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rarely, distichous ; usually linear or subulate, close and imbricating or
more apart, rarely distant. Sporangia bi- or tri-valved, single, sessile
and axillary in the leaves of the normal or modified branches, or in
special spikes. Spores of one kind, abundant and dust-like.

Four genera comprise this order, but only two of them
are represented in Guiana. The others — Phylloglossum
and Tmesepteris — are confined almost entirely to Aus-
tralia and the adjacent islands, Tmesepteris reaching to


Genus L— Lycopodlum. Linn.

Sporangia reniform, one-celled, bivalved, axillary in the normal or
modified leaves of the outer parts of the branches, or in the imbricating
scales of special spikes. Leaves of one or two kinds, multifarious, rarely
distichous or biserial, generally close and often imbricating. Stems and
branches mostly terete, dichotomously or pinnately branched, leafy

These are the true club-mosses, and their aspeft, except
in a iew instances, is very different from that of their allies
the Selaginellas, from which they are technically distin-
guished by having only one kind of spores and spore-cap-

Digitized by


Lycopodiace/e of Guiana and their Allies. 43

sules. They number about a hundred species, which are
spread over the torrid and warmer regions of the globe, but
most concentrated in the equatorial belt. Some of the spe-
cies range widely in both the old and new worlds. They
are divided in their habits of growth into two divisions —
terrestrial and epiphytal. The former in Guiana grow in
moist ground generally, either open to the dire6l sunlight
or in forest shade. Two or three species, however, ap-
pear to prefer well-drained ground. Both are ere6l, or
prostrate in growth, and more or less gregarious. Of the
epiphytal, some are stri&ly pendent, others have a ten-
dency to be pendent with the gradual lengthening of
their weak flexible branches, while still maintaining ver-
tical growth. These generally grow in forests on the
branches of trees.

4 Fructification in dense catkin-like terminal spikes. — Species 1-4.
f Spikes on long slender stems. — Species 1-2,

* Branches flattened ', with a distinct upper and under side. — Species I .

1. Lycopodium Carolinianum, Lin.— Fl. Brasil p. 115. L. repens.Sw
L. affine, Bory. — Stems prostrate, rooting at intervals, extending and
shortly branched. Leaves of two kinds ; lateral larger and spreading
horizontally in a single series on each side, the intermediate in a line with
the rachis, to which they are appressed, 3-serial, linear-lanceolate, and
much smaller, the former 2-2$ li. 1., i-f li. b., linear-oblong, decurrent
on the rachis at the base, curved on the upper margin. Spikes i-2£ in
1., on slender distant simple ereft stems 3-15 in. 1. which are very laxly
clothed with small subulate leaves i-i£ li. 1. Scales ot spikes ovate-
tapering to a spinulose point, the margins often faintly denticulate.

Appun, n. 1027, Cako Creek. PARKER, Sand Hills.
JENMAN, n. 374, Corentyn River; n. 4174, Kaieteur
Savannah. Terrestrial in wet swampy ground, on the
surface of which the stems extend, the slender terete
fertile ones being thrown up stiffly ereft at right angles.
The minute leaves of the fertile stems are arranged


Digitized by


44 TjMPHgl.

in a subrverticillate manner, and spread a little from
the stem. There are no leaves on the uqderside of
the prostrate stems. A very distinft species, that grows
in swamps in humus, in which the stems are oftpp founcj
embedded by the fresh deposits.

Qeneral iiztrikutian* -Madagascar, Hongkong! Gey*
lqn, Bourbon, Mauritius, Florida, Reunion* South Africa,
I^Jew Guinea, Angola, and Tropical America from the
United States to Brasil, but pply Guadeloupe of ths
West India Islands,

** Branches terete^ with the leaves vetti dilate, — Species 2.

2. Lycopodium Clavatum, Linn.— Fl. Brasil, p. 114. Gr. Fl. B.W.I.,
p. 646. Plumier t. 165, B. — Stems repent, rooting here and there and
branching laterally, 2-3 ft. 1. cylindrtc. Leaves lax, showing the stem
freely between. Branches eye&, freefy again branched, repeatedly so, but
not in a dichotomous manner. Densely clothed with leayes, which
are in several series, rather stiff, subulate, £ li. w., ii-2 li. 1. with a hair,
point, incurved. Fertile branches 1-3 in. 1., slender, terete, erec\ with
minute verticillate leaves at intervals. Spikes in pairs or alternate,
2-6 in all to a branch. Bracts ovate-acuminate, attenuated, undulate,
margined, somewhat spreading.

A very stiff species both in stems and leaves, but
variable in its degree of branching : ia some cases lax, it*
others very dense, and having the branchlets short.
The stems of the spikes are several inches high and de-
crescent in size upwards, and thinly clothed with minute
subulate leaves. The spikes have shorter pedlcils from \-z
in. 1. The leaves quite conceal the stems of the ordinary
branches, though not of the primary and final ones.

General distribntiovpyr Widely spread over most of
the tropical and temperate region^ of the world ; partu
culariy abundant in the West ladies ajad Sqitfh America*

tt Spjtke* sessile ot\ novmol branches,— Species 3.4.
Jt kxgwqpm* ^LOf wmfiuxSi {,,— R Bras|l p. 1 ^— Sterna prostrate

Digitized- by


Lycopodiace^b op Guuha and their Allies. 45

repent, rooting here and there, branding at intervals and sprea d i n g
laterally, densely clothed with linear acuminate plain or ciliate edged
leaves which form several series, all of one kind, overlapping and more
or less spreading, 2.3 H. 1. |th.}th li. w. Fertile branches, simple, erect,
cylindrk, 6- to in. long, clothed tike the barren stems but lees densely,
the leaves rather smaller* Fertile spikes single at the top, the leaves el
which are the same in character (not change^ into bracts) poly longer.
Sporangia copious, concealed under the leaves.

APPUN n. 1 197, Roraima 5000 ft. IM THURN, n. 146
Horaima. This is a peculiar species, intermediate be*
tween the pinnate and dichotomously branched species*
It has the habit of growth of the former* but resembles the
latter by having its leaves all of one kind. Even the spikes
are composed of leaves unchanged only that they are
longer. It varies a good deal in the length of the leaves
and consequently in diameter (or apparent diameter) of
the branches. The unmodified leaves of the fertile por-
tions give this a claim to be placed in the last division.
Terrestrial on wet ground, like L. carolinianum.

General rfistriiutian**AJn\Xzd States to Brazil, and
Buenos Ayres, but not yet fouqd in the West Indies.

4. Lvcqpqdhjm CKwuniM* Lin.— FL Brasil, 1 14. Gr. FL B.W.I. > p. 647.
Plumier, t* 165.— Stems cylindric, strong, repeat, thinly clothed with
small linear-acuminate leaves, and throwing up at intervals ere& pyra-
midal or plumose fertile branches, which are 1 -lift, high, with numerous
tiers of spreading branches alternate in direction to each other, thus
forming the plumose habit ; these branches again freely branched with
spreading branchlets, which are fertile at their tips, Leaves in several
series, dense, not flat spreading and up-curved, J li. w., 1 U. 1, 9et9-
like, main rachis clothed sparsely like the primary stem* Spikes
from a line to an inch 1., i-ii li. diameter. Bracts ovate-acuminate, the
margin fringed*

Jenman, n. 375, Corentyn River; n. 1657, Pomeroon
River. Readily recognised by its pyramidal or plumose
b^bit, resembling young fir trees, each brajicWet termi*

Digitized by


46 TlMEHRl.

nated by a pale coloured recurved catkin. These vary in
length in the plants from different countries. In the local
state they are from 1-4 li. 1. so far as I have seen, but may
be in some cases more, as species from Venezuela and
Brasil have them in some cases from f-i in. 1. It grows
both in shaded and exposed places, and on both wet and
dry ground.

L. curvatum, S WARTZ, is a stronger species with stiffer
and flatter leaves, found in Martinique, Guadeloupe and
Dominica and other parts of the world.

General distribution — Tropical and subtropical regions
throughout the world,

\ \ Fructification on much modified thread-like terminal branches —
Species 5-6.

5. Lycopodium aqualupianum, Spring. — Spr. Mong. Lycop. I p. 68.—
Pendent, repeatedly dichotomous, i-ii ft. long including the fertile
part. Stems slender, 4-gonal, reddish. Leaves flat, spreading, ovate,
4 serial, i inch loi\g ii li. w., blunt-acute, the base narrowed in the
same way, even-edged. Texture firm ; colour dark green. Fertile por.
tions, 4-6 inches long ; terminal, 2-3 dichotomous, about 1 li. diameter,
angular. Bra&s folded, keeled, 3-serial, a li. or less 1., very acuminate.

APPUN n. 1,388, Roraima. Jenman n. 1,476, Potaro
River, above the Kaieteur Fall, on branches of trees.
Readily recognised by the flat, oblong-ovate, spreading
leaves, equal at both ends, and firm though hardly stiff
slender tassel-like fertile part. The brafts are keeled
and folded more sharply than in the next species.

General distribution — Trinidad, Porto-Rico, Guada-
loupe, Cuba, and New Grenada.

6. Lycopodium subulatum, Desv.— Pendent, slender, pliant, repeat-
edly dichotomous, 2-3 ft. 1. including the fertile portion. Branches strami-
neous, angular, 3-gonal, hardly thicker than thread. Leaves 3-serial,
often in whorls, spreading, about £ in. apart, and always shewing the
slender stem between, linear-lanceolate, pointed, the base rounded, ^-Jrd

Digitized by



in. 1. 9 1 -1 J li. w. Texture rather flaccid; colour pale or straw green.
Fertile branches as long as the barren part, repeatedly forked. Bra6ts
sharply acuminate, keeled. Sporangia copious.

IM Thurn n. 230, base of the cliff, Roraima. This
species resembles in general aspefct that preceding it agood
deal, and closely in habit, but is more slender and much
more pliant and flaccid, the leaves more apart, narrowerand
more acuminate, and pale in colour, and it seems to
grow very much longer, — no doubt, from the branches of
trees. Its general distribution I find I have overlooked,
and no books within my reach show it.

J j j Fertile branches not modified, but tonform with the barren part —
Species 7-13.

7. Lycopodium funiforme, Bory. — Spring Mong. Lycopod. I., p. 50.
—Branches long, simple or occasionally dichotomous, pendent or pros-
trate, 2-3 ft. 1. Leaves crowded, several-serial, not spreading, straight
and stiff, contracted laterally or convolute, £-i in. 1. £-£ li. w., freely
overlapping, sharp, even-margined. Sporangia reniform, £ li. w., the
lips closed, visible between the narrow leaves.

This species is peculiar for its long tail-like branches,
which only infrequently fork, and that reach from 1-3 ft. 1.
When on trees it is stri6lly pendent, but it grows also
on the ground, in leaf-mould and in other rubbish, and
then the stems become constrifted here and there and
root at the place. The leaves remain fixed in a line
with the rachis, not at all spreading, and their convolute
condition gives them a very narrow stiff and sharp
appearance. %

General distribution— -Cuba, Porto Rico, Guatemala
and Nicaragua.

8. Lycopodium reflbxum, Lam»— Fl. Brasil, p. 109. Gr. Fl. B. W.
Ind. p. 147. Plumier t. 166. L. reversum, Presl.— Branches erect, from £-i£
ft. high, repeatedly dichotomous, close and parallel, strong and rather
stoutish, ribbed. Leaves plain-edged or faintly serrated, reflexed, } in,
1. Jrd, i li. w., broadest at the rather rounded base, linear-subulate,

Digitized by


46 TifcfettftL

CrdWfletf , to s&ie¥M series. Sporangia aimtidartt, expend, retirform ii
fi. w;," imxcn c^pkntMu;

A terrestrial species, growing oii bp&i batiks 2nd
oilier grassy places. The stems ire ereft, but as they
biftftcatfc and lengthen they curVe and rest on the
ground. It is a stirf species, but the stems are not figid!,
being fleshy. While green they are 1-2 li. thick without
tiie leaves.

General dtstrihution—West Ihdies southward to Brazil
an<! Peru.

9. Lycopodium intermedium, Spring.— Fl. Brasil p. 1 1 1. 1. reflexum,
Presl.— firancnes slender, fibbed, distantly dicnotomous few or several
times, reaching 2 ft. long, the divisions relatively few, parallel or
spreading ntore or less, n$t decrescent. Leaves recurved throughout,
7- of 6-farious, linear-subulate, i-2\ ?i. I. } 1. w., Very laldy arranged on
the ribs ; margins even or slightly serrated. Sporangia about 1 li. w.

Schomburgk n. 1 1 92. — A more slender species thaa
rejlexutrt, With longer tntefbrandhes; and smaller moflfc
t ectarved and lexer leaves, Thg bf&ftobes **e the sllfte
site and the kfcves the safifaf length from the primary
stem t& the efrds o'f the branches* Thfe top of the re-
curved kfevtes is turned quite round to the base* ai*d thus
th«y form heafly 4 circle,

General di*tfibution-^AaAt& of Ecuador. SPRUCE n,


10. Lycopodium mandiocanum, Raddi.—F. Brasil p. no* L*dieh#-
tomum Hook et Grev. Icon. Fil. t. 23.— Branches strong, leafy from
the base, once to several times dichotomous, parallel or divaricating,
firm and erect or spreading, ribbed. Leaves 8-fariouff, close, rather
cfowded, fitfear-Subttlate, straight, 6r curved, spreading Varl6ttsly,—
horizontally, defiexed or up-curved, often falcate, \td-i li, w. f-t in. 1.,
even-edged, purple at the base, not decrescent upwards, the outer ones
often* seeming longer but really not so. Abundantly fertile, the sporan-
gia cdtfdate, ittuch exposed.

Digitized by



Jenman, n. 373, Corentyn River ; n. 2059 Canje
River ; growing on the branches of trees. The leaves
are very close and spread in various direttions, the outer
part of the branches often appearing to have longer
ones than the inner parts, but it is only in appearance
and due to the angle at which they spread. The species
is a charafteristic one, variable in its extent of branch-
ing, with a more or less upright (not pendent) but
ultimately, as in reflexutn % spreading growth. The
leaves also vary in width, some plants from this cause
having a much finer aspeft than others.

General distribution — West Indies and tropical main-
land of America to Peru. Also Madagascar.

11. Lycopodium taxi folium, Linn.— Gr. Fl. B. W. I. p. 647. — Stems
ribbed, leafy from the base, pendent, spreading, or more or less ereft,
repeatedly dichotomous, from 6 in. to 2 ft. 1., primary divisions spread-
ing, or close and parallel as in the final branches, all decrescent or not
outward. Leaves close but not crowded, straight linear-acuminate,
even-edged, efe&o-spreading, several serial, Hat, firm but not stiff,
1-1} li. w., 1-f in 1. very little narrowed at the transversely attached
base. Final branches fertile. Sporangia reinform, copious.

var. L. passerinoides, H.B.K. Branches longer usually between the
forking, more supple, always pendent, from 1-6" ft. 1., decrescent
outwards. Leaves of inner stems as large, outer J-f in. 1. i-f li. w., all
linear-lanceolate ; branches fertile often a considerable length.

Nearest linifoliutn, but with much stiffer and thicker
stems and firmer stiffer leaves. The habit of the type
varies a good deal. Young plants are quite erett, and
grow either on the ground or trees, though generally on
the latter ; older plants have laxly spreading branches,
while others again are quite pendent. The primary
stems are £ in. thick, and have 5-7 ribs, and conse-
quently the leaves as they are attached to the ribs
number the sime series. The var. is marked by its


Digitized by


$0 flMEHft!.

more uniformly pendent habit, often much greater
length, (I have gathered it myself 6 ft. 1., though not
in Guiana) and branches decresent outwards, while some
of its forms touch taxifolium on the one hand others
pass quite into linifolium on the other.

General distribution — Tropical America, both Islands
and mainland, both states.

12. Lycopodium gramineum, Spring. — Monog Lycopod it. p. 19.
—Branches firm, ercft or sub-ereft, or at length pendent, repeatedly
dichotomous, reaching at length 6 — 12 inches, the spaces between
the for kings \\ — 2 or 3 inches long. Leaves crowded, many-farious,
ere&o-spreading, usually straight, linear-subulate, \ to \ inch long,
often slightly falcate laterally, even-edged. Branches parallel or spead-
ing. Sporangia copious on the outer branches, reinform, i to i li. w.

Colle&ed by Drake in British Guiana. This is some-
thing like a small state of passer inoides, of erefi habit
and short branches. It is several times forked, but the
whole plant reaches only generally 6 to 8 inches high,
so that the space between the bifurcations is relatively
very short. It is a terrestrial species.

General distribution — Guatemala and Ecuador.

13. Lycopodium linifolium, Linn.— Fl. Brazil p. 113, Gr. Fl. B. W.
Ind. p. 647, Plumier, t, 166, C- Branches ribbed, very slender, leafy
from the base of the primary stem, flaccid, repeatedly dichotomous,
pendent, reaching 2 feet long or over, final branches few or many, often
very numerous. Leaves lax, 3-serial, spreading, linear .subulate, often
rather falcate, £ — } or 1 li. w., £— } inch long., herbaceous in texture,
even-edged. Abundantly fertile, often from the inner furcations.
Sporangia fully exposed, reniform.

Appun, n. 960, Cucuy Creek. JENMAN n. 1475 Kaie-
teur Savannah. IM Thurn n. 192, Upper slope Roraima.
This differs from the two preceding species by its
slender, thread-like in size, branches, having the leaves
only 3-farious, the flaccid texture, and loosely arranged


i by Google

Lycopodiace* of Guiana and their Allies. 51

leaves, between which the stem is visible from £ to i-
inch. L. fiasserinoides, as I have before pointed out, in
some of its states comes near it, but in that the stems are
never so slender or flaccid, nor the leaves so few in series or
so loosely placed on the ribs. The specimen from Appun,
quoted above, has nearly 100 final branches, all devel-
oped by repeated forking from a single primary stem.

General distribution — Tropical America abundant,
from the West Indies to Brazil.

Note.— The following given in Schomburgh's Reisin in Britisch

Guiana I have not seen Guiana specimens of :— L. aristatum, H. B. K.

L. dendroideum, Spring., L. jussiaei, Desv., L. robustum, Klotzsch

Ctauu II. Piilotum, Svirti.

Sporangia sub-globose, trilobed, axillary in the minute distant leaves.
Branches very slender, repeatedly dichotomous, trigonal or flattened.
Leaves simple or bifid.— Bernhardia, Willd.

This small genus consists of only two species, which
however make up for the paucity of type in their abun-
dance and wide distribution. They are small and twiggy
plants ; starting from a simple base, and repeatedly fork-
ing till they become a broom-like fascicle of twigs, with
distant and very inconspicuous leaves. Only one of
them, the commonest, has yet been found in Guiana.

S S Branches trigonal.
/. Psilotum triquetrum, Swartz.— Fl. Brasil, p. 133. Gr. Fl. B. W. I. p.
648. — Rootstock composed of few wiry deeply penetrating roots. Stems
few inches to a foot long, strong, ere£t or pendent, cylindric below,
ribbed and angular above approaching the first furcation. Branches
triquetrous, with sharp angles, repeatedly dichotomous, forming a
brush like head, slender, virgate, short and stiff or longer and very
flexible. Leaves minute, simple or forked, at intervals in dentations on
the edges of the branches. Capsules in the axils of the leaves, 3-lobed.

A more repeatedly branched bushy and stiff er species
than the other, easily recognised by the three cornered

Digitized by


5* TlMEHRl.

branches. It was first gathered in this country by
SCHOMBURGK. It grows on banks, in the fissures of
rocks, and between the roots of trees. At the Botanic
Gardens, where it has never been cultivated, it comes up
frequently in the plant pots.

General distribution. — America, from Cuba to South
Brasil ; tropical Africa, Asia, and Polynesia.
Order ZZ. Eguiietaoea.

Rootstock creeping. Stems ereft, cylindrical, longitudinally furrowed,
jointed at intervals, hollow except at the joints, which terminate in a
completely circular monophyllous dentate margined sheath. Branches
simple, springing through the lower part of the sheaths, whorled and
spreading. No distinct leaves. Fructification terminal, on simple
stems, in cone-shaped heads, which are composed of several horizontal
tiers of peltate stipitate scales that bear on their underside 6-9 pale mem-
branous micro-sporangia that open longitudinally in a 'slit on the inner
side. Spores minute, green, united to elastic wool-like threads (elaters)
that are spontaneously irritant while dry.

A single genus represents this order, numbering about
thirty species, the principal part of which are spread
through the north temperate zone, where they are in
several European countries common and well known
marsh plants, which in Britain go by the name of horse-
tails and paddock-pipes. They form no leaves proper, but
these organs are represented by the membranous sheaths
of the joints. The branches are produced after the
stems have developed, and they grow through the base
of the sheaths. There is but one known Guiana species.
Ctauu X. SatLisefom. Linn.

For charafters refer to the order.

. /. Equisetum bogotense, H.B.K.— E. pratense, Hook. E. flagelliferum,
Kunze. E. chilense, Presl. E. quitense, Fee. — Rootstock free-creeping,
throwing up at intervals tufts of slender, virgate, stiffish shoots, which
are 6.12 or 15 in. 1. hardly a li. thick ; ribs 4-6 or 7. Teeth of the sheaths

Digitized by



acuminate, dark-coloured, scariose edged, as many as the ribs of the
stems. Spikes terminal, £-} or 1 in. 1.

Gatherered by Appun, but his label bears no number
or locality. It is a very slender species, with small
twig-like branches, which are usually simple from the
base, but occasionally are branched verticellately from one
or more of the joints. The slender rootstock extends
freely in the- ground, and the tufts of shoots are thrown
up at intervals of an inch or so. The fertile shoots are
the same in chara&er as the barren.

General distribution — Abundant from Mexico to



Digitized by


The Hurricane of 1830 in Si Vincent; by an

Edited by Mary Browne.*
* * *****

| HE month of August is considered one of the
hurricane months, and although this island had
not for half a century experienced anything of
the kind (for whilst other islands have suffered materially,
St. Vincent has invariably escaped) yet it is usual for all
the merchant vessels to leave on or before the ist of
August, otherwise the insurance is doubled. On Monday,
the ist of August, I left Kingston and at 12 o'clock
wheeled my horse's head homewards. Passing the Bay of
Calliaqua, and which is 3 miles from Kingston, I ob-
served several of the merchant vessels getting under weigh
for England. During the preceding week and up to
within a short period of its occurrence, we had nothing to
indicate the approaching hurricane. On the Wednes-
day evening it was perfeflly still, calm, and serene, and
we had taken a drive to Langley Park, as if to take a
last look at the beautiful scenery — the luxuriant fields of
canes promising an abundant harvest. We remarked
on our return that the weather was close and sultry.
After midnight the wind began to rise, and with the
earliest dawn of the morning, about 5 o'clock, I looked

* This paper consists of a letter, dated St. Vincent, W.I., Nov.
13th, 1831, from a clergyman who was then the owner of "Grand
Sable" in that island. It has been placed at my disposal, and edited,
by Miss Browne, the granddaughter of the writer— Ed.

Digitized by


The Hurricane in St. Vincent. 55

from my window and observed the sea running high) and
the smaller boughs of the large almond tree near our
bouse breaking off and falling to the ground, but as the
wood is particularly brittle it occasioned me no alarm,
From this period the gale increased in strength almost
every moment! larger limbs were broken off, the sea
began to run mountains high, and to present the grand-
est and most awful appearance you can well imagine ;
the waves rising to such an astonishing height that it