Roper Lethbridge.

The golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon online

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ment of certain Dethmukhi Amals,
and is known as the Deshmukh of
Chikurde. The title of Patangrao
was conferred on one of his ancestors



by the Mughal Emperor of Delhi.
He has three sons — Ganpat Rao,
Nilkanta Rao, and Ananda Rao. The
device of a dagger-head is the family
seal or signature. Residence : Satara,
Bombay.

VOHORA, Thakur Motabawa, Thakur of.
A ruling chief. Belongs to a Rajput
(Muhammadan) family. The State
has an area of 2 square miles, and its
population consists chiefly of Bhils
and Kolis. Residence : Vohora, Rewa
Kantha, Bombay.

VYANKAT RAO, Rao Saheb ; b. October
23, 1836. The title is hereditary.
The Rao Saheb is one of the repre-
sentatives of the Rao Vinayak Rao,
who was Diwan or Prime Minister to
the last Mahratta ruler of Sagar.
Rao Vinayak Rao came originally
from the Deccan, and was appointed
a Mamlatdar by the late Mahratta
Government. The present Rao Saheb
is a Tahsilddr in the Chhatisgarh
division. He has three sons —
Raghunath Rao, Madho Rao, Shankar
Rao. Residence: Sagar, Central
Provinces.

WADALI, Tdlukddr of. See Vadali.

WADERO.— A title.

WADHWAN, Thakur Saheb Balsinghji,

Thakur Saheb of. A ruling chief; b.
1863. Succeeded to the gadi May 20,
1885. Belongs to the great Jhala
Rajput family that has given rulers to
Dhrangadra and Wankaner, being an
offshoot of the latter House. The
late Thakur Saheb Dajiraj was born in
1861, and succeeded to the gadi in
1875 as a minor ; and was succeeded
in 1885 by the present Chief. The
capital, Wadhwan, is a station on the
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India
Railway. The area of the State is
236 square miles ; its population is
42,500, chiefly Hindus. The Thakur
Saheb maintains a military force of
49 cavalry, 280 infantry, and 5 guns ;
and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns.
Residence : Wadhwan, Kathiawar,
Bombay.

WAHID All KHAN, Khan Saheb. Re-
ceived the title on June 3, 1899. Resi-
dence : Survey Department, India.

WALA, Thakur Wakhtsinghji Megh-
rajji, Thakur of. A ruling chief ;
b. February 19, 1864. Succeeded to



336



THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA



the gadi as a minor August 20, 1875.
Belongs to the great Gohel Rajput
(Hindu) family, of which the head is
His Highness the Maharaja Thakur
Saheb of Bhaunagar — the Wala
family being an offshoot of the
Bhaunagar House. Educated at the
Rajkumar College, Rajkot. The
State, which is tributary to Baroda
and Junagarh, has an area of 109
square miles, and a population of
17,019, chiefly Hindus. The Thakur
maintains a military force of 26
cavalry, 126 infantry, and 8 guns.
Residence : Wala, Kathiawar, Bombay.

WALASNA, Thdkur of. See Valasna.

WALAWANAD, Rdjd of. See Ayira-
nazhe Kovilagam Ponnu Unni, Rdjd.

WALI, Malik of. See Muzaffar Khan.

WALI MUHAMMAD walad GHULAM
MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir; b. Oc-
tober 1818. Belongs to the Manikani
branch of the Talpur Chiefs of Sind.
This branch commences with Manik
Khan, who came to Sind after the
conquest of Baluchistan by Nadir
Shah. The title of Mir was originally
derived from Nur Muhammad, the
head of the Kalhora Government of
Sind, and has been recognized as
hereditary by the British Government.
The Mir has five sons — Muhammad
Khan, Hasan Ali, Muhammad Hasan,
Yar Muhammad, and Ghulam Shah.
Residence : Hyderabad, Sind.

WALI MUHAMMAD, Nawdb ; b. 1834.
Belongs to the Loghari clan. The
title of Nawab was bestowed, as a
personal distinction, in recognition of
his position as a son of the late Mir,
Ah Muhammad Khan. Residence :
Tajpur, Sind.

WALI MUHAMMAD, Maulavi (of
Peshawar), Khdn Saheb. The title
was conferred on January 1, 1894.
Residence : Calcutta, Bengal.

WALI MUHAMMAD. Shaikh, Subahdar,

Bahadur. The title was conferred on
October 13, 1895. Residence : Hingoli,
Deccan.

WALI MUHAMMAD KHAN, Khdn
Bahddur. The title was conferred, as
a personal distinction, on May 26, 1894.
Residence : Nabha, Punjab.



WALI MUHAMMAD KHAN, Khdn
Bahddur. Received the title on June
3, 1899. Residence : Central Provinces.

WALI SAHEB DADAMIAN KAZI,

Khdn Saheb. The title was conferred
on January 1, 1895. Residence : Satara,
Bombay.

WALIDAD KHAN walad MUHAMMAD
HASAN KHAN, Mir. The title has
been continued for life, the Mir be-
ing the representative of one of the
Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time of
the annexation. Residence: Shikar-
pur, Sind.

WALIDAD KHAN, Alizai, Bahadur.
Belongs to an Alizai Pathan family,
being the son of Sahebdad Khan. At
the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857
he was in the Punjab Police, when he
was selected by his relative Ghulam
Kasim Khan to command a troop in
his levy. He formed part of the force
which acted against the rebels under
Lieutenant Lind, and shared in all the
actions with that officer, who speaks of
him in the highest terms for his loyalty
and bravery. He was at last disabled
by a sword- wound in his right arm,
and received a pension, with the title
of Bahadur. He is now a Member of
the Board of City Magistrates at
Dera Ismail Khan. He has a son,
Karimdad Khan, born 1873. Resi-
dence : Dera Ismail Khan, Punjab.

WAMAN NARAYAN BAPAT, Rao

Bahddur. The title was conferred on
June 3, 1893. Residence: Amraoti,
Berar.

WAMAN RAO MAHADEO K0LHAT-
KAR, Rao Bahddur. Received the
title on May 21, 1898. Residence:
Jabalpur, Central Provinces.

WANKANER, Raj Saheb Gangubba,
alias Amarsinghji Benisinghji, Rdj
Saheb of. A ruling chief; b. 1879.
Succeeded to the gadi as a minor
June 12, 1881. Belongs to the great
Jhala Rdj put family that has given
ruling Houses to the States of Dhran-
gadra, Wankaner, Limri, Wadhwan,
and Than Lakhtar. The late Raj Saheb
was named Benisinghji; he was born
in 1842, succeeded to the gadi in 1861,
and died in 1881. The present Raj
Saheb was for some time a minor, and
the State was administered, during the
minority of the Chief, by a Government
Karbhdri. The area of the State is 414



THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA



337



square miles ; its population is 30,491,
chiefly Hindus. The Raj Saheb main-
tains a military force of 73 cavalry,
312 infantry, and 15 guns, and is
entitled to a salute of 9 guns. Resi-
dence : Wankaner, Kathiawar,
Bombay.

WAO, Rana Chandansingh Umedsingh,
Rand of. A ruling chief ; b. 1854.
Succeeded to the gadi in June 1884.
Belongs to the famous family of the
Chiefs of the Chauhan Rajputs,
claiming descent from Prithviraj, the
last Hindu Emperor of Delhi. This
family was originally settled in
Sembhor and Nandol, in Marwar or
Jodhpur (Rajputana) ; and after
various vicissitudes of fortune, Dedh
Rao was driven out of Nandol, and
obtained possession of Tharad (q.v.),
which had been an appanage of the
Rajput dynasty of Patan. The
seventh in descent from Dedh Rao
was the Rana Punja ; and he was
killed in battle, and lost the Tharad
territory. His son was the Rand
Waza, who built the town of Wao.
From him the seventeenth in descent
was the late Rana Umedsingh, who
was born in 1848, succeeded to the
gadi in 1868, and dying in 1884 was
succeeded by the present Chief. The
State has an area of 380 square miles,
and a population of 27,735, chiefly
Hindus. The Rana maintains a mili-
tary force of 30 cavalry, 20 infantry,
and 1 gun. Residence : Wao, Palanpur,
Bombay.

WARAGAM, Thdkur of. See Varagam.

WARAHI, Malik Zorawar Khan Umar
Khan, Malik of. A ruling chief ; b.
1881. Succeeded to the gadi as an
infant on September 14, in the same
year. Belongs to a Jat (Muhammadan)
family ; descended from the Malik Isa,
who came from Sind and established
himself at Warahi about 400 years
ago. The late Malik Umar Khan was
born in 1848, and succeeded to the
gadi (as principal shareholder in this
State) in the same year as an infant.
He died in 1881, and was succeeded by
the present Malik as principal share-
holder in the State. Residence:
Warahi, Palanpur, Bombay.

WARN0LIM0TI, Chief of. See Varnoli
Moti.



WARN0LINANI, Chief of. See Varnoli
Nani.

WARSANJI KHIMJI, Rao Saheb. Re-
ceived the title on May 21, 1898.
Residence : Bombay.

WARS0RA, Thakur Kishorsinghji
Motisinghji, Thdkur of. A ruling
chief; b. October 15, 1840. Suc-
ceeded to the gadi March 4, 1858.
Belongs to a Chaura Rajput family,
claiming descent from a scion
of the Chaura dynasty, by whom
Anhilwara Patan was founded in 746
A.D. The Thakur Surajmalji was the
founder of the Warsora House, and
fourteenth in descent from him was
the Thakur Gambhhsinghji. The
brother of the latter, the Thakur
Motisinghji, was the father of the
present Thakur. The Thakur has a
son and heir, Kunwar Surajmalji. The
State, which is tributary to Baroda,
has an area of 56 square miles, and a
population of 4051, chiefly Hindus.
Resideme : Warsora, Mahi Kantha,
Bombay.

WASAN SEWADA, Thdkur of See
Vasan Sewada.

WASAN VHtPTJR, Chief of. See Vasan
Virpur.

WASNA, Thdkur of See Vasna.

WASUDEV. See Vasudev.

WATHADA VENKATAREDDI NA-
YTJDU, Diwdn Bahadur. See Ven-
katareddi.

WAZIR.— Generally a prefix.

WAZIR ALI, Mir, Khan Bahadur. See
Mir.

WAZIR KHAN walad SHAH MUHAM-
MAD KHAN, Mir. The title has
been continued for life. Residence :
Hyderabad, Sind.

WAZHt MIRZA, Mirza Wala Kadr
JVawdb Bahadur; b. 1837. Is the
grandson of the late Malika Zamani,
the favourite Queen of Nasir-ud-din
Haidar, King of Oudh ; being the son
of the late Kainwan Jah, who for a
time was recognized as the heir-apparent
of Nasir-ud-din. The title is a personal
one, or a courtesy title. Residence :
Lucknow, Oudh.

Z



338



THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA



WAZIR MUHAMMAD KHAN, Malik,
Kazi, Khan Saheb. Received the title
on January 1, 1898. Residence : Ba-
luchistan.

WAZIR SHAH MIRZA, Khan Saheb.
Received the title on June 22, 1897.
Residence : Sai, Gilgit.

WAZIRABAD, Sarddr of. See Jwala
Singh.

WAZIR-UD-DIN, Muhammad, Haji
Shaikh, Khan Bahadur. See Mu-
hammad.

WAZIRZADA.— A prefix.

WINTEL SRINIVASA RAO, Arcot, Rao

Saheb. Received the title on January
2,1899. Residence: Madras.

WOMA. See Uma.

YADURAO PANDE, Rao, Rao Bahadur.
The title of Rao was conferred, as a
personal distinction, on January 1,
1877, on the occasion of the Proclam-
ation of Her Most Gracious Majesty
as Empress of India. On January 1,

1889, he received the higher title of
Rao Bahadur. Residence : Bhandara,
Central Provinces.

YAKUB ALI KHAN, Khan Bahadur.
The title was conferred, as a personal
distinction, May 17, 1887. Residence :
Herat.

YALLA SANJIVI NAYUDU, Rao Saheb.
Received the title on June 3, 1899.
Residence: Madras.

YAR MUHAMMAD KHAN walad WALI
MUHAMMAD KHAN, Mir. The
title has been continued for life, the
Mir being the representative of one of
the Mirs or Chiefs of Sind at the time
of the annexation. Residence : Shikar-
pur, Sind.

YAR MUHAMMAD KHAN, C.S.I., Khan
Bahadur. The title was conferred, as
a personal distinction, on May 20,

1890. Created a C.S.I, on May 21,
1898. Residence: Jaora, Central India.

YARLAGADDA MALLIKHARJANA
PRASADA NAYUDU (Zamindar of
Devarakota), Srimant Raja. The
present Zamindar has been officially
authorized by Government to be ad-
dressed by the titles of Srimant Raja.
Residence : Kistna, Madras.



YASHWANT SINGH (of Mandhata),
Rao. Belongs to a Chauhan Rajput
family, whose ancestor married the
daughter of the Bhil Raja of Mandhata.
The title is hereditary, and was origin-
ally conferred in early times by one of
the Pathan Kings of Delhi. Residence:
Mandhata, Nimar, Central Provinces.

YATSANK, Kun Nu, Sawbwa of. A
ruling chief. The Sawbwa is Chief of
one of the Shan States, Burma. The
area of his State is about 2000 square
miles; its population consists chiefly
of Shans. Residence: Yatsank, Shan
States, Burma.

YESU GOVIND TSAGWEKAB,, Rao Saheb.
Received the title on January 1, 1892.
Residence : Ratnagiri, Bombay.

YESWANT BALKRISHNA BARVE,

Rao Saheb. The title was conferred,
in recognition of his services as a
Mamlatdar, on June 3, 1899. Resi-
dence : Bombay.

YIN WEI SHANG, Kyet thaye zaung
shwe Salwe ya Min. The title was
conferred, as a personal distinction, on
January 1, 1889. It means " Recipient
of the Gold Chain of Honour," and is
indicated by the letters K.S.M. after
the name. Residence: Mandalay,
Burma.

YUSUF DAVID, Khan Bahadur. The
title was conferred, as a personal dis-
tinction, on May 26, 1894. Residence :
Bombay.

YUSUF KHAN, Mir, Khan Bahadur.
The Mir received the title of Khan
Bahadur on May 26, 1894. Residence :
Baluchistan.

YUSUF SHARIF, Khan Bahadur. The
title was conferred, as a personal dis-
tinction, on February 16, 1887, on the
occasion of the Jubilee of the reign of
Her Most Gracious Majesty, in re-
cognition of meritorious services ren-
dered in the Survey Department.
Residence : Survey of India, Calcutta.

YWANGAN,|Maung Thu Daw, Ngwe-
gunhmu of. A ruling chief. The
Ngwegunhmu is Chief of one of the
Shan States, Burma. The area of his
State is about 100 square miles ; its



THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA



population consists chiefly of Shans.
Residence : Ywangan, Shan States,
Burma.

ZAFARWAL, Sarddr of. See Tara
Singh.

ZAHID HUSALN, Sayyid, Khdn Baha-
dur. The title was conferred, as a
personal distinction, on January 1, 1890.
Residence : Muzaffarnagar, North-
Western Provinces.

ZAHIR-UD-DIN, Hakim, Khan Saheb.
Received the title on January 1, 1898.
Residence : Delhi, Punjab.

ZAHIR-ULLA KHAN (of Peshawar),

Khdn Bahadur. The title was con-
ferred on January 1, 1894. Residence :
Ram pur, North- Western Provinces.

ZAIGHAM-UD-DAULA, Nawab. The
title is a courtesy title, in recognition
of his position as the second son of
Nawab Ali Naki Khan, Prime Minister
of the late King of Oudh. Residence :
Lucknow, Oudh.

ZAIN-UL-ABDIN, Maulavi, Khdn Baha-
dur. The Khan Bahadur was for
many years a Judge in the North-
western Provinces, and for his good
services in that capacity received the
title, as a personal distinction, on May
25, 1892. Residence : Aligarh, North-
western Provinces.

ZAIN-UL-ABDIN, Munshi, Khan Ba-
hadur. The title was conferred on
January 21, 1892. Residence: Ghazi-
pur, North- Western Provinces.

ZAIN-UL-ABDIN, Sayyid, Natcdb Baha-
dur ; b. December 8, 1838. The Nawab
Bahadur received his title, as a personal
distinction, on June 5, 1867, in recogni-
tion of his position as great-grandson
of the Nawab Nazim Mubarak-ud-
daula, the youngest son of the Nawab
Nazim Mir Muhammad Jafar Ali
Khan, and also as son-in-law of his
late Highness the Nawab Nazim.
His grandfather was Mir Abul Kasim,
second son of the Nawab Nazim, who
received from his father the title of
Nawab Mangli. His father was Saf dar
Ali, who received a title from the
British Government. The Nawab
Bahadur's full title is " Shuja-ul-Mulk
Asaf-ud-daula Nawab . . . Khan
Bahadur Firoz Jang." Residence:
Murshidabad, Bengal.



ZAKA-ULLA, Maulavi, Shams-ul-Ulama,
Khdn Bahadur; b. April 1832. The
title of Shams-ul-Ulama was conferred
on February 16, 1887, as a personal
distinction, for eminence in oriental
learning, on the occasion of the Jubilee
of the reign of Her Most Gracious
Majesty ; it entitles him to take rank
in Darbar immediately after titular
Nawabs. The Maulavi's ancestors
were for four or five generations tutors
and preceptors of the Royal House
of Tamerlane at Delhi. He served
Government from 1851 to 1887 in the
Educational Department. In recogni-
tion of his services in the cause of
female education the Maulavi received
a khilat in 1864. He has published
several excellent series of scientific
works, which have been commended
by Government, and is Fellow of
Allahabad University. In addition to
the title of Shams-ul-Ulama he enjoys
the title of Khan Bahadur, conferred
also in February 1887. Residence:
Aligarh, North- Western Provinces.

ZAKIR ALI, Muhammad, Khdn Baha-
dur. See Muhammad.

ZALAM SINGH (of Punasa), Rand.
The title is hereditary. Residence :
Nimar. Central Provinces.

ZAMAN KHAN, Sarddr Bahadur. The
title was conferred, as a personal
distinction, on November 21, 1882, in
recognition of his eminent military
services. The Sardar Bahadur is
Subahdar-Major of the 29th Bombay
Native Infantry. Residence : Bombay.

ZAMORIN OF CALICUT. See Calicut.



ZEB

b



B-UN-NISA (of Jahangirabad), Rani;

. October 28, 1855. Succeeded her
father, the late Raj& Farzand Ali
Khdn, April 7, 1881. The title of
Raja was conferred on the latter by
the late King of Oudh, Wajid Ali
Shah, and has been recognized as
hereditary by the British Government.
The estate of Jahangirabad belonged
to Raja Razak Bakhsh, who, dying
without male heir, left it to his son-
in-law, the late Farzand Ali Khan.
Farzand AH was the darogah in charge
of the Sikandra Bagh at Lucknow,
and owed his success in life to a
fortuitous circumstance about three
years before the annexation. King
Wajid Ali Shah, on visiting the garden,



340



THE GOLDEN BOOK OF INDIA



was struck with the appearance of the
young man, and presenting him with
a khilat, directed him to attend at the
palace. With such a signal mark of
the royal favour Farzand Ali's ad-
vancement was rapid, and by the
interest of the influential eunuch,
Basis-ud-dauM, he eventually obtained
a firman designating him the Raja of
Jahangirabad. Farzand Ali Khan
was attached to the Court of the late
King, and followed him in 1856, after
his deposition, to Calcutta, where he
remained for some time. He was not
prominent during the Mutiny, and
early made his submission. In 1860
he was invested with the powers of
an Assistant Collector within the
limits of his estate. R&ja Farzand
Ali Kh&n had no male issue ; and
his daughter, Rani Zeb-un-Nisa, has
married Sheikh Tasadduk Rasul Khan,
who succeeded his father-in-law and
uncle as talukdar, and was created a
Raja (as a personal distinction) on
January 2, 1893. Residence: Jahan-
girabad, Naw4b£
Banki District, Oudh.

ZIA-UD-DIN KHAN, Maulayi, Khan,
Shams-ul-Ulama, Khan Bahadur. The
title of Kh&n was conferred, as a
personal distinction, on May 20, 1870,
and that of Shams-ul-Ulama, for his
eminence in oriental learning, on
February 16, 1887, on the occasion



of the Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign.
The latter honour entitles him to take
rank in Darbar immediately after
titular Naw&bs. On January 1, 1897,
the Khan also received the title of
Khan Bahadur. He is the grandson
of the late Nawab Shaikh Ghulam
Hasan Kh&n, Jdyirddr of Basi. In
addition to his Arabic scholarship,
which is of the very highest order, he
is a profound mathematician, and has
a considerable knowledge of physical
science. He has been appointed an
Extra Assistant Commissioner. He
has three sons — Anwar-ud-din Khan,
Munawar-ud-din Khan, and N&sar-ud-
din Khdn. Residence : Delhi, Punjab.

ZUHR-UD-DIN AHMAD, Haji, Khan
Bahadur; b. 1841. The title was
conferred, as a personal distinction,
on March 3, 1876, in recognition of
his position as son-in-law of the Nawab
Ghausia Begam (q.v.). Residence :
Madras.

ZULFIKAR ALI, Maulavi, Shams-ul-
Ulama. Received the title, in recogni-
tion of his eminence in oriental
learning, on January 1, 1896. Resi-
dence: Bengal.

ZUMKHA, Thakur Ratansang Saheb-
sang, Thakur of. A ruling chief ; b.
1839. Succeeded July 1, 1893. Resi-
dence: Zumkha, RewA Kantha, Bom-
bay.



APPENDIX



THE GOLDEN BOOK OF CEYLON



PREFACE

For the information collected in the following pages regarding the chief
personages of Ceylon — which I have endeavoured to arrange on the same lines
as those followed in The Golden Book of India — I am indebted, in the first place,
to the kindness and the public spirit of Mr. John Ferguson, the well-known
editor of the Ceylon Observer, who has done so much for Ceylon in this as in
many other ways ; and, in the second place, to Mr. F. H. M. Corbet, whose
authority on this subject is almost unrivalled. 1 To the latter, and to the
gentlemen who kindly collaborated with him, I owe the Introduction to The
Golden Book of Ceylon, and many of the notices in the body of the work, as
well as a general supervision of my labours of compilation. And to the nobles
and gentlemen -.who responded to Mr. Ferguson's appeal, and supplied the
details given here, I desire also to tender my best thanks. As this is the first
attempt that, as far as I am aware, has ever been made to collect this information,
I am conscious that many imperfections will be found ; and I shall feel greatly
obliged if every one who is interested in the subject will be so good as to send
corrections and suggestions for subsequent editions, to the following address : —

Sir ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I.E.,

cjo Messrs. Sampson Low, Marston & Co.,
St. Dunstan's House,
Fetter Lane,

London, E.C.

It is my desire to make this work so comprehensive that it shall be to the
Ceylonese, mutatis mutandis, what Peerages, works on the Landed Gentry, etc.,
and Biographies of contemporaries of note, are to the English people. Therefore

i It is only fair to Mr. Corbet that I should mention that I had no opportunity of
consulting him until the work was already in the press ; so that it has not been possible for
him to make many of the additions I understand he wished to make, nor even, in many cases,
to revise the original notices.



342 THE GOLDEN BOOK OF CEYLON

the name of every Ceylonese of noble or gentle birth, or at any rate the
name of the head of his family, if his claims are such as can be accepted
according to either Singhalese, Tamil, or European standards, should appear in
future editions. So also it is intended to include the name of every Ceylonese
who may occupy any position of importance, or who may have earned any
distinctions, as, for example, members of the Legislative Council, heads of
Government departments, the leaders in the learned professions, justices of the
peace, members of the Ceylon Civil Service, etc., etc.

If the names of any Ceylonese who come within the scope of this work are
omitted from future editions, it will not be (barring mistakes) because I have
excluded them ; it will be simply because neither the persons who bear these
names nor their friends have seen fit to avail themselves of the opportunity
which it is my privilege to offer them of recording in Ceylon's first Roll of
Honour their own or their ancestors' achievements, and so pointing the way to
future generations.




INTKODUCTION



For the purposes of this work the nobility and the gentry of Ceylon are
regarded as consisting mainly of Singhalese and Tamil chiefs and their
descendants, and of the representatives of noble European families (mostly
Portuguese and Dutch) long settled in the island, together with such other
Ceylonese as have received the honour of knighthood and similar distinctions
from Her Majesty the Queen Empress, or other sovereigns in our own time. 1

Under the Singhalese Kings titles of honour, apart from those held by
members of the reigning house, appear to have been of three principal kinds,
which may be briefly and tentatively described as follows —

1. Patabendi 2 title-names, i. e. hereditary titles peculiar to each family,
and derived from some distinguished ancestor. These title-names were generally
bestowed upon appointment to high office, or in recognition of distinguished
service, and were borne by the grantee and his descendants.

2. Titles attached to and denoting a post in the king's service.

3. Titles ascribed to the wife and children and more remote issue of chiefs,
and common to all persons of their rank. These titles vary in different parts
of the country.

The Radala ptruwa, Mudali peruwa, and other piruwas (the nobles, the
class of chiefs, the titled class) thus consist of those who can trace their descent
from Adigars, Disavas, Mudaliyars, or other principal chiefs, and they are
distinguished from the rest of the people mainly by their patabendi title-
names.

The practice of bestowing patabendi title-names when giving a man high
office was adopted by the Portuguese in the Maritime Provinces (1505 to 1656) ;
it was continued by the Dutch (1656 to 1795) ; and is in full force under the
British Government. 3

The Portuguese appear to have added the hereditary titles of Don, or Dom,
and Donna to those already in existence, and this seems to be the only new
title of the kind introduced by European rulers.

The value and significance of various titles have in Ceylon, as elsewhere,
undergone many modifications in the course of the last few centuries. It
would be impossible in the space available for this Introduction to trace their
complicated and still obscure evolution, though the study is an interesting one,
and much material on the subject exists.

It should, however, be borne in mind that, although many of the ancient



Online LibraryRoper LethbridgeThe golden book of India; a genealogical and biograhical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire, with an appendix for Ceylon → online text (page 59 of 63)