Roper Lethbridge.

The golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon online

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Shikarpur, Sind.

MURID KHAN, Mulk or Malik; b.
about the year 1851. The title is
hereditary; the Malik has sanads of
the Emperors Aurangzeb and Muham-
mad Shah in which this title is used.
Is the Chief of the Kalmati clan, which
is a branch of the Rind Baluchis. Resi-
dence : Karachi, Sind.

MURLI DHAR, Lala, Rai Saheb. Re-
ceived the title on January 2, 1899.
Residence : Ambala, Punjab.

MURLI MANOHAR, Rai Bahadur; b.
1821. The title is personal, and was
conferred on August 16, 1882, for
services rendered to Government dur-
ing the Mutiny and in the Bhutan war.
Belongs to a Kshatriya family. Is an
Honorary Magistrate. Residence :
Lucknow, Oudh.

MURSAN, Rdjd of. See Ghansham

MURSHEOABAD, Nawab Sir Sayyid
Hasan All Khan Bahadur, Muhabat
Jang, G.C.I.E., Nawdb Bahadur of;
b. August 25, 1846. The Nawab Ba-
hadur's full titles are — Ihtisham-ul-
Mulk, Rais-ud-Daula, Amir-ul-Umara,
Nawab Sir Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan
Bahadur, Muhabat Jang, G.C.I.E., Na-
wdb Bahadur of Murshidabad. Is the
eldest son of the late Muntazim-ul-
Mulk, Mohsin-ud-Daula, Faridun Jah,
Nawab Sayyid Mansur Ali Khan Ba-
hadur, Nussat Jang, last titular Nawab
Nazim and Subahdar of Bengal, Behar,
and Orissa. The late Nawab Nazim
resigned his position and titles on
November 1, 1880. His eldest son,
the present Nawab, received the here-
ditary title of Nawab Bahadur of
Murshidabad by a sanad, dated Feb-
ruary 17, 1882. In February 1887 he
received the dignity of Knight Com-
mander of the Most Eminent Order of
the Indian Empire, and was promoted
to be a Knight Grand Commander of
the same Most Eminent Order in May
1890. In May 1887 he was granted
the khilat or style of Ihtisham-ul-Mulk,
Rais-ud-Daula, Amir-ul-Umara, Na-
wdb Sir Sayyid Hasan Ali Khan Ba-



hadur, Muhabat Jang. On March 12,
1891, by an Indenture entered into
between the Secretary of State for
India in Council and himself, the Na-
wab Bahadur confirmed the act of his
father of November 1, 1880 ; and re-
ceived in return a fixed hereditary
position, with a settled income, and
with the family estates in the districts
of Murshidabad, Calcutta, Midnapur,
Dacca, Maldah, Purneah, Patna, Rang-
pur, Hughli, Rajsbahi, Birbhum, and
the Santal-Parganas attached to the
title of Nawab Bahadur in tail male.
This arrangement was confirmed and
validated by the Council of His Ex-
cellency the Viceroy and Governor-
General, by Act XV. of 1891, passed
on March 21, 1891. This arrangement
confirmed to the Nawab Bahadur the
rank and dignity of Premier Noble of
the Provinces under the Lieutenant-
Governor of Bengal, with the heredit-
ary title, in addition to that of Nawab
Bahadur of Murshidabad, of Amir-ul-
Umara. The Nawab Bahadur has
five sons — (1) Asaf Kadr Sayyid Wasif
Ali Mirza, born January 7, 1875 ; (2)
Iskandar Kadr Sayyid Nasir Ali Mirza,
born March 15, 1876 ; (3) Sayyid Asaf
Ali Mirza, bom April 26, 1881; (4)
Sayyid Yakub Ali Mirza, born June
9, 1883 ; (5) Sayyid Mohsin Ali Mirza,
born November 18, 1885. The family
arms adopted by the Nawab are —
argent, a dolphin proper above a cheval
regardant, also proper. Below the
shield the monogram N.B.M. The
supporters are the lion and the uni-
corn. The crest is a Zulfikdr (sword
of theKhalif Ali) proper. The motto
is " Nil Desperandum." The Nawab
Bahadur is descended both from the
Prophet and also from Ali, the cousin
and successor of the Prophet, who was
married to Fatima, the Prophet's
daughter. Hasan, eldest son of Ali,
left a son, Hasan Massanna, who mar-
ried Fatima Soghra, daughter of Hus-
sain Ali's youngest son. One branch
of the descendants of this marriage
has held for several centuries, and still
holds, the office of Grand Sharif of
Mecca. A grandson of Hasan Mas-
sanna and Fatima Soghra was called
Ibrahim Taha-Tahaie ("the pure,"
" the unsullied ") ; and from this Ibra-
him are derived the Murshidabad
family. His descendants were for
some time rulers of the province of

Yemen in Arabia. Subsequently a
descendant, Sayyid Husain Najafi, was
key-holder to the tomb of Ali at Na-
jaf ; and his grandson was Mir Jafar,
who became, on the fall of Nawab
Suraj-ud-Daula, Nawab Nazim of
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. The
grandfather of Mir Jafar had married
a niece of the Emperor Aurangzeb.
One of his uncles, Najafi Khan, was
Governor of the fortress of Gwalior ;
and another, Najaf Khan, was Subah-
dar of Cuttack. Mir Jafar himself
was at first Commander-in-Chief to
the Nawab Nazim Ali Vardi Khan,
whose sister, the Nawab Shah Kha-
num, he married. The Nawab Ali
Vardi Khan became Subahdar in 1740,
and was succeeded by his grandson
Nawab Suraj-ud-Daula in 1756. He
was succeeded, by Mir Jafar, brother-
in-law of Ali Vardi Khan, after the
victory at Plassey in 1757. In 1760
he was set aside for a short time in
favour of his son-in-law, Mir Kasim,
but again came into power after a few
months, and continued on the Masnad
till 1765, when he was succeeded by
his son, Najm-ud-Daula. Mir Najm
was succeeded in 1766 by his brother,
Nawab Saif-ud-Daula, and he by an-
other brother, Mubarak-ud-Daula, a
minor son of Mir Jafar, in 1770. Mu-
barak-ud-Daula was succeeded by his
son, Nasir-ul-Mulk, in 1793, and this
Nawab by his son, Ali Jah, in 1810.
Ali Jah was followed by his brother,
Wala Jah, in 1821 ; and Wala Jah by
his son, Humayun Jah, in 1825. This
Prince was succeeded in 1838 by his
son, the late Faridun Jah Sayyid Man-
sur Ali, the father of the present Na-
wab, who was the last Nawab Nazim
of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa. The
grandfather of the present Nawab
Bahadur received from His Majesty
King William IV. a full-length por-
trait of His Majesty, and the dignity
of the Grand Cross of the Royal
Hanoverian Guelphic Order with
the Insignia. The portrait of His
Majesty is one of the chief orna-
ments at the Palace at Murshidabad.
Residence: The Palace, Murshidabad,

MTJRTAZA HUSAIN (of Bhilwal). See
Mustafa Husain.

MTJRWARA , Thdkur of. See Ram Datt.



MUSA, Ali Raja, Sultan (of Cannanore),
Raja ; b. 1830. The title is hereditary,
the Raja of Cannanore being the
representative of the old Moplah Ali
R&jas or Sea-Kings of Malabar and
the adjacent islands. Belongs to a
Moplah (Muhammadan) family, said
to have been founded by Mamali
Kidavi, a Musalman Minister of the
Kolathiii Raja of Malabar, who was
appointed the "Ali Raja" — or Sea-
King of the Laccadives and adjacent
islands — by the Cherakal Raja, who
assigned him a residence at Cannanore.
It is remarkable that the family,
though Muhammadans, follow the
Marumakkatayam law of inheritance
general among the Hindu Rajas of
Malabar, under which the succession
is with the offspring of its female
members, amongst whom the next
eldest male is always the heir-apparent.
The present Sultan Ali Ra ja succeeded
his predecessor under this law on
November 15, 1870. The agreement
of 1796, by which the family came
under British control, was signed by
the Bibi, a female member of the
family. Residence: Malabar, Madras.

MUSSAMAT— A prefix.

MUSTAFA HUSAIN (of Bhilwal),
Chaudhri; b. October 31, 1849. The
title is hereditary, having been so since
the time of the Emperor Shah Jahan
in 1616 a.d., and recognized by the
British Government in 1877. Belongs
to a Musalman family whose ancestors,
Khwaja Bahram and Khwaja Nizam,
accompanied the Sayyid Salar to
Oudh, and settled at Subeha. In 1616
a.d. Shaikh Nasir was appointed
Chaudhri of Subeha by the Empress
Shah Jaham. In 1792 Chaudhri
Imam Bakhsh largely increased the
possessions of the family. In 1860,
Chaudhri Sarfaraz Ahmad, who had
succeeded his father-in-law Chaudhri
Lutf-ulla, was invested with the special
powers of an Assistant Collector. On
his death there was protracted litiga-
tion as to the succession ; ultimately
the estates were divided between the
widow of Sarafaz Ahmad, Mussamat
Bichan-un-Nisa, and the present Chau-
dhri, who is the nephew of the late
Chaudhri. He has a son and heir
named Mujtaba Husain, born in 1874.
Residence : Subeha, Bara Banki, Oudh.

MUSTAFABAD, Sarddr of. See Tilak


Muhammad Zakar Ali.

1832. Created a Companion of the
Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire, 1878, in recognition of his
distinguished services in the Judicial
Service. Was appointed a Deputy
Collector in 1859; Principal Sadr
Amin, 1865 ; Police Magistrate, 1868 ;
Judge of the Court of Small Causes,
1871; Fellow of the Madras Uni-
versity, 1872; Puisne Judge of the
Madras High Court of Judicature,
1883. Is a B.L. of Madras University.
Residence: Madras.

The title is personal, and was con-
ferred on January 1, 1890. Residence :

MUTLUR. See Adinarayana.

MUZAFFAR BAKHT, Mirza. The title
is personal, as the courtesy title of one
of the great-grandsons of the Prince
Mirza Jahandar Shah, the heir-ap-
parent of the Emperor Shah Alam, the
last independent Mughal Emperor of
Delhi. For the family history, see the
account under the heading "Muham-
mad Sayyid Bakht, Mirza." The
Mirza Muzaffar Bakht is a first cousin
of Mirza Muhammad Sayyid Bakht,
being the elder son of Zafar Bakht,
who was the brother of Mahmud Jan.
Residence : Benares, North-Western

title has been continued for life, the
Mir being the representative of one of
the Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time
of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence : Shikarpur, Sind.

MUZAFFAR KHAN, Sarddr Bahadur,
C.I.E. Was created a Companion of
the Most Eminent Order of the Indian
Empire for distinguished military
services on June 1, 1888. Holds the
rank of Risaldar-Major in Her Majesty's
Army. Residence: Hyderabad, Deccan.

MUZAFFAR KHAN, Kazi, Khan Saheb.
Received the title on January 2, 1899.
Residence : Lower Zhob.



MUZAFFAR. KHAN, Waliwal, Mar-
wal (Malik of Wall), Khan Saheb.
The title was conferred on June 22,
1897. Residence: Wali,Bannu, Punjab.

MTJZHAR ALI, Khan Saheb. Received
the title on January 2, 1899, for good
service in the Customs Department.
Residence: Berbera.

MY AT PIT, Maung, Ahmudan gaung
Tazeik ya Min. The title is personal,
and was conferred on May 24, 1889.
It means " Recipient of the Medal of
Honour," and is indicated by the
letters A.T.M. after the name. Resi-
dence: Tharrawadi, Burma.

MY AT SAN, Maung, Ahmudan gaung
Tazeik ya Min. The title is personal,
and was conferred on January 1, 1891.
It means " Recipient of the Medal of
Honour," and is indicated by the
letters A.T.M. after the name. Resi-
dence : Rangoon, Burma.

MY AT THA, Mating, Thuye gaung
ngwe Da ya Min. The title is personal,
and was conferred on January 1, 1892.
It means " Recipient of the Silver
Sword for Bravery," and is indicated
by the letters T.D.M. after the name.
Residence : Myingyan, Burma.

MY AT THA GYAW, Mating, Myook,

Thuye gaung ngwe Da ya Min. The
title (see above) was conferred on
January 1, 1898. Residence : Mogaung,
Myitkyina, Burma.

MYAT TUN AUNG, Maung, Thuye
gaung ngxoe Da ya Min. The title is
personal, and was conferred on June
1, 1888. It means " Recipient of the
Silver Sword for Bravery," and is in-
dicated by the letters T.D.M. after the
name. Residence: Chindwin, Burma.

MYLLIEM, Seim of. See Malliem.

MYO, Maung, Ahmudan gaung Tazeik ya
Min. The title is personal, and was
conferred on January 1, 1890. It
means " Recipient of the Medal of
Honour," ana is indicated by the
letters A.T.M. after the name. Resi-
dence : Rangoon, Burma.

MYSORE, His Highness Maharaja Kri-
shnaraja Wadiar Bahadur, Mahdrdjd
of. A ruling chief, and one of the

Premier Princes of the Empire ; b. June
4, 1884. Succeeded to the gadi as a
minor on the decease of his late dis-
tinguished father, the Maharaja Sir Cha-
marajendra Wadiar Bahadur, G.C.S.I.
Belongs to a Rajput (Kshatriya Hindu)
family, whose ancestors came to the
south in very early times from Dwarka
in Kathiawar. Of these, two brothers,
named Vijayaraj and Krishnaraj, appear
to have settled in the Ashtagrain
division of the Mysore dominions to-
wards the close of the 14th century;
and one of them married the daughter
of the local palegdr or Baron of the
village of Hadanaru, and by this means
established his rule in those parts. One
of his descendants, named Yedu Raya,
ruled over Mysore from 1399 a.d. to
1422, and was then succeeded by his
son. Here Bettud Chamraj. The grand-
son of the latter was a Raja named
Here (or Arberal) Chamraj — arberal
meaning six-fngered, in allusion to a
physical peculiarity ; and the six-fingered
Raja's son was Here Bettud Chamraj
II., in whose time the fort of Mysore
was built on the site of a village formerly
called Puragere, and was given the
name of Mahesh-uru, Buffalo-town, from
Mahesh-asura, the buffalo-headed demon
destroyed by the goddess Kali. These
Rajas were called Wadidrs or Wodeydrs
of Mysore — Wodeydr being a plural or
honorific form of Odeya. Kanarese for
" lord."

Here Bettud Chamraj was succeeded
by his two sons in turn. The younger,
Bole Chamraj, is said to have been
named Dole, or The Da Id, because he had
been made bald by a stroke of lightning.
His grandson, Raj Wadiar, ninth Raja
of Mysore, was the greatest and most
successful of all these early Wadiars.
He reigned from 1578 to 1616; and in
the year 1609-10 he seized the strong
fortress of Seriugapatam, formerly held
by a lieutenant of the Kings of Vijaya-
nagar. The great Hindu kingdom of
Vijayanagar on the Tungabhadra had
previously, in 1588, been subverted by
the alliance of the Muhammadan Chiefs
of the Deccan, and the descendants of
the Vijayanagar dynasty had taken
refuge at Penuakonda, where the family
ultimately became extinct ; so that Raj
Wadiar of Mysore and his descendants,
having obtained possession of the im-
portant strategical position of Seringa-
patam, rapidly increased their power and



extended their dominions. This process
of aggrandizement continued down to
the time of the R&j& Dodda Krishnar&j,
who reigned from 1713 to 1730. His
adopted son was Hadinente Tingal
Chamraj, who died in 1733, and was
succeeded by his adopted son, Chikka
Krishnaraj — Chikka means " Junior," or
«• The Less." The long reign of Chikka
Krishnaraj, from 1734 to 1765, was
hardly more than nominal, for during
this period the famous Muhammadan
Haidar Ali rose to power, and ultimately
became the sovereign of Mysore, retain-
ing the Mahar&jd as a puppet-prince.
Haidar's splendid military powers, and
those of his even more famous son, Tippu
Sultan, immensely increased the Mysore
dominions, and made the State the
greatest in Southern India, and its
rulers the most formidable potentates in
the whole country. Of the Mahar&ja
Chikka Krishnaraj 's two sons, who
nominally succeeded him, one was
strangled by orders of the Sultan, and
the other died childless. Haidar then,
in order to retain the shadow of a Hindu
dynasty, permitted the third wife of
Chikka Krishnaraj to adopt a young
kinsman named Chamraj. Not long
before the fall of Tippu and the conquest
of Seringapatam by the British in 1799,
Chamraj had died in captivity ; and
when the British Government resolved
that Mysore should revert to the control
of the family of its ancient rulers, an
infant son of Chamraj, by name Krish-
naraj, was placed on the gadi. During
the minority of the Maharajd Krishnaraj,
from 1799 to 1810, the State was success-
fully administered by a Diw&n or Prime
Minister, the famous Purnaiya, a Brah-
man statesman of great ability. The
affairs of the State, however, fell into
disorder after the retirement of Pur-
naiya ; and the misgovernment of the
Mahaj&rd Krishnaraj terminated by the
British Government assuming the direct
administration of the country in 1831,
retaining the Mah&r&jd as the titular
sovereign. On June 18, 1865, the late
Mahar&jd adopted as a son and successor
the young prince, the late MaMrajd
Ch&ma Rajendra Wadia>, who was the
third son of Chikka Krishna Araso, a
scion of the Bettada Kote branch of the
royal house. The adoption was sanctioned
by the Government of India in April 1867 ;
and on the death of the Maharaja Krish-
naraj in 1868 the late Maharaja was duly

installed in his place as titular sovereign.
The young MaharaVja proved himself in
every way so deserving of the position
that in 1881 it was resolved that the
sovereign power should be restored to
the sovereign title, and on March
25 in that year the "Rendition" — the
term has become historical — was carried
out by the installation of the Maharajd
as a Ruling Chief, when the British
Chief Commissioner handed over his
office to the Diw&n or Prime Minister of
His Highness.

The subsequent history of the Mahd-
r&j&'s rule — and since His Highness's
lamented death, that of Her Highness
the Mahar&ni-Regent, C.L, acting for
the youthful Maharajii, and aided by
the able Prime Minister, His Excellency
Sir Sheshadri Iyar, K.C.S.I., who had so
long possessed the confidence of the late
Mah&raj& — abundantly justified the
" Rendition." The good administration
of the country, which had been firmly
established under the rule of Sir Mark
Cubbon and his successors as Chief Com-
missioners of Mysore, has been main-
tained and improved. Notwithstanding
that the State has been devastated by
one of the most terrible famines ever
known — that of 1877-78 — and by several
very serious droughts, its general ad-
vance in prosperity under the Mah&raja's
rule has been marvellous. His Highness
had the advantage of being assisted by
several Indian statesmen of the first
rank and the highest abilities ; the place
of the late Diwan, Mr. Rangacharlu —
who was himself an administrator of no
mean power — having been taken, very
fortunately , by His Excellency the present
Prime Minister, Sir K. Sheshadri Iyar,
K.C.S.I. (q.v.), by whose aid the Maha-
raja attained an administrative success
not surpassed in any part of the Indian
Empire, British as well as feudatory.

In all the ordinary duties of an Indian
Government — in the administration of
justice, in the collection and expenditure
of the revenue, in the protection afforded
to life and property, in public instruc-
tion, in sanitation, in public works — it
is admitted that the Government of
Mysore can compare not unfavourably
with that of the Provinces under
direct British rule. In some highly im-
portant respects — in the development of
communications, in female education, in
precautions against famine, in the en-
couragement of mining and other in-



dustries, and in the fostering of habits of
local self-government among the people
— it is held by many (and apparently
with some reason) that the State of My-
sore is ahead of most of the rest of India.
The famous school at Mysore city that
is known as " Her Highness the Ma-
harani's High-Caste Girls' School" — in
which 400 girls belonging to the families
of highest caste in Mysore receive a
liberal education, largely from Professors
of their own sex and rank in life — un-
doubtedly represents by far the most
successful attempt that India has seen
to put the ladies of India on the same
intellectual level with their husbands
and brothers. The success of the gold-
mining of Kolar is perhaps due as much
to the wise and liberal laws which regu-
late it as to the richness of the district
in the precious metal ; while the Princi-
pality is being opened out in every
direction by railways under State con-
trol or with State encouragement. The
expenditure on railways in this State in
the year 1891 was nearly 3,000,000 rupees.
In regard to local self-government, the
"Representative Assembly of Mysore,"
with which the Diwan every year takes
counsel, which was instituted some years
ago as a body nominated by the Maha-
raja, was in 1890 made elective, and
the Prime Minister in his Address to
the Assembly in 1891, thus commented
on the results of the change: —

" By command of His Highness the Maha-
raja, I have much pleasure in welcoming you
to this Assembly, which meets here to-day for
the first time under the election system
sanctioned last year. You come here as the
duly elected Representatives of the Agri-
cultural, the Industrial, and the Commercial
interests of the State. Last year, when His
Highness was pleased to grant the valued
privilege of election, he was not without some
misgiving as to how the experiment would
succeed ; but it is most gratifying to His
Highness that, though unused to the system,
the electoral body has been able, in the very
first year of its existence, to exercise the
privilege with so much judgment and sense of
responsibility as to send to this Assembly
men in every way qualified to speak on their
behalf. That men representing the capital,
the industry, and the intellect of the country
should have already taken so much interest
in the working of the scheme augurs well for
the future of the Institution. His Highness
asks me to take this opportunity publicly to
acknowledge the expressions of warm grati-
tude which have reached him from all sides
for the privilege of election granted last

But it is in measures for the prevention
and the relief of famines that tbe Govern-
ment of Mysore has earned its best and
most enduring laurels, in a reputation
for prudent and far-sighted philanthropy.
Those measures were described fairly
and minutely by the Prime Minister in
his Address to the Representative As-
sembly on October 4, 1892, in the follow-
ing words : —

" Before I proceed to take up the various
departments of the State, you will naturally
expect me to say a few words regarding the
severe drought through which the whole of
the Province, with the small exception of our
Malnad Taluks, has recently passed. In the
Maidan parts of the Mysore and Hassan dis-
tricts the south-west monsoon was so scanty
and precarious that the early dry crops were
completely lost, except in a few scattered
favourable situations. The northern and
eastern districts did not get any of the early
rains, and had in consequence to defer the
preparation of land for cultivation much be-
yond the usual season. A few showers which
came later on permitted of the sowing of the
ordinary dry crops in most taluks. These
soon began to fade from insufficient moisture.
The rain which fell towards the end of Septem-
ber raised hopes of a favourable change in the
season. But by November it was evident that
the north-east monsoon too had failed, and
that the general out-turn of dry crops would
not be much above a four-anna average in
most taluks. The tanks had received no
water, and wet cultivation under them could
not be attempted. The failure of fodder was
widespread, and altogether there was every
indication of an impending distress of a very
aggravated type, and towards the end of
November the price of food grains began to
rise rapidly, owing both to the local failure of
crops and to large exports to neighbouring
Madras districts. In the beginning of Decem-
ber, by command of His Higlmess the Maha-
raja, I started on a tour through the worst
taluks of the districts of Mysore, Tumkur,
Chitaldroog, Kolar, and Bangalore. My im-
mediate object was not only to ascertain by
personal observation the actual condition of
the country and the requirements of the
people, but also to organize the relief measures
required for the different tracts, and chiefly to
inspire the people with confidence alike in
the famine policy of the Government and in
the method proposed for carrying it out. One
of the first things to attract my attention was
the insufficient supply of food grains at the
various local markets. It was evident that
owners were holding back their stocks, partly
in expectation of a further rise in price and
partly from fear of thefts and robberies, —
so fruitful a source of waste and loss during
the previous famine. I accordingly lost no
time in arranging for due police protection of
grain in transit and at places of storage, and
for their safe and ready consignment by the
railway. Local merchants were duly apprised
of the preparedness of the Government to meet


any local insufficiency by import of grain from
outside the Province, while at the same time

Online LibraryRoper LethbridgeThe golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon → online text (page 37 of 63)