Roper Lethbridge.

The golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon online

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A ruling chief ; b. 1821 ; succeeded
to the gadi on May 1, 1841. Belongs to
a Rajput (Hindu) family. The popu-
lation of the State is 963, chiefly
Hindus. Residence : Hirapur, Bhopal,
Central India.

HISSAM-UD-DIN, Shaikh, Khan Baha-
dur. The title was conferred on
January 1, 1891. Residence: Secun-
derabad, Hyderabad.

HITTTJ RAM, CLE., Rai Bahadur; b.
1842. Has long been a distinguished
political officer on the frontier of
Baluchistan and Afghanistan, having
entered the service in 1859, when he
received a reward for preparing a
" History of Dera Ghazi Khan District
and Frontier." Appointed to special
duty for Kalat in 1875 ; accompanied
Sir Robert Sandeman on two missions
to Kalat, and received a khilat in 1877
for his services thereon, also the title
of Rai. Appointed Extra Assistant
Commissioner of the Punjab in 1879 ;
and in same year received a khilat at
the Kalat Darbar, and was placed in
charge of Sibi district. Received the
title of Rai Bahadur as a personal
distinction on April 20, 1881, having
served in the Political Department
throughout the Afghan war of 1880-1,
with medal. In the same year he
received a jdgir, and in 1882 was
created a Companion of the Most



Eminent Order of the Indian Empire.
Was in charge of arrangements for
supplies, etc., for the Afghan Boundary
Commission, 1884, across the Baluch
Desert ; and received the thanks of
Government for the same. Was on
special duty in the Bolan Pass, in the
military preparations for the expected
outbreak of hostilities between Eng-
land and Russia, March 1884 to No-
vember 1885. Deputed to hold charge
of Las Bela State on the death of the
Jam in 1889, pending installation of
successor ; and was on special duty
with Sir R. Sandeman in 1889-91, and
specially commended. Residence: Sibi,

HKUN LAI (Sawbwa of Lai Hka), Kyet
thaye zaung shwe Sahoe ya Min. The
title was conferred on May 21, 1898.
It is indicated by the letters K.S.M.
after the name, and means " Recipient
of the Gold Chain of Honour." Resi-
dence : Lai Hka, Shan States, Burma.

HKUN LU KWAN, Ahmudan gaung
Tazeik ya Min. Is Heng of Kokang
in North Hsen Wi in the Northern
Shan States. The title is personal,
and was conferred June 22, 1897. It
means "Recipient of the Medal of
Honour for Good Service," and is
indicated by the letters A.T.M. after
the name. Residence : Northern Shan
States, Burma.


HKUN SAN TON HON, Kyet thaye zaung
shwe Salwe ya Min, Is Sawbwa of
North Hsen Wi in the Northern Shan
States. The title was conferred on
June 22, 1897. It means " Recipient of
the Gold Chain of Honour," and is
indicated by the letters K.S.M. after
the name. Residence : Northern Shan
States, Burma.

HLAING, Maung (Shwedabo of Baw),

Thuye gaung ngwe Da ya Min. The
title is personal, and was conferred on
June 1, 1888. It means " Recipient of
the Silver Sword for Bravery," and is
indicated by the letters T.D.M. after
the name. Residence : Shan State of
Baw, Burma.

HMAT, Maung, Ahmudan gaung Tazeik
ya Min. The title is personal, and
was conferred on January 1, 1894. It
means "Recipient of the Medal of
Honour for Good Service," and is

indicated by the letters A.T.M. after
the name. Residence : Mogok, Burma.

HMU, Maung, Ahmudan gaung Tazeik
ya Min. The title is personal, and was
conferred on January 1, 1894. This
Burmese title is indicated by the
letters A.T.M. after the name. Resi-
dence : Prome, Burma.

HOLKAB, His Highness the Maharaja
Bahadur {of Indore). See Indore.

HOPON, Kun Wara, Myoza of. A
ruling chief. The area of the State,
which is one of the Shan States on the
frontier of Burma, is about 400 square
miles. Residence: Hopon, Burma.

Bahadur. The title is personal, and
was conferred on June 1, 1888. Resi-
dence: Surat, Bombay.

Bahadur, Shams-ul-Ulama. These titles
are personal ; the first was conferred
on January 1, 1878, and the second on
January 1, 1890. The title of Shams-
ul- TJlama entitles the Khan Bahadur —
who is also a " Dastur," or High Priest
of the Parsis of the Deccan — to take
rank in Darbar immediately after
titular Nawabs. The Dastur Jamas-
passa family are descended from As-
saji. The last Dastur of that family,
the Dastur Nasarwanji Jamaspji, Khan
Bahadur, rendered valuable services
to Government during the time of the
Mutiny; and received the title of
Khan Bahadur as a reward for them
in 1868. The title of Shams-ul-Ulama
was conferred on Dastur Hoshangji
Jamaspji in recognition of his emin-
ence in oriental learning. Residence :
Poona, Bombay.

HSENWI, Chief of. S'ee Saw Naw
Maing ; see also Hkun San Ton Hon.

HSI PAW, Hkun Saing, CLE., Sawbwa
of. A ruling chief. The area of the
State, which is one of the Northern
Shan States on the frontier of Burma,
is about 4000 square miles. The Saw-
bwa was created a Companion of the
Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, for loyalty and good service,
on July 1, 1895. Residence: Hsi Paw,

HUCHRA0. See Hacharao.
HUKM SINGH (of Gangwai), .Rq/a. The
title is hereditary. The Raj& succeeded



to it on September 19, 1859. Resi-
dence: Narsinghpur, Central Provinces.

HUKM SINGH, Sodhi (of Firozpur), Rai
Bahadur and Diwdn Bahadur. The
first title was conferred oh January 3,
1893, and the second on January 1,
1896. Residence: Bikanir, Rajputana.

HUMAYUN BEG, Khan Bahddur. The
title was conferred on January 1, 1898.
Is "Wazir of Hunza. Residence : Hunza,


Rao Saheb. The title was conferred
on June 22, 1897. Residence : Bombay.

DITTA KHAN, Mir. The title has
been continued for life. Residence:
Shikarpur, Sind.


Sarddr Bahddur. See Muhammad.

HUSAIN KHAN, Arbab, Khan Bahddur.
The title was conferred on May 20,
1896. Residence: North-Western Fron-
tier, Punjab.

HUSAIN KHAN, Muhammad, Khan

Bahddur. See Muhammad.

HUSAIN KHAN, Subadar Muhammad,

Khan Bahadur. See Muhammad.

HUSSAN. See Hasan.
HUTWA. See Hatwa.

HYDERABAD (or. The Deccan), His

Highness the Nizam of, G.C.S.I. A
ruling chief, and the Premier Prince
of the Indian Empire ; b. August 18,
1866. Succeeded to the masnad as a
minor, on the; death of his father, his
late Highness the Nizam Afzul-ud-
daula, February 26, 1869. The Nizam's
full titles are — His Highness Asaf Jah,
Muzaffar-ul-Mamalik, Rustam-i-Dau-
ran, Arastu-i-Zaman, Nizam-ul-Mulk,
Nizam-ud-daula, Nawab Mir Sir Mah-
bub Ali Khan Bahadur, Fath Jang,
Knight Grand Commander of the Most
Exalted Order of the Star of India.
Belongs to a family of the highest
antiquity and importance among Mu-
hammadan rulers, being lineally de-
scended from the first Khalif, Abu
Bakr, the successor of the Prophet.
His descendant, after a long line of
intervening generations, was the
Turkoman Chief named Ghazi-ud-din,
one of the greatest of the Generals of
the Emperor Aurangzeb, who was the

hero of the capture of Bijapur in 1686
a.d. ; he was largely concerned in the
overthrow both of that kingdom and
of the Golkonda dynasty, and in the
establishment of the Mughal power in
the Deccan, which then became a
subah (or province) of the Mughal
Empire of Delhi. His son and suc-
cessor was Chin Kulij Khan, 1 better
known as the great Asaf Jah, the real
founder of the Hyderabad dynasty.
He was born in 1644 ; and in 1713 was
appointed Subahddr or Viceroy of the
Deccan by the Emperor Farukh Siyar,
with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk (Ad-
ministrator of the Country), which
has ever since been retained by his
descendants. He reigned till 1748 >
attaining the great age of 104; and
throughout this lengthened career,
with occasional vicissitudes of fortune,
he continually increased his power
during the days of the declining vigour
of the Mughal Empire. The dynasty,
thus established as the greatest native
Power in the Indian Peninsula, has
been almost uniformly closely attached

1 Kulij or Qidij — sometimes spelt Chillich —
is the Turki word for swwrd : and Kulij Khan,
as a title, bears the same meaning as the
Persian Shamsher Khan. On the title of Asaf
Jah, subsequently borne by the Nawab Chin
Kulij Khan and his descendants, the learned
Professor Blochmann gives this note : "Asaf
was the name of the Vazir of Solomon, who
like his master is proverbial in the East for
wisdom. During the reign of Akbar three
grandees received this title. Badaoni, to avoid
confusion, numbers them Asaf Khan I., II.,
and III. . . . Jahangir conferred the title of
Asaf Khan (IV.) on Abul Hasan, elder brother
of the Empress Nur Jahan, and father of the
Empress Mumtaz Mahal (or Taj Bibi, Shah-
jahan's wife), whose mother was a daughter
of Asaf Khan II. During the reign of Shah-
jahan, when titles containing the word Dauld
were revived, Asaf Khan was changed to Asaf-
ud-daula; and this title was conferred on
Asaf-ud-daula Jumlat-ul-Mulk Asad Jang, a
relation of Asaf Khan IV. Under Ahmad
Shah, lastly, we find Asaf-ud-daula Amir-ul-
Mamalik, whose name, like that of his father,
Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah, occurs so often in
later Indian history." As the ancient titles
of the Mughal Empire are retained among the
nobles of the Deccan, and are still conferred
by His Highness the Nizam, it may here be
noted that in ascending order they contain
the words Jang, Dauld, Mulk, and Umara or
Jah. Titles containing the words Jah or
Umara may be compared with English Dukes
or Marquesses; those containing Mulk with
English Earls; those containing Dauld vrith
Viscounts ; and those containing Jang with


to the British Power in India, and has
consequently obtained from English
writers the style of "Our faithful
ally the Nizam." At all the most
critical periods in the history of the
Indian Empire — in the Mysore wars,
in the Mahratta wars, during the
Mutiny of 1857, and recently when
Russian invasion seemed probable —
the Nizam of the day has always
rendered invaluable help. Of Asaf
Jah, the founder of the dynasty, an
English writer thus speaks : —

" Content, however, with actual sovereignty,
he never assumed its title and insignia. The
family, indeed, to the last professed subordin-
ation to the Court of Delhi, and the Nizam's
successors continued to be formally confirmed
by mandates from the Mogul Emperors. The
immunity enjoyed by Nizam-ool-Moolk, in a
practical surrender of the Deccan to his rule,
appears to have been merely due to his essen-
tial importance as the only available check to
the growing power and harassing incursions
of the Mahrattas — a constant source of dis-
turbance and alarm to his titular master. The
evening of his eventful life, whose span is said
to have exceeded a century, was spent by the
first Nizam with singular retention of extra-
ordinary physical and mental faculties, in his
so strangely gained principality, when death
closed in 1748 a career remarkable and pro-
minent in a stirring and productive time.
Impartial estimates of his character can
hardly begrudge his descendants a pride in
the founder of their name and renown, for his
politic compass and tenacious hold of inde-
pendent power were unstained by treachery
or cruelty, and the later annals of the family
are similarly clear of the grosser incidents of
conquests. He left them, too, an example
of equanimity undaunted in adversity and
superior to elation by success." i

After the death of the aged Nizam-ul-
Mulk the throne of the Deccan was long
and fiercely contended for, with varying
fortunes, by his grandson Muzaffar Jang,
and his sons (uncles of Muzaffar Jang),
known as Ghazi-ud-din, Nasir Jang, Sala-
bat Jang, and Nizam Ali. Involved in
these wars were also the English and
French forces in the Carnatic, and the
armies of the Mahrattas and of the
Nawabs of Arcot. It was the Nizam
Salabat Jang who finally adopted the
city of Hyderabad, on the river Musi, as
his capital ; its ancient name was Bhag-
nagar, and it had been founded in 1585

1 Quoted in the learned and voluminous
History of Hyderabad Affairs, compiled for
private circulation in 1883 by the Maulavi
Sayyid Mehdi Ali, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk,
Secretary to the Government of His Highness
the Nizam.

by Muhammad Kutb Shah, King of Gol-
konda. In 1761 Salabat Jang was de-
throned by his brother Nizam Ali, who
put him to death in 1763, and reigned
till 1803 — playing a prominent part
during the whole of that period in the
incessant wars with the English, the
Mahrattas, and the Sultans of Mysore,
Haidar and Tippu. The first treaty
between the British Power and the
Nizam was concluded in 1766, followed
by great and permanent treaties in 1798
and 1800. In accordance with these
engagements, after the defeats of the
Mahrattas at Laswari and Assaye, the
Nizam received large accessions of ter-
ritory, including the great and rich pro-
vince of Berar ; and similarly after the
conquest of Tippu the Nizam shared in
the division of territory. Nizam Ali
died in 1803, and was succeeded by his
son, the Nizam Sikandar Jah, who was
served in turn by three famous Prime
Ministers, Mir Alam, Munir-ul-Mulk,
and the Raja Chandu LAI. In 1829
Sikandar Jah was succeeded by his son,
the Nizam Nasir-ud-daula, who reigned
till 1857. He had no great liking for
affairs of State, which he left largely to
the care of his Prime Minister, the
Nawab Suraj-ul-Mulk, who died in 1853,
when the Nizam appointed his nephew,
the well-known Sir Salar Jang, to suc-
ceed him in the office of Minister.
Nasir-ud-daula is described as having " a
gracious disposition to private charity,
and with much bountiful kindness to his
dependants." He died in May 1857, just
before the outbreak of the Mutiny, and
was succeeded by his late Highness the
Nizam Afzul-ud-daula, father of the
present Nizam.

The loyalty of the late Nizam and his
troops during the crisis ®f 1857 has been
well commemorated by an English writer
in the following words : —

" When, on the 17th of July in that memor-
able year, after a frantic promulgation of
Jihad or Holy War on the part of the indi-
genous Muhammadans of both Southern and
Northern India, the Rohillas attacked the
Residency, and were repulsed by troops under
the command of the late Colonel Briggs, had
the Nizam, untried as he then was, aided the
movement, or even openly avowed sympathy
with the mutineers, there can be no doubt
that any success at Hyderabad would have
proved a signal for revolt to the bigoted and
fanatic Muhammadan population, not only
there, but in all Central, Western, and Southern
India, and that our terrible straits elsewhere



would have been multiplied and sorely ag-
gravated. For we had at the time but one
European corps at Secunderabad, the military
station, and camped at Trimulgherry, about
two miles from the central arsenal, which
must have been left in the charge of native
soldiers if attacked from the capital. . . . But
the Nizam was firm in his alliance, attracting
to our side all that was respectable in his
Court and capital. The traditions of the
family also, and old memories of rescue from
the Mahrattas, were with us, and not ineffi-
cacious in our hour of need.

"And now for the behaviour of the Hydera-
bad contingent. In this force, recollect, are
thousands of the same caste as those whose
relatives elsewhere were murdering their
officers, or marching towards the Mogul
standard at Delhi. From these came emis-
saries, not only to their brethren of the con-
tingent, with letters and personal entreaties
to join, but to the Court itself. The greater
portion of the contingent was presently
ordered into the field, and a brigade of all
arms was pushed into Central India, where
they fought, under Sir Hugh Rose, with
bravery and endurance unsurpassed by any
corps in the Service. With only eighteen
hours' warning, i. e. receiving their orders at
seven in the morning, and starting at midnight
of the same day, these troops took the field,
and were absent from their homes for fifteen
months, remaining the whole of that time
under canvas, leaving their own fertile plain
of the Deccan behind them, until, after fight-
ing their way inch by inch, they bathed in the
holy river at Calpee, after a signal victory
obtained over the rebels at that place. In-
stancing a few of their exploits, I may mention
that at Mehidpoor, the seat of former triumph
to the contingent, when they formed a part of
Sir John Malcolm's army in 1817, they arrived,
after a forced march of sixty miles, in time to
rescue an English lady ; and finding that the
enemy, consisting of the Mehidpoor con-
tingent and the escaped garrison of Dhar, had
made away with the Mehidpoor battery and
arsenal stores, they immediately, after de-
spatching Mrs. Timmins to the camp of the
Bombay column, rattled off in pursuit, the
enemy having got several hours' start of them.
They overtook the rascals late in the after-
noon, about twelve miles distant from Mehid-
poor, charged, and captured both battery and
stores, cutting up a large number of mutin-
eers, and severing at a blow, from the enemy,
most important means of offence and defence,
which a week later would assuredly hive been
in position and used against us when the great
battle, which lasted throughout four days, was
fought at Mundessoor. The troops, especially
the native portion, lived almost entirely on
parched grain collected from the fields in the
neighbourhood, and immediately submitted to
the process of hand manipulation over the
fire. It is not my intention to trace here the
further exploits of the Hyderabad contingent
troops, beyond noticing the fact of their rapid
journeys in advance of the main columns they
accompanied, returning only to headquarters
when a general action was to be fought, On

the thousands of miles marched by the cavalry
of this force, accompanied often by the infantry
and artillery, I need not dwell. Sir Hugh
Rose termed these troops 'the wings of my
army.' With the restoration of peace came
full time for recognizing the Nizam's fidelity
and active aid. Presents to the value of
£10,000 were made to His Highness, and the
Star of India was conferred on him. The
territory transferred in '53 to our management
was now yielding more than the requisite
revenue, and a new arrangement was accord-
ingly proposed, under which, in 1860, districts
of the value of 13 lacs were restored to the
Nizam, together with a transfer of the princi-
pality of Shorapoor, whose Rajah had been
seduced into the rebellion of the Southern
Mahratta country. This acquisition affords
an annual surplus of £15,000. We also
remitted the entire debt."

The Nizam Afzul-ud-daula, G.C.S.I.,
died in 1869, and was succeeded by his
son, the present Nizam, who has fol-
lowed all the best traditions of his
ancestors, and has demonstrated his at-
tachment to the Empire in even more
striking fashion. In 1885 he offered to
send troops to aid the Government in
Egypt ; and in the same year, when there
was a menace of Russian aggression on
the Afghan frontier, he repeated the
generous offer. But it was in 1887, in
the year of the Jubilee of Her Most
Gracious Majesty's reign, that His High-
ness gave the most signal proof of his
princely loyalty. In August of that year
His Highness wrote the following most
remarkable and patriotic letter to the
Viceroy of India ; —

"Hyderabad, August 26.
"My Friend, — No inhabitant can be in-
different to the persistent advance of another
great military power towards India; to the
necessity that exists for putting the frontier
in a proper state of defence ; and to the burden
it imposes on those charged with its safety
and the care of the Empire. All who have the
welfare of India at heart are bound to consider
what should be done, and to show they are
heartily in sympathy with those who are en-
deavouring to place the frontier in a proper
state of defence, so as to ward off all danger
from our hearths and homes. The Princes of
India have not been blind to the movement of
events. We realize the financial responsibility
the present state of affairs imposes on the
Indian Exchequer. It seems to me that the
time has arrived for showing in some open
manner that India is united on this question,
and for that reason I write now to sponta-
neously offer to the Imperial Government a
contribution from the Hyderabad State of
twenty lakhs annually for three years, for the
exclusive purpose of Indian frontier defence.
This is my offer in time of peace. At ft later



stage you can count upon my sword.~Your
sincere friend,

" Mir Mahbub Ali Khan."

The effect of this letter on public
opinion throughout the world was very
great. Her Most Gracious Majesty the
Queen Empress was pleased to express
her warm appreciation of the loyal
action of His Highness in the following
letter, by His Excellency the Viceroy's
hand : —

" Simla, October 7.

" My Friend, — I have received from Colonel
Marshall your letter of the 26th of August, and
send this reply by his hands. It is difficult
for me to express in fitting terms my sense of
the ready loyalty and goodwill which have
prompted your Highness to come forward at
this time with so generous an offer, emanating
as it does from the head of one of the largest
and most important States in India. It is
indeed a striking proof of the friendly feelings
entertained towards Her Majesty and the
British Government by the Princes of the
Empire; and I had the greatest satisfaction
in acquainting the Queen Empress with the
contents of your Highness's kharita. There is
no doubt that the advance of a great military
power towards the borders of India has imposed
on the Government the obligation of taking
those precautions for the defence of our frontier
which are adopted by all nations on becoming
conterminous with each other, no matter how
friendly their existing relations. This duty
undoubtedly has considerably added, and will
continue to add for some time, to the expendi-
ture of the Government of India ; and it is a con-
vincing proof both of your Highness's states-
manlike capacity as well as of your generosity
that you should have been the first among the
Princes of India to recognize the principle
that the Native States are as much interested
as the rest of the Indian population in assisting
the Government to take whatever measures
may be necessary to preserve the borders of
the Empire from any dangers which may arise
from external complications. Again thanking
your Highness in the name of my Government,
as well as in the name of Her Majesty and the
Government of England, for the noble example
which you have set,— I remain, my friend,
yours sincerely, " Dufferin."

And the appreciation of the people of
England of the friendly action of the
First Prince of the Indian Empire was
aptly expressed in the following leading
article in the Times : —

"This is an intimation which no one can
misinterpret, that the great Native Courts,
who are outside the red line of British ad-
ministration, have been alive to th« incessant
encroachments of Kussia in the direction of
India, and now perceive that this advance
constitutes a danger for them as well as for
us. We believe that feeling is shared by every

potentate, great or small, from Travancore to
Cashmere, yet it has remained voiceless, not
for want of will, but rather of knowledge as to
how and when to speak. With remarkable
acumen the Nizam has not only seen that the
time has come, but he has chosen the very
best and the most original mode of giving
vent to the pent-up feeling of a large section
of the Indian population. In time of war and
invasion, or, indeed, of any military operations
beyond the frontier, the rulers of the Native
States would be compelled to play a certain
part, and we should receive, as we have received
before, the offer of their military contingents.
But we are fortunately not in any imminent
risk of war or invasion, although we have
sanctioned an expenditure of some ten millions
sterling on frontier defence, and it is this
which makes the Nizam's princely gift all
the more gratifying and significant. There is
absolutely no precedent in Indian history for
the Nizam taking this step in time of peace,
nor, indeed, for any Native Court admitting
the least responsibility in regard to the financial
embarrassments of the Central Government,
even if caused by expenditure on objects from

Online LibraryRoper LethbridgeThe golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon → online text (page 19 of 63)