re
yap TroXvAcaXa/Lioi* o~vptyya irpa>TT)V iirivor]O-ai KOI rrpos TOS Traiotas Kal ^opei'as
tvpfiv KvufiaXa Kal TvpTfava, irpbs 8e TOVTOIS Ka6app.ovs T&V VOCTOVVTCOV
Krr)va>v Tf Kal vjjmmv TraiSuv (lo-r)yr]o~a(rdai' 8ib Kal T>V ftpt<pS>v Tats tirutdals
<ra>oft,ei><ov Kal TU>V ir\fio-Twv vir avrfjs fvayKa\iofj.(va>v, fiia TTJV els Tavra o-nov8f)V
Kal (pi\o<TTOpytav viro irdvratv OVTTJV opelav prjTepa irpoo~ayopevdijvai. Svv-
avaaTpffao-dai 8' ouTy Kal <pi\iav f\eiv ori TrXeoj/ (pao~l M.apo~vav TOV <&pvya, davpa-
6/ji(vov firl o~vv(o~(i Kal (raHppoovvrj. Kal TTJS p,fv o-vveo*e<t>s T(Kp.r)piov \anJ3dvovo~i
TO fj.ifj.t]o~aa6ai TOVS (pdoyyovs Trjs Tro\VKa\dp,ov o~vpiyyos Kal /j.fTfveyKf'iv firl
TOVS avXovs TTJV S\rjv dpuoviav' TTJS 8e o~a>(ppoa'vvr]s o-r)fj.fiov elvai <pao~i TO /ite^pi
TT)S Tf\fVTrjs airttpoTov ytvfo~0ai TG>V d(ppo8to~i<nv. TTJV ovv KvfteXyv els
UK/J.TIV r)\iKias f\dovo~av dyan^o~ai T&V ey^capiatv Tiva veavio~Kov TOV irpoo-ayopfvofjievov
fitv A.TTIV, vo-Ttpov 8' eiriK\T]6fVTa Ildirav' arvvf\6ovo~av 8' els opiXlav avTa
Xddpa Kal ytvopevyv eymiov (Triyvato-dfjvai KUTCI TOVTOV TOV Kaipbv vno TWJ/ yoveav.
AtoTrep dvax&fi(TT]s avrrjs ds TO /Sao-tXeuz, Kai TOU iraTpbs TO [lev irpatTOv a>s irapde-
vov 7rpoo-8e|a/iei/ov, fifTa oe Tavra yvovros TT^V <p6opdv, Kal TUS T Tpofpovs Kal TOV
ATTIV dveXovTOs Kal TO o-w/zara (KpfyavTOs arafpa, <pao~l TTJV [email protected]\r]v 8ia TTJV
irpos TO fj.tipaK.iov <pi\oo~Topyiav Kal TTJV tnl Tat? Tpo(pols \\nrrjv fp.fjiavrj
yevoptvqv fls TTJV ^a>pav fKinjd^o'ai. Kal TOVTTJV fjifv o\o\vovo-av Kal TV/I-
naviov(Tav fiovrjv fine vat iraaav j^dapav, KaTaXeXvpfvrjv Tas Tpi%as, TOV 8f

ovv o Trjffde ap^ay TTJS airdTrjs avOpiitrois, the o AapSavoy, 6 nrjrpfc 6eSiv
as TU ^var/ipia, tfre 'HtTioav 6 rd ^apoOpeuewv opyia Kal Tf \tTas viroaTrjffd/Jievos,
6 +ftf tKfivos 6 Mj'Say, 6 irapct, TOV 'OSpvffov paOwv, (vttTa Siaoovs TOIS viroTfTay-


'Mapcrvav fXtovvra TO Trddos fKovcrias avTj) irapaKoXovdelv KOI a~Vfnr\avao-6ai 8ia
T^V irpoiJTrdpxovo~av <pi\iav. . . . Kara 8e TTJV &pvyiav ffi7Tf(rov(rr)s vocrov TOIS dv-
Qpanrois Kal TTJS yrjs a<apnov yfvofj.fvrjs, (TTfpa>Tr)<rdvTa>v rbv 6fbv TTfpl rfjs TU>V KdKutv
djraXXayijs, Trpoord^ai (pairlv avTois dd^fai TO "ArrtSos 1 <roi/ia Kal TL^IIV TTJV
Kvf3e\T)v a>s 6f6v. AtdVrep TOVS &pvyas 8id TOV xpovov T)(f)avio-fjifvov TOV crto/iiaTOS
eifiwXoi/ KaTacrKfvd<rai TOV pfipaniov, Trpbs w dprjvovvras TOIS otKfiais Tifiais TOV
irddovs fi\dcrKecrdai TTJV TOV Trapavof^rjdfVTos p.f}vtv' orrep ^XP 1 Tov Ka @ > ^Ipds /3tou
noiovvTas O.VTOVS SiarfXtlv. Tfjs 8e 'K.v^eXrjs TO iraXcubv /3a>/uov? iSpvcrapevovs
6vo~ias fTriTf\f'iv KUT' eros* ZffTtpov 8e lv Ueaivovvri TTJS Qpvyias KaTao-Kfvdcrai
vtaiv TroXvTtXrj <ai TIJJ.O.S Kal dwias KaraSfi^at /^eyaXoTrpeTreoTaray, Mi'Sou row
3a(riXea)s fly TOVTO (rvp.(j)i\oKa\r]0'avTos' T S' ayaX/xart TTJS deov 7rapao~TT)o-at irap-
8d\eis Kal XeovTas 5ia TO SoKfiv virb Tovrtav Trpwrcos Tpa<f>rjvai. Ilepi fJLfv ovv
ftrjTpbs 6eo>v TOIOVTO fj.vdo\oytlTai irapd re TOIS <E>pw^t Kal TOIS 'A.T\avrlois rots Trapa


This account of Diodorus illustrates most of the prominent ideas of
the worship.

(1) Emasculation and its connexion with chastity. As here Marsyas is
dirfipaTos TOIV dfppooto-iav, so in another version of the legend is Attis ;
Ovid Fast. iv. 223 Phryx puer in siluis facie spectabilis Attis Turrigeram
casto uinxit amore deam. Hunc sibi seruari uoluit, sua templa tueri ; Et
dixit) Semper fac puer esse ueh's. Similarly Cybele herself cast a est acci-
pienda manu ib. 260 ; her image is met by the Vestal virgins 296 ; Claudia
appeals to the goddess as umpire of chastity castas casta sequere manus
324. Euripides Kpijres fr. 475. 9-19 Nauck

'Ayvbv 8e fBiov Telvo/jifv, f ov
Atos 'l8aiov HVO~TT)S yev6fj.T]v,
Kai WKTtTroXou Zaypecos jSpowas
Tds T' &>p.o<payovs SatTas T(\(o~as,
MjTpi T' ope/ai SaSas
Kal Kovpr)T6>v

Bd/c^os fK\T)drjv
ndXXetiKa 8* fx<x>v (tfjLara (fxvyw
Tevf(riv T fipOTotv KOI veKpodfjKrjs

Ov x/>'M 7I " r( 'A lel ' 0$ '> T1 7" T> fpTlrvx"

Bpaxnv eSeoTwi' 7re<puXay/iat.

Origen Philosophumena V. 9 Hdvv yap iriKpSis KOI nf(pv\ayp.fvo)s n-apayye'X-
Xovcrii' a7r^e<r^at ws a7roKo^/teVoi T?)S Trpo? yvvalna 6p,i\ias. Minucius Octau.

xxii. 4, Lact. i. 1 7 Deum mater et amauit formosum adulescentem et eundem
cum paelice deprehensum exsectis uirilibus semiuirum tradidit. Arnob. v. 7,
Plin. xxxv. 165. And this is perhaps the most prominent feature of the

(2) Its connexion with wild nature. Cybele is fed by panthers, as she
is drawn by lions ; KvfcXa are according to Hesychius caves 1 ; Cybele is the
fi^TTjp opei'a and MJjTqp 'iSata (i8r) a wild wood) 2 ; and the same idea is
strongly expressed by Apollonius Argon, i. 1092-1152. Jason is to go
to the top of Dindymon and there appease the mother of all the gods,
the supreme sovereign of nature. Then a statue of the goddess is planted

1 Kv/3Xa opr) &pvy'w xal avTpa Kal QaXapot. Q&Xapoi would seem to mean chambers,
natural or constructed, like the AoPpivtjs Oakapai of Nicander Alexiph. 8.
a Robiou p. 137.


on the hill overarched by the highest oaks ; an altar is wreathed with
oak-leaves, and youths dance a war-dance, clashing swords and shields
together. It is part of the same idea that her temples were some-
times open to the sky (Paus. viii. 44. 3), that the oak is sacred to her
(Schol. on Apoll. Rhod. i. 1124), perhaps also that the pine tree figures so
prominently in her rites. This conception naturally passes into the later
one of a supreme civilizing power as exhibited by Lucretius ii. 600 sqq.
and Varro ap. Augustin. de Ciuit. Dei vii. 24 ; an interpretation which
the recurring story of a lion overawed by the gestures and tambourines
of the Galli (Varro ap. Non. 483, Anth. P. vi. 217-220) shows to have
been common. But the other and earlier idea is the truer, and is obviously
connected with the rocks, woods and caverns of Phrygia. Statius S. i. 5.
37, ii. 2. 85 associates the castration of Attis with the marble caverns of
Synnada ; Vitruvius ii. i. 5 mentions the Phrygian habit of excavating hills
and forming in them passages and rooms ; that subterraneous chambers
were connected with the rites of Attis is expressly stated by the schol. on
Nicander Alex. 8 ; and these, whether in the natural form of rock-caverns
or as excavated to form rock-temples or sanctuaries, may plausibly be
considered the earliest seats of the mysteries of Cybele, as the mountain-
tops of her more open rites.

(3) A third point mentioned by Diodorus is the identification of
Attis with Papas. This is also stated by Arrian in a fragment of his
Bithyniaca quoted by Eustathius on II. v. 408 aviovrts ds ra a<pa r&v opS>v

Bidvvol (KaXovv ndnav TOV At'a KOI *Arrti> TOV avrov 1 , and again in the PhiloSO-

phumena ascribed to Origen, v. 9 ed. E. Miller 2 . Herodotus iv. 59 says
Papaeus was the Scythian name for Zeus ; if Attis was worshipped as
Papas, it would seem that he must first have been identified with Zeus,
the father 3 par excellence ; perhaps the ilcm-ias 2a>rq/> of an inscription in
Leake's Asia Minor p. 20. Both names seem to be true Phrygian ; Ates
and JBaba are found on the tomb of Midas ; but at what period they

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