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M



Columbia (Hntt^ersttp

intljeCitpoflettilork



LIBRARY





LM^S



S. JEROME.



September 30th,



THE



LIVES OF TH E SAINTS.

cox -COLL.



BY



REV. S. BARING-GOULD, M.A.



AUTHOR OF



" The Origin and Development of Religious Belief," " Post Medieval
Preachers" " Curious Myths of the Middle Ages" ^c. ^c.



SEPTEMBER.



JOHN HODGES,

24, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND, LONDON.

1875-






LONDON :

SAVILL, EDWARDS AND CO., PRINTERS, CHANDOS STREET,

COVENT GARDEN.



CONTENTS,



VOL. IX.



A.



PAGE



11
11
11



SS. Abundiics^ Abuji-
dantiiiSy and
Others^ MM. ... 261
S. Adamnan, Ab. ... 358

Adrian, M. 113

Agapetus I. , Pope . 321

Aichardy Ab 249

SS. Aignlf, Ab. and

Comp., MM. ... 41

5'. Ailbe, B 180

Alexa7ider, B.M.. 325
Alkmimd, B. of

Hexham 109

Amatus, Ab 192

AfnatuSyB.ofSens 194
Anastasius, M. ... 178
SS. Andochitis, Thyr-
sus, and Felix,

MM. 361

S. Antoni?ius, M. ... 11
„ Asdepiodotus, M. 247
„ Aiigustifins, M. ... 89
Atttono7miSy M,.,. 178



11
11

11
11
11



11



B.

S. Barypsabas,H.M. 147

Basilissa, V.M.... 35

Beata, V.M. 89

Bega, V. Abss. ... 92

Bertellin, H. 139

„ Berti?i, Ab, 71



5)



))



11



11



SS. Boris and
MM. ....



Gleb.



PAGE



75



C.

S. Cagnoald, B 90

SS. Callistratus and



S.



Comp., MM.



;85



))



11



11



11



11



11



11



Catharine of

Genoa, W. 252

Censor inns, M.... 67

Ceolfrid, Ab 378

Cleophas 374

Clodoald, B.C. ... 104
Columba, V.M.... 2^]^
Coficordius, M. ...
Corbinian, B. ...
Cornelius, Pope,

M.

SS. Cosmas and Da-

niian, MM. ...

„ Crescentianus and

Others, MM. . . .

S. Crescentius, M. . . .

Cuthbert, B 50

Cyprian, B.M. ... 203
SS. Cypria?i and Jus-

tina, MM. T^^d

D.

SS. Dig} I a and Eme-

rita, VV.MM.. 328



12

120

196

397

228
229



11



11



14007



VI



CONTENTS.





PAGE




PAGE


SS. Donat ian and




S. Geremar, Ab


362


Others, MM. ...


89


„ Geridf M.


326


S. Dorotheus, M. ...


131


„ Gilbert, B. of Hex-








ham


109


E.




5, Giles, Ab


8




,5 Gordian, H.


185


S. Edith of Poles-




5, Gorgonius, M. ...


13^


worth, W. Abss.


267


5, Grata, W.


48


„ Edith of Wilton,




55 Gregory the Illu-




V. Abss


269


minator, B


442


„ Elzear


402


55 Guido, C.


181


SS. Emilias and Jere-








mias, MM.


251


H.




6*. Evimeram, B.M.


ZZ^






„ Endoxi7/s, Af. ...


68


S. Hermione


43


„ Eiilogins, B


189


55 Hilar ius. Pope ...


157


,, Etiphemia, V.M. .


257


55 Hildegard, V.




,, Enpsychius, M....


96


Abss


279


5, Eusebius, M.


118


,, Honor ius, Abp. of




„ Eustace, M.


319


Ca?iterbury


464


„ Eustochiiun, V.A.


411


,5 Hyacinth, M.


166


„ Enstorgius, B. ...


292






Exaltation of the Cross


233


/.




S. Exiiperius, Bp....


410


S. Ida, W.


50
51


K


B. Irmgard, W. ...


S. Faustus, Bp


413


7-




„ Felix, B.M.


144


SS. Januaj-iiis and
Others, MM. . . .




►S^". Felix and Regida,




^01


MM

S. Fcrreolus, M. ...


169
289

.377


5, Jerome, P.D. ...
,, "Tohn, M.


450

97

395


J, Finbar, Bp

7~* • • yj /


5) ^w/i'/»5 ^rj.,

„ John Mark


,, Firminiis, B. of
Aniiefis




„ Joseph of Cuper-




4


tino, C.




«^ .^ ' t r r *^ 9 • K^ ••••••■■•


292
185


55 Fir7nimis, B.M. .


375


,5 Julian^ P.M. ...


G.




K.




S. Geininianus, M. .


259


S. Kieran, Ab. of


t


„ Genebald, B


70


Clonmacnois . . .


132



CONTENTS.



Vll



z.

PAGE

S. Latus^ B.M. 89

„ Lcetus, M. 4

,, Lambert^ B.M. ... 274
,, Laureiice yust'ui-

ia?ii, B.C. 76

,, Liber ills, Pope ... 351
„ Linns, Pope, M. . 349

„ Lioba, Abss 417

>j -^0, B 337

., Lolaii, B.C. 340

,, Lucia, V.M. 259

, , Liidmila, W.M. ... 265
,, Lupus, Abp. of

Sens 5

M.

S. Macedonius, M.... 179

,, Macniss, B 36

,, Macrobius, M. ... 185
,, Madelberta, Abss. 109
„ Magnoald, Ab. ... 94
„ Ma7isuetus, B. of

Toul 35

,, Marcellus, M. ... 44
SS. Marcia?i and

Others, MM. ... 261
S. Margaret of Lou-
vain, V.M. 17

„ Marinus, Deac... 46
„ Maternus, B. of

Treves 230

„ Ma tt hew, Ap,

Evang. M. 323

SS. Ma urice a?id

Comp., MM. ... 329
6". Maurilius, B. of

Angers 186

„ Maxi?nuSj M. ... 247



PAGE

SS. Memorius and
■ Comp., MM. ... 103
,, Me7iodora and
Metrodora, VV.

MM. 145

'S.Methodius, B.M. 291
SS. Michael and All

A7igels 428

S. Modoc, B 108

,, Monessa, V. 47

N.

S. Natalia, W.M.... 113
Nativity of the B.

Virgin no

S. Nemesian us, B.M. 144

,, Nestabo, M. 118

„ Nicetas, M. 176

,, Nicetas the Goth,

M. 248

,, Nicolas Tolentini,

C. 160

„ Nilus, Ab 389

„ Nicomede, P.M... 246

,, Ni7iian, B 262

,, Nivard, Abp. of

Rheims 8

,, Nonnosus, Ab. ... 13
„ Nothburga, V. ... 240
„ Ny?nphodora,V.M. 145

O.

S. Ojner, B 135

„ OfiesiphoruSy M... 87

P.

S. Paphnutius, B.C. 169
SS, Paphnutius and

Comp., MM. ... 362



vm



CONTENTS.



I'AGE

^S". Phocas the Gar-
dener^ M. 327

„ Fhcehe, Deacss. ... 34

„ F/iiIlJ>, M, 184

,, Porphyry^ M, ... 87
„ Prmcipius., Bp. of

Soissons 376

„ Priscus, M. I

„ Prottis, M. 166

„ Pulche7'ia^ Empss. 1 48

<2-

S. Quiriacus, M. ... 67

R.

S. Pegina, V.M. ... loi

„ Pegu la, V.M. ... 169

,, Remacle, B 38

„ Phais, V.M. 70

„ Pobert of Knares-

bo7'Otigh, H. 364

SS. Pomanus and Da-
vid, MM. 75

S. Pomulus, M. 67

„ Posa, V. 57

,, Posalia, V. 53

S.

S. Salaherga, W.A. . 339

,, Salvius,B.of Albi 158

„ Safictiajitis, M. ... 89

,, Satyrius, C. 273

B. Seraphina, Ahss. 127

S. Sergitis I., Pope . 137

„ Sergiiis, Ab 381

, , Severian, M. 132

SS. Socrates and Ste-
phen, MM. 272



PAGE



S. Sozon, M. 98

,, Sperandea,V.Abss. 174,

,, Stephen, K.C. ... 19

,, Susanna, V.M.... 320

T.

S. Tatian, M. 179

„ Thecla, V.M. ... 350

„ Theodard, B.M... 159

,, Theodora, Pen ... 172
,, Theodore, Abp. of

Canterbury 303

,, Theodotus,M. 247

,, Theodttlus, M. ... 179

„ Theophanes, H.... 130
SS. Twelve Brethren,

MM. 2

V.

S. Verena, V. 2

SS. Victor and Ursus,

MM. 441

S. Victor in us, P.M. . 66

,, Vincent, M. 4

W.

S. Wenceslas, K.M. 421

„ Wilfreda, Abss... 140
,, William, B. of

Poskilde 13

Z

aS*. Zenas 397

„ Zeno, C. 118

,, Zeno,M. 12

„ Zeno,M. 68



Lives of the Saints.




September 1.



Joshua, Leader of the Israelites, hi Palestine ; circ. 1450 B.C.

Gideon, Judge of Israel, /« Palestine ; circ. 1210 B.C.

S. Anna, Prophetess at Jerusalem ; begiiming of 1st cent.

S. Priscus, hi. at Capua; \st cent.

SS. Terentianus, B.M., and Flaccus, M. at Tcdi in Utnb)-ia ; circ.

A.D. 118.
SS. SiXTUS AND SiNiCR's, BB. at RJieiins ; circ. a.d. 300.
SS. XII. Brothers, MM. at Benevento ; circ. a.d. 303.
S. Verena, V. at Zjirzach in Switzerlatid.
S. FiRMiNUS, B.C. at Amiens ; circ. a.d. 390.
SS. Vincent, B.M., and L>etus, /".Af. at Tarbes.
S. ViCTORirs, .5. of Sens; circ. a.d. 490.
S. Lupus, B. of Sens; a.d. 623.
S. NiVARD, Abp. of Rheims ; circ. a.d. 673.
S. Giles, Ab. in Proz'ence ; circ. .\.d. 712.



S. PRISCUS, M.

(iST CENT.)
[Roman Martyrology.]

AINT PRISCUS is said by popular legend to
have been the man in whose house Christ ate
the last Passover, and instituted the Blessed
Sacrament. He followed S. Peter to Rome,



and suffered martyrdom at Capua.



VOL. IX.



2 Lives of the Saints. fSept. i.

SS. TWELVE BROTHERS, MM.

(ciRC. A.D. 303.)

[Roman Alartyrology. In no ancient copies of Usuardus or other early
martyrologies. The Brothers on different days in different Itahan cities
which possess their relics. Authority: — The Acts, written before the nth
cent., but not very ancient or trustworthy.]

There were twelve brothers, fearing God, and worshipping
Christ at Carthage, by name Donatus, Felix, Arontius, Hono-
ratus, Fortunatus, Sabinian, Septimius, Januarius, another
Felix, Vitalis, Sator, and Repositus/ They were captured at
Adrumetium, where they had taken refuge until the tyranny
of persecution had overpassed, and were brought to Carthage,
where they were tortured ; and, because they would not re-
nounce Christ, they were sent to Italy chained together by the
neck. Arontius, Honoratus, Fortunatus, and Sabinian were
decapitated at Potentia on the 27 th of August. Next day,
August 28th, Januarius and Felix were executed at Venusia.
On the following day, Vitalis, Sator, and Repositus suffered
at Velinianum. Donatus and Felix were martyred on the
I St of September at Sentianum. The relics of all were
afterwards translated to Beneventum, where they now repose.



S. VERENA, V.
(date uncertain.)

[Roman Martyrology. Some copies of Usuardus, Notker, and Wandel-
bert. The Acts are not trustworthy.]

S. Verena, according to legend, was an Egyptian damsel,
daughter of Chseremon, who came to Milan, when hearing
of the martyrdom of the blessed Maurice and his com-

1 It is improbable that there were two brothers of the same name, Felix. Probably
these martyrs were brothers in the Faith and not in blood.



Sept. I.] •5'. Verena,



panions at Agaunum, she crossed the Alps to visit the spot
watered by their blood, and to collect relics.

She wandered north into Solothurn, and settled in a grotto
in the face of a rock. The cave became afterwards the
favourite resort of hermits, a chapel was built there in 1426,
and renovated in 1555 and 1575. The spot is not one of
the least impressive in Switzerland. It lies at the end of
a pretty valley, hemmed in by rocks of gneiss embowered
in trees, about two miles north-east of Solothurn. It is
reached by paths, originally formed by the French emigres,
who, at the outbreak of the French Revolution, sought an
asylum here. The valley abounds in caves and grottoes,
partly natural, partly artificial, and at its further extremity,
within a natural shelf of over-arching cliff, stands the little
chapel of S. Verena. Behind the altar a small cave has
been cut in the rock, and now contains a representation of
the Holy Sepulchre. In this cave the pious maiden lived,
spending her time m prayer and in ministering to the clean-
liness of soul and body of the peasantry of the neighbour-
hood. Being possessed of a comb, she visited their cottages,
and paid a not unnecessary attention to their heads. In
commemoration of this a Latin inscription was cut on the

rock • —

' ' Pectore dum Christo, dum pectine servit egenis,
Hoc latuit quondam Sancta Verena cavo."

The devil, enraged at the transformation A\Tought by her
solicitude in the heads and hearts of the peasants, tried to
drag her away from the cave and dash her over the rocks ;
but she saved herself by clinging fast to the stone, and the
holes made by her finger-nails are shown to this day.

After awhile Verena resumed her pilgrim's staff and
journeyed to Coblenz, and from thence to Zurzach in
Canton Aargau, where she died. The body lies in an
ancient crypt under the collegiate church of Zurzach. Over



4 Lives of the Saints. [Sept. i.

it is erected a monument representing the saint lying with
her comb in one hand and a porringer in the other ; and a
wreath of roses round her head.

It is probable that S. Verena lived much later than the
date generally attributed to her, and that her visit to Agaunum
has led to her having been supposed a contemporary of
S. Maurice.



S. FIRMINUS, B. OF AMIENS.

(about A.D. 390.)
[Gallican Martyrology. The Acts are late and full of anachronisms.]

S. FiRiMiNus was the third bishop of Amiens. His father,
Faustinian, prefect of Gaul, had been baptized by the martyr
Firminus (September 25th), and in honour of his spiritual
father gave this name to his son. Eulogius, second Bishop
of Amiens, died about a.d. 350, and Firminus was elected
in his room. He administered the diocese with prudence
during the forty years that he directed it. He was buried
in the church now called S. Acheuil, which he is said to
have built. But his body was translated to the cathedral
in the seventh century by S. Salvius.



SS. VINCENT AND L^TUS, MM.
(date uncertain.)

[Roman Martyrology ; also the Spanish Martyrologies. The only autho-
rity for the Acts of these saints is popular tradition.]

Vincent, a priest, and Lsetus his companion, are regarded
at Tarbes as the apostles of that part of France, and martyrs
for the faith. But they are also venerated in Spain, at
I.ibisosa, where they are said to have suffered.



Sept. I.] ^- Lupus. ' 5

S. LUPUS, ABP. OF SENS.
(a.d. 623.)

[Roman and Galilean ATartyrologies. Ado, Usuardus, Notker, and
Wandelbert, Peter de Natalibus, Molanus, Canisius, &c. The "Life" is
very ancient, probably of the 7th cent., and is trustworthy.]

S. Lupus, in French Leu^ was born in a.d. 573, near
Orleans, and was the son of a prince named Betto, and
Aiistregild, who was of royal blood. The brothers of
Austregild were Austrenius, Bishop of Orleans, and Aunarius,
Bishop of AuxeiTe. Contrary to the custom of the time,
Austregild nourished her child at her own breast, instead of
confiding him to a foster-mother. When the child grew to
the age when he could discern good from evil, she com-
mitted him to the care of his uncles. It is said that his
boyish voice was so sweet and soft, that when he sang in the
churches men doubted if an angel were not chanting.
Having manifested from childhood a desire to serve God at
the altar, no opposition was offered to his inclination, and
he retired to learn perfection into the holy isle of Lerins,
the nursery of saints. On the death of S. Arthemius,
Bishop of Sens, in a.d. 609, with the consent of the king,
Lupus was elected to the vacant seat.

The piety, gentleness, and zeal of the bishop became
renowned ; but among the coarse-minded courtiers of King
Theoderic II. and Brunehaut, many a scandalous jest or
slanderous tale circulated relative to the great churchmen of
the day, and Lupus was not spared. Verosa, the daughter
of the late bishop, was always about with Lupus, and the
bishop seemed very fond of her. Folkar, a noble, godson
of Betto, the bishop's father, full of indignation, hastened to
Sens, and told Lupus what was said of him.

The bishop smiled, and summoned the young girl into



6 Lives of the Saints. [Sept. i.

his presence before Folkar ; then, laying his hands on her
shoulders, he stooped and kissed her pure brow.

" The ugly words of men matter nothing, when the
conscience is white," said Lupus ; "I love the maiden
dearly, but purely, in Jesus Christ my King."

On the death of Theoderic, Clothairll., son of Chilperic,
and King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and Burgundy.
His officer, Blidebod, laid siege to Sens, and took it by
storm ; the troops bursting in began to cut down and spear
every one they met, when Lupus, flying to the church,
caught the bell-rope and pulled it. The clang of the
bell arrested the soldiers, panic fell on them, and they
retired.

Burgundy having fallen under the power of Clothair, the
king exiled Lupus to Neustria, which was still in part
Pagan : and the saintly prelate spent his time, whilst in
banishment, preaching to and baptizing the idolaters.

The chief accuser of Lupus had been Medegisl, Abbot of
S. Remi, who hoped to obtain the archbishopric when
Lupus was removed ; but the people, infuriated at his-
conduct, burst into the church of S. Remi, and tore the
abbot to pieces. At this time S. Winebald was abbot at
Troyes, a man of great sanctity and generally esteemed. At
the request of the Archdeacon of Sens, he sought Clothair,
and entreated him to restore Lupus to his afflicted flock.
The abbot wrung consent from the king, and then hast-
ened into Neustria to find the bishop and bring him back
to Sens.

The return of Lupus to his diocese was a triumph,
miracles and enthusiastic crowds attested his sanctity and
popularity.

One day, we are told. Lupus was saying mass, when a
j ewel suddenly dropped into the chalice. This was regarded
as miraculous, though it had probably become detached



Sept. I.] ^. Ltcpus, 7

from his mitre or other vestments ; and it was preserved in
the treasury as a relic.

Clothair sent for the bell of S. Stephen's, which had
wrought such a panic among his soldiers, and had arrested
the massacre of the Senonese, and it was taken to Paris,
but as it did not seem to him very remarkable, he sent it
back again, and it was received with pomp of banners and
procession by the people.

Lupus died in a.d. 623, in the village of Brinon, and was
buried under the eaves of the church of S. Columba at
Sens, according to his dying wish. The story is told of
him, that when exiled from Sens, he cast his ring into the
moat. Shortly before his return, a fisherman caught a
barbel at Melun, in whose belly he found the ring, which
was taken back to the cathedral, where it is still preserved.

The story is told also of S, Kentigern, S. Atilal of
Zamora, S. Amald, Bishop of Metz ; S. Maurillus, S. Benno,
and S. Egwin, Bishop of Worcester, who are said in like
manner to have thrown away the keys of their churches,
and to have found them again in fishes.

But the story is a very common and ancient one ; it is told
of Solomon, who lost his ring and with it his power ; he then
became captive, and not till it was found in a fish's stomach
and returned to his finger, did he recover his throne and
power.^ The story is found also in the " Arabian Nights "
(Night 495), and is the same as the Indian legend of
Sakontala. It is found among Aleutian tales, but in this
case it is a golden bowl which is swallowed."

f

» Tendlan, Judischer Legende, Nr. 39.

2 Radloff, Volkslitteratur d. Tiirkischen Stamme Siid Sibirlens, Petersb. i.
p. 115, 868—902. Compare also Pauli, Schimpf u. Ernst, No. 635, Jubinal, Nouveau
Recueil, i. p. i, Heidelberger Jahrbucher, Nr. 1867, p. 78.



8 Lives of the Saints.



[Sept. I.



S. NIVARD, ABP. OF RHEIMS.
(about a.d. 673.)

[Galilean and Roman Marty rologies. Authority:— A Life by Almann,
monk of Altvillars, in the 9th cent.]

S. NiVARD or Nivon belonged to the family of the Kings
of Aiistrasia. The name of his four brothers were Bavo,
Theoderam, S. Gundebert, and Baldwin; his brother-in-
law, Childeric, had a daughter, who married S. Regulus
(Reuil), afterwards Archbishop of Rheims.

S. Nivard was elected about the year 649 to the arch-
bishopric of Rheims. No particulars of any interest have
been related concerning him.



S. GILES, AB.
(about a.d. 712.)

[Roman Martyrology ; some of the additions to Bede's Martyrology.
Not Usuardus. Galilean Marty rologies. York, Sarum, and modern
Anglican Kalendars. The Lives of S. Giles are all later than the 8th cent.;
full of anachronisms and marvels. They make Giles son of a Greek king,
who came to S. Caesarius, B. of Aries, and met Flavius, King of the Goths ;
then, by orders of Charles Martel, King of the Franks, he went to Orleans.
S. Caesarius died A.D. 542, Charles Alartel in A.D, 741. Mabillon "unura
illud pro certo enuntiat, ActaS. .^gidii nullius pene esse momenti ; adeoque
idonea non esse ad factum aliquod historieum stabiliendum. Huic censurce, "
says the Bollandist father, " libenter subscribo cum eruditis omnibus."]

All the earlier part of the legend of S. Giles is purely
fabulous. It relates that he was a Greek of Athens, son of
Theodore and Pelagia, who sailed to Marseilles and became
acquainted with S. Csesarius of Aries. This must be cast
aside as utterly legendary, and we come to what appears to
be history.



Sept. I.] '5'. Giles. 9

One day Childebert, King of the Franks, according to
some ; according to others, Wamba, King of the Goths,^
was following the chase in the forests on the side of the
Rhone where it flows into the Mediterranean, when a doe
was started, and pursued by the hunters, fled for refuge
to a cave, and penetrated into it ; an an-ow was shot after
it. The hunters entered the grotto, and found a white-
haired hermit sheltering the doe, with the arrow in his
shoulder. For the old man had lived long in this solitary
place, nourished by the milk of the doe.

The king, touched, as these wild but simple natures almost
always were, by the sight of this grand old man, almost
naked, caused the wound to be dressed, returned often to
see him, and at last made him consent to the erection of a
monastery upon the site of his grotto, of which he became
abbot.

The fame of the venerable Giles reached the ears of
Charles Martel, and he sent for him to Orleans. The
abbot made the journey, saw and conversed with the iron
hero. On his return to Provence, he was greeted with the
news that two cedar doors had been washed up on the
strand. They were at once, by his orders, removed and fitted
to entrances of the church of his abbey. Such was the origin
of that celebrated and powerful abbey of S. Giles, which
became one of the great pilgrim shrines of the Middle Ages,
and gave birth* to a town, the capital of a district whose
name was borne with pride by one of the niost powerful
feudal races, and which retains still a venerable church,
classed amongst the most remarkable monuments of sculp-
ture and architecture.

S. Giles is represented in art in monastic habit with his

^ The Lives say King Flavian ; no such name is known among the Visigothic
kings. Wamba reigned from 672 to 680.



lo Lives of the Saints. [Sept. i.

hind at his side, his hand resting on its head and pierced
with an arrow.

The reHcs of S. Giles are preserved at S. Sernin in Tou-
louse. S. Giles is reckoned in Germany as one of the
Vierzehn Noth-helfer. On his day at Valencia, it is the
custom to bless a sprig of fennel.



Sept „ J kS. Antoninus. 1 1



September 2.

S. Antoninus, M. at Apavt^a in. Syria.

SS. Zeno, Concordius, a^.'d Others, MM. at Nicoinedia ; a.d. 362.

S. Justus, B. 0/ Lyous ; circ. a.d. 390.

S. Elpidius, Ab. in the MarcJies of Ancotia ; sth cent.

S. MoNNOSUS, Ab. on Mount Soracte in Italy ; 6th cent.

S. Agricola, B. o/Avi_^non; circ. a.d. 700.

S. William, B. of Roskilde, hi Denmark ; a.d. 1067.

S. '^iT^.VM's.^, K. of Hungary, at Stjihliveissenbnrg ; a.d. 1308.

B. Margaret, V.M. at Lonvain; a.u. 1220.

S. ANTONINUS, M.
(date uncertain.)

[Roman Martyrology. Ado, Usuardus, S:c. His veneration in Syria can
be traced to the 6th cent., as may be seen from a passage in a book quoted
at the Council of Constantinople in 536; see Labbaeus, v. 243. The-
Greek Menology in Nov. 9. Authorities : — Mentioned in the Menaea and
Menology.]

AINT ANTONINUS was a stone-cutter in Syria,
who, entering an idol temple, rebuked the people
for worshipping images of stone. Then he went
away, and for two years lived with a hermit
named Theotimus, among the rocks. At the end of this
time he returned to the city and temple, and, in a fit of zeal,
struck and felled the image of the god in it. He was
hustled out, and threatened, but was not injured. It is
therefore probable that the period was late, not earHer than
the reign of Constantine, or Constantius. He went to-
Apamaea, where the bishop employed him to build a church
to the Holy Trinity. He was killed by the people in a riot,
for they were incensed at the erection of a church, and pro-
pably at the compulsory closing of the temples.

By a curious mistake, the people of Pamiers in the soutli




12 Lives of the Saints.



[Sept.



of France, have thought that Apamaea meant their city, and
have, therefore, constituted S. Antoninus their patron.
They have composed for him a harrowing martyrdom, and
liave succeeded in discovering his bones at Pamiers. The
body is now at Palencia, translated thither from Pamiers.



SS. ZENO, CONCORDIUS, AND OTHERS, MM.

(a.d. 362.)

[Roman Alartyrology. Authorities : — The purely fabulous Acts.]

Zeno and his two sons, Concordius and Theodore, Pater-
nus, a tribune, and his wife Theodota, sixty-eight soldiers,
a mother and her two little children, Serapion and seventy-
two soldiers, Cusconus, Menalippus and Joseph, are said
by the apocryphal acts to have suffered at Nicomedia, under
the apostate Julian. As Julian did not persecute the Church,
such martyrdoms could not have taken place under him.
The Greeks know nothing of the story. A certain Zeno
is said by them to have been killed in boiling lead, but
there is no reason for supposing him to have been the same
as the Zeno who, it is fabled, suffered under Julian. A
Melanippus is also commemorated, but where he suffered is
not stated. In the acts Zeno is executed with the sword.



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