Roper Lethbridge.

The golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon online

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the prices of food grains obtaining at the
several weekly santes or markets in the
interior were ascertained and regularly pub-
lished as a stimulus to local trade. These
measures tended to make prices more uniform
and steady throughout the Province, and
there was heard afterwards no complaint of
insufficient supply at any local market.
Another matter which I found necessary
to impress upon local officers early in my
tour was the need of the greatest economy
in the use of the available supply of water
in tanks. With the object of raising quick-
growing dry crops likely to yield an early
supply of food and fodder, tank-beds
which were fast becoming dry were ordered
to be leased for cultivation on very
favourable terms. About 10,500 acres of
tank-bed were thus brought under cultivation.
The crops raised were generally Bengal-gram
and jolam. In the Tumkur district, where
the cultivation was timely and extensive, the
aggregate value of the crops thus raised is
estimated at over Rs.90,000. In the other
districts this class of cultivation was not
nearly so successful. To meet the serious
want of fodder which was apprehended, all
State forests and plantations, as well as a
large number of Amrut Mahal Kavals, were
thrown open for the free use of the raiyats'
cattle, without any restrictions as to the
taluks or districts from which they might
come. The total area of grazing land thus
made available to the public was 1600 square
miles, and it is reported to have been used for
grazing nearly 519, 000 head of cattle. Raiyats
were also further permitted to cut and remove
tender date-leaves for use as fodder, a privi-
lege which was eagerly availed of in most
taluks of Tumkur and Chitaldroog. In de-
vising our scheme of Relief Works my chief
aim was to afford the poorer agriculturists,
the landless field labourers, the Holiyars, the
Madigars, etc., the means of earning a
sufficient livelihood near their own homes.
It was believed they and their families could
live upon comparatively small wages if these
could be earned near their own villages, for
in such a case they would be able to return to
their homes at the end of each day's work,
take care of the infirm and young dependent
upon them, look after their cattle and
other property, and receive from their
neighbours any additional help they might
require. With this object in view, every
affected taluk was divided into a number
of small circles, and for execution within
each such circle some suitable work or
works were selected, so as to leave no in-
habited "village without the means of earning
fair wages, within a radius of three or four
miles. The works tlms selected were ' minor
tanks,' whether yielding revenue or not. The
improvement of such tanks was of such vital
importance to the villagers as a body that
there was every guarantee that the grants
given for it would be properly applied, and
some good return shown for the money spent.
To meet the rare cases in which such minor
tanks were not available, as also to provide

work near villages after completion of the
tanks taken up, a programme of works of a
supplementary character was got ready.
These works were also of special local utility,
such as improvement of village sanitation,
planting of topes in villages and round the
fringe of the waterspread of the bigger tanks,
etc. Such, in brief outline, was the scheme
of relief upon which His Highness's Govern-
ment chiefly relied. Its execution was en-
trusted to the hereditary village Patel, for it
was deemed safer to rely upon the autonomy
of the village than upon paid agency from out-
side. A system of periodical inspection and
general control by the Shekdar and Amildar
was established, and wide discretion given to
district officers as regards the details of ex-
ecution, with due regard to local circum-
stances. I am able to bear testimony to the
fact that the entire Executive, from the Patel
to the District Officer, showed themselves
fully equal to the high responsibility thus
placed upon them, and that the scheme of
relief planned was carried out with complete
success in every affected part. Besides the
regular relief works, but under the same
agency and serving the same object as those
works, were the drinking-water wells, for
which a total grant of Rs. 138, 000 (chiefly
from local funds) had been sanctioned.
There were in hand 850 such wells, prin-
cipally new wells undertaken wherever
most needed, besides a number of old
wells which required deepening. They
were all works of permanent utility, but
were of special immediate value, owing to the
scarcity of good drinking water which existed
in most places. In addition to works under
direct Government agency, the employment
of local labour on private works on a large
scale was established by the grant of Govern-
ment loans to landholders for special per-
manent improvement of their lands. The
most important of this class of works were
the irrigation wells under the scheme I de-
scribed to you last year. The working of the
scheme in each of the districts of Kolar,
Tumkur, Chitaldroog, and Bangalore was
entrusted to a special officer in subordination
to the Deputy Commissioner, and the distrust
which raiyats at first evinced towards a new
measure of this kind soon gave place to an
eager desire to secure the loans. The number
of applications received was so numerous
that the grants had to be confined to localities
where provision for employment of labour
was most needed. The loans sanctioned
aggregated Rs. 280, 000 for 917 kapile and 530
yatam wells, calculated to irrigate 5252 acres.
Another important class of works for which
Government loans were given was the con-
struction and repair of Saguvali kattes. The
restriction placed upon the construction and
improvement of these kattes by an order of 1873
was felt as a great hardship, especially in the
Chitaldroog district, where much of the dry
cultivation depends upon the retention of
moisture under these kattes. That order was
accordingly withdrawn, and special encourage-
ment afforded for the construction and im-
provement of these most useful private works
by a system of Government loans. During



the past season loans to the extent of Rs.21,175
were sanctioned for 251 such works, which
when completed will benefit 5069 acres. A
few loans were granted also to enable Inam-
dars to repair their tanks. Of works referred
to above, both Government and private,
about 2900 were in actual execution in the
affected tracts. They had the effect of keeping
the people employed near their own homes,
and their sufficiency for purposes of relief is
proved by the fact that nearly 2400 of them
could not be completed during the past
season. We have found them far more effec-
tive for real relief than large central works
under professional agency. Our main anxiety
was to avoid the necessity for concentrating
large numbers upon distant works, for previous
experience had shown that in the earlier stages
of famine the people can never be induced to
leave their homes in quest of employment on
distant works, not because they are not in
need of employment, but because they are
bound to their homes by ties they are unable
to sever. It is well known that before their
cattle are lost, and the weaker members have
died, and themselves reduced to a famished
condition, the people do not quit their homes,
and when eventually compelled to take this
step they are so demoralized that they are
more likely to wander about aimlessly than
to settle down on distant works under a
strange agency. We had, however, ready at
hand a programme of D.P.W. Relief Works
for possible resort in the event of the distress
being unusually prolonged. But happily we
had no occasion to do more in this direction
than expand the ordinary Public Works in
some of the affected tracts. Besides placing
the means of earning wages within the ready
reach of the general population, we adopted
several measures for the relief of special
classes. The most important among them
were the weavers, the demand for whose
manufactures had all but disappeared owing
to the high prices of grain which prevailed.
After much consideration of alternative
measures, the Government eventually adopted
the system of purchase proposed by Mr.
Madhava Rao for the Bangalore district.
Under this system the Government made
advances of money to local Sahukars of stand-
ing for purchasing on behalf of Government
the entire produce of the looms at the market
value, to be resold when the demand became
re-established. The Sahukars were paid a
small commission, and in return they
guaranteed the full recoupment of the advances
made. This system was the means of afford-
ing efficient relief to the industrious weaving
class, always the first to suffer on every
occasion of widespread scarcity and high
prices. It was in operation at Bangalore,
Dodballapur, Anekal, Kolar, Melkote, Molkal-
muru, and other weaving centres. The ad-
vances made amounted to Rs, 85,300, including
commission and other charges. A sum of
Rs.34,580 has already been recovered by the
resale of cloths purchased, and the balance is
under process of realization. The final net
expenditure is expected to be trifling com-
pared with the large numbers relieved. In
Bangalore city alone the relief thus given

extended to 4000 looms with 10,000 weavers.
Another class for whom special relief was
found necessary were the minor village ser-
vants — the Madiga, the Toti, the Talavar,
etc. The contributions from villagers oh
which they generally subsist cease during
every season of a general failure of crops.
Eight hundred and fifty-one of them, employed
in watching Ukkads or Police outposts and
doing quasi Police duties, were paid a monthly
salary of Rs.3 each as a temporary measure,
which has to be continued till the next
harvest. Others not so employed were paid
wages as work-overseers, gangmen, etc., on
relief works under execution. A number of
Holeyars and Madigars were given employ-
ment in the collection of Tangadi bark in the
Kolar district, and of bamboos lor the
Government depots in that and the My-
sore district. Compensation for dearness of
gram had to be given to the Silledars,
amounting up to the end of June to over
Rs.8000. It will probably have to be con-
tinued till the next gram harvest. A moiety
of the Potgi allowances of village officers was
ordered to be paid on application before the
date on which they are payable. With the
arrangements made for the relief of general
and special classes, gratuitous relief was
found to be unnecessary, except to a very
insignificant extent. Further relief was given
by the remission of one-half of the assessment
on all wet lands under tanks which lay waste
or could only be culivated with dry crops,
and one-half of the quit-rent on all Service
Inam lands of the minor village servants, and
the Mohatarfa house-tax of the poorer landless
classes. The total of remissions thus given
amounts to about four lakhs. Besides this,
six lakhs of revenue had to be postponed, and
much of this will have to be remitted

The area of the State is 24,709 square
miles, which is more than double the
combined area of Switzerland and Saxony.
Its population is 4,186,188, chiefly
Hindus, but including 200,484 Muham-
madans and 29,249 Christians, which is
more than double the population of
Norway, and about equal to that of
Portugal. His Highness the Maharaja
maintains a military force of 1173
cavalry, 3425 infantry, and 10 guns,
besides an Imperial Service Corps for
the special service of frontier defence.
His Highness is entitled to a salute of
21 guns.

The arms displayed on the banner of
the Maharaja of Mysore, which was
unfurled at the Imperial Assemblage at
Delhi, January 1, 1877, on the occasion
of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious
Majesty as Empress of India, were —
Arms. — Murrey (the Indian Bhagwd) %
a garur berunda (sacred double-headed
eagle) displayed aryeut, beaked and



armed or. Crest. — 'A lion passant, carry-
ing an antelope's head, all proper.
Supporters.— Satvas (yali), elephant-
headed tigers, sable, armed and unguled
or. Residences : The Palace, Mysore ;
The Palace, Bangalore ; Utakamand, etc.

NABA. See Nava.

NABHA, His Highness Farzand-i-
Arjumand Akidat Paiwand Daulat-i-
Inglishia Barar Bans Sarmur Raja
Sir Hira Singh, Maiwandar Bahadur,
G.C.S.I., Rdjd of. A ruling chief ; b.
1843. Succeeded to the gadi June 9,
1871. Belongs to the great Sidhu Jat
family, known as the Phulkian family,
from its founder Phul; which has
given ruling families to Patiala, Jind,
Nabha Bhadaur, and other Punjab
States. The Raja of Nabha is de-
scended from Tiloka, the eldest son of
Phul ; whose great-grandson, Hamir
Singh, founded the town of Nabha in
1755 a.d. He joined the Sikh Chiefs
in the great battle of Sirhind, when
Zain Khan, the Muhammadan Viceroy,
was slain, and established a mint at
Nabha, as a mark of independence.
In 1808-9 the State came under
British control, in the time of Rajd
Jaswant Singh; but his son, Raja
Devendra Singh, neglected to furnish
supplies to the British troops during
the first Sikh war in 1845, and was
consequently deposed, pensioned, and
his son, Raja Bharpur Singh, installed
in his place. During the Mutiny of
1857 Raja Bharpur Singh rendered
most valuable services, and was re-
warded with a large increase of
territories. He was succeeded by his
brother, Raja Bhagwan Singh, who
died without issue in 1871. By the
sanad of May 5, 1860, it had been
provided that if either of the three
great Phulkian Princes (Patiala, Jind,
Nabha) died without heirs, a successor
to his Raj should be chosen by the
other two Chiefs from among the
descendants of Phul; consequently,
on the death of Raja Bhagwan Singh
in 1871, the present Raja, Hira Singh
(then a jdgirddr of Jind, but a scion
of the family of Tiloka), was selected
and placed on the gadi. He has been
created a Knight Grand Commander
of the Most Exalted Order of the Star
of India, and granted the privilege of
adoption. On the occasion of the

Proclamation of Har Most Gracious
Majesty as Empress of Iudia in 1877,
he was granted an addition to his
titles, and an increase of his salute
from 11 to 13 guns, as a personal
distinction. The area of the State is
928 square miles ; its population
261,824, chiefly Hindus, but including
77,682 Sikhs and 50, 178 Muhammadans.
His Highness maintains a military
force of 366 cavalry, 1253 infantry,
and 18 guns, and is entitled to a
salute of 15 guns (including 4 personal
guns). Residence : Nabha, Punjab.

The title is personal, and was conferred
on June 9, 1883. Residence : Ahmada-
bad, Bombay.

MUHAMMAD (of Nurpur), J^r. The
title has been continued for life, the
Mir being the representative of one of
the Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time
of the annexation (see Khairpur).
Residence : Hyderabad, Sind.

NADADUR. See Nadathur.


Mahdmahopddhydya. The title was
conferred for eminence in Oriental
learning on May 21, 1898. Residence :
Kumbhakonam, Madras.

GHARIAR, Mahdmahopddhydya. The
title was conferred for eminence in
Oriental learning, on June 22, 1897.
Residence : Srirangam, Trichinopoly,


SWAMI, Mahdmahopddhydya. Re-
ceived the title for eminence in oriental
learning, on June 3, 1899. Residence :

NADAUN, Rdjd of. See Narindar Chand.

NADAUN, Mian of. See Ishri Singh;
see also Pirthi Singh, and also Sher

NADIR BAKHT, Mirza. The title is
personal, being the courtesy title of a
descendant of Prince Mirza Jahandar
Shah, heir-apparent to Shah Alam,
the last independent Mughal Emperor
of Delhi. The Mirza is a brother of
the Mirza Muzaffar Bakht (q.v.), and
they are both first cousins of Mirza
Muhammad Sayyid Bakht, under the



heading of whose name will be found
an account of the descent of this
family, who have lived peacefully at
Benares under the protection of the
British Power since 1788. The Mirza
is one of the sons of the late Mirza
Zafar Bakht. Residence: Benares,
North-Western Provinces.

NADIYA, Mahdrdjd Bahadur of. See

NAGOD, Raja Jadubind Singh, Rdjd of.
A ruling chief ; b. December 30, 1855.
Succeeded to the gadi June 12, 1874.
Belongs to a Pharihar Rajput family,
which has, through many vicissitudes,
ruled at Nagod for the last 900 years.
The State was at one time feudatory
to Panna; but in 1809 the Raja Lai
Sheoraj Singh obtained a sanad direct
from the British Government. He
was succeeded in 1818 by his son,
Raj& Balbhadra Singh, who was
deposed in 1831, his son, Raghubind,
succeeding as a minor. Raja Raghu-
bind Singh rendered good service
during the Mutiny of 1857, and was
rewarded by the grant of exteuded
territories, the right of adoption, and
the honour of a salute. He died in
1874, and was succeeded by his son,
the present Raja. The State has an
area of 450 square miles, and a
population of 79,629, chiefly Hindus,
but including 7965 belonging to ab-
original tribes. The Raja maintains a
military force of 6 cavalry, 116 infantry,
and 4 guns, and is entitled to a salute

• of 9 guns. The banner of the family
is yellow, bearing a trisul or sacred
trident on the field ; with a Hindi
motto, meaning "Faithful in perilous
times." Residence: Nagod, Baghel-
khand, Central India.

NAGOJI RAO, Kunathamakor, Rao
Bahddur. See Kunathamakor.

NAHAN, His Highness the Rdjd of.
See Sirmur.

NAHIL, Rao of. See Dal Singh.

NAIGAON, Rdjd of. See Umrao Singh.

NAIGAON RIBAI, Thakurain Larai
Dulaya, Jdgirddrin of. A ruling
chief; b. 1839. Succeeded to the
gadi on the death of her late husband,
Kunwar Jagat Singh, October 28, 1867.
Belongs to a Dawa Ahir family.
Lachman Singh, father of the late
Thakur, was originally a Sardar of

Jaitpur, but having possessed himself
of the territory of Naigaon Ribai, he
received a sanad from the British
Government in 1807, confirming him
in the possession. He died in 1808,
and was succeeded by his son, the
late Kunwar Jagat Singh. The area
of the State is about 8 square miles ;
its population 3365, chiefly Hindus.
The Thakurain maintains a military
force of 6 cavalry, 51 infantry, and 1
gun. Residence : Naigaon Ribai, Bun-
delkhand, Central India.

NAIGAWAN. See Naigaon.

KHAN, Mir. The title has been con-
tinued for life, the Mir being the
representative of one of the Mirs or
Chiefs of Sind at the time of the
annexation (see Khairpur). Residence:
Shikarpur, Sind.

NAJAF KHAN, Muhammad, walad

dur; b. 1852. The title was conferred
on October 8, 1875, as a personal dis-
tinction, in recognition of his position
as son-in-law of his late Highness
Zahir-ud-daula, the second of the
titular Princes of Arcot. Residence:
Conjeveram, Madras.

Bahadur. The title is personal, and
was conferred on January 1, 1890.
Residence : Rai Bareli, Oudh.

NAKI All, Muhammad Dilawar, Jah,
Mirza Bahadur, Prince. See Mu-

NAKI All KHAN, Majid-ud-dauld.
The title is personal, being the courtesy
title of a son of a grand-daughter of
the late Muhammad Ali Shah, King
of Oudh. Residence : Oudh.

NALAGARH, Rdjd of. See Hindur.

NALDANGA, Raja Pramada Bhusan
Deb Rai, Rdjd of ; b. December 22,
1858. Succeeded his father, Raja Indu
Bhusan Deb Rai, ninth Raja of
Naldanga, in 1871, as a minor. Belongs
to a family claiming descent from
Vishnu Das Hazra, who was settled
in Jessore district, Bengal, in the
beginning of the 16fch century. His
son, Srimanta Rai, is said to have
distinguished himself by slaying a



rebel Pathan Chief, and to have
obtained for this service from the
Subahdar of Bengal a jdgir and the
title of "Ranabir Khan." Three
generations later Chandi Charan Deb
Rai, who died in 1656 A.D., slew the
Raja Kedareswar, and consequently
obtained the title of Raja from the
Emperor Shah Jahan. His successor,
Indra Narayan, second Raja, built a
great many Hindu temples, which are
still in existence. The third Raja,
Surya Narayan Deb Rai, died in 1698
A.d. ; the fourth, Rain Deb Rai, in
1746 A.D. ; and the fifth, Krishna Deb
Rai, in 1788 a.d. The late Raja, Indu
Bhusan Deb Rai, was born in 1836,
and enjoyed the estate as ninth Raja
from 1854 to 1871. The present Raja
came of age in December 1879, and
received the title, as a personal dis-
tinction, on June 26, 1885. He has
established scholarships for Sanskrit
learning, and medals for female
education, for which he has received
the thanks of Government. He also
founded and maintained a "Higher
Class English School," and a Dispensary.
Has been appointed Member of the
District Board, Jessore ; and elected a
Member of the British Indian Associa-
tion. Has two sons — Pannaga Bhusan
Deb Rai, born 1882; Mriganka Bhusan
Deb Rai, born 1889. The family arms
are — argent, a crescent moon proper, in
chief a trident between two cross-
swords proper. Residence : " Hazra
Asrama," Naldanga, Jessore, Bengal.

NALE, Lashkari Kanha Padvi, Chief
of. A ruling chief ; b. 1860. Succeeded
to the gadi as a minor in 1872. The
area of the State, which is one of the
Mewas States of Khandesh, is 30
square miles; its population about
300, chiefly Bhils (aborigines), to
which tribe also the Chief belongs.
Residence : Nale, Khandesh, Bombay.

Bahadur. The title was conferred on
May 20, 1890, as a personal distinction,
in recognition of eminent services as
an Honorary Magistrate, and as
Chairman of the Burdwan Munici-
pality. Residence : Burdwan, Bengal.

Rdjd. The title was conferred on
May 24, 1889, as a personal distinction,
in recognition of the Raja's position

as the present representative of the
Ramgarh Rajas. Residence: Ramgarh,
Hazaribagh, Bengal.

KRISHNA ABAJI), Rao Bahadur.
See Ram Krishna.

NANA M0R0BA, Rao. The title is
personal, and was conferred on No-
vember 1, 1859. Residence : Ahmada-
bad, Bombay.

The title is personal, and was conferred
on May 20, 1890. Residence: Bombay.

Received the title on January 2, 1899.
Residence: Bombay.

NANAK BAKHSH, Lala, Rai Bahadur ;
b. 1836; is Motamidof the Patiala
State. Residence : Patiala, Punjab.

NANAK BAKHSH, Shaikh, Khan Baha-
dur. The title is personal, and was
conferred on May 30, 1891. Residence :
Lahore, Punjab.

NANAK CHAND, Chaudhri, Rai Saheb.
The title was conferred on May 25,
1892, as a personal distinction. Resi-
dence : Saharanpur, North-Western

NANAK CHAND, Lala, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred
on June 1, 1888. Residence: Raj-

NAND KISH0R, Lala, Rai Bahadur.
The title is personal, and was conferred
on May 26, 1894. Residence: Sagar,
Central Provinces.

NAND LAL, Pandit, Rai Saheb. Re-
ceived the title on June 3, 1899.
Residence : Baluchistan.

NAND LAL KADL, Pandit, Rai Saheb.
The title was conferred on June 22,

1897. Residence: Kashmir.

NAND RAM, Rai Saheb. Received the
title on June 3, 1899. Residence:

NAND SINGH (of Khiva), Sarddr. See
Kehar Singh.

dur. Received the title on May 21,

1898. Residence : Manbhum, Bengal.

NANDGA0N, Raja Balram T>a.s i Mahant
of. A ruling chief. Title of Raja
Bahadur conferred, as a personal
distinction, January 2, 1893; b. 1866,



Succeeded to the gadi as a minor
November 4, 1883. Belongs to a
Bairagi (Hindu of the Ascetic Mendi-
cant caste, but of an order that is
allowed by its rules to marry) family,
and has received the title of Raja as
a personal distinction. The feudal
tenure of this State was originally
conferred by the Mahratta Raja of
Nagpur on his family priest, and the
title of Mahant has been recognized
by the British Government. The late
Chief, Mahant Ghazi Das, was an
able and energetic ruler, and was
succeeded in 1883 by his son, the
present Mahant. The area of the
State is 155 square miles ; its popula-
tion is 16,764, chiefly Hindus. Resi-
dence: Nandgaon, Raipur, Central
Rao Bahadur. The title is personal,
and was conferred on January 1, 1877,

Online LibraryRoper LethbridgeThe golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon → online text (page 38 of 63)