Samuel Armor.

History of Orange County, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its earliest growth and development from the early days to the present online

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reported on the yield of No. 7, although it was said to be equallv violent with
No. 6.

Early in August, 1920, Huntington Beach well No. 1 on the mesa was
brought in with a small intermittent flow, which later became constant and in-
creased to nearly 150 barrels of 24 to 26 gravity oil per day. This established
the character of that section as proven oil territory. Immediately all land, not
already under contract, was leased by some of the operating companies. The
Newport mesa well and the well at Olive are about ready for testing early in
September, although the drillers think they may have to go deeper. A new well
is being started near Orange County Park, and others are being planned or
drilled in different parts of the county, especially in or near proven territory. It
is not always wise in argument to reason from a few particulars to a general
conclusion: but. producing oil wells are becoming so numerous and widely
scattered, it is almost safe to conclude that the whole of Orange County is under-
laid with oil sand, though it may be at different depths in different localities.

Other wells might be mentioned, but space forbids. However, the Brea
Progress-]\Tunger Oil News Service gave quite an extensive survey of the oil fields
of Orange County and adjoining territory on June 26, 1920, prepared by El wood
J. Munger. A summary of this report shows 170 wells drilling, 930 producing,
with a daily output of 76,000 barrels of oil, ranging in gravity from 14 to 27.



HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY 147

and in price from $1.43 per barrel for the lowest gravity oil to $1.93 for the
highest. While a large majority of the wells mentioned in the report are in
Orange County, yet the inclusion of wells at Santa Fe Springs, Whittier, Monte-
bello and other outside fields would prevent this county claiming all the credit
for the fine showing in this report. If only half of the daily output reported, or
38,000 barrels, be credited to this county, and if the average price received be
$1.68 per barrel, which is the average between $1.43 and $1.93, then Orange
County would receive a gross income of $23,301,000 from its oil industry each
year. If, however, two-thirds of the daily output reported, or 50,666 barrels,'
be credited to this county, and if the average price received be $1.68 per barrel,
then Orange County would receive a gross income of $31,068,391 from its oil
industry each year. The latter sum tallies pretty closely with the estimate of the
Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce.

But, however estimated, the oil industry is clearly the largest asset of Orange
County, and makes this county safe from light, heat and power troubles.



CHAPTER XXVI

THE CITRUS INDUSTRY
By G. W. Sandilands

The orange was born in India: when, history does not sa}-. Thence it found
its way into Arabia and Syria, and in the eleventh century was growing in Italy,
Sicily and Spain, Europe's greatest citrus fruit regions. The sixteenth century
brought the orange to America. Across the Atlantic the Spaniards brought it
in their conquest of the new world.

California saw the orange in 1769, or within the next few years after, for
it was then that the Franciscans started north out of Lower California. In
1792 oranges are known, by mission records, to have been growing at the San
Buena Ventura Mission. San Gabriel Mission, near Los Angeles, had the
most extensive grove. This w-as set out in 1804, In 1818 there were 211 fruit
trees, oranges and others, at San Gabriel. Two small groves were planted in
Los Angeles in 1834, the first outside of the Mission gardens. \\'illiam Wolfskill
set out two acres in 1841, the first intended for commercial use. In 1857, L.
\"an Luven, pioneer fruit man in the region now holding the great orchards of
Sari Bernardino \'alley, planted forty-five seedling trees. In 1865, 200 trees were
set out at Crafton, near Redlands.

Sacramento saw the first orange tree in the northern section in 1855. By
1862 there were 25,000 citrus fruit trees in California. In 1870, the first seeds
were planted at Riverside. However, the real era of the citrus fruit industry
was started in 1873. It was in that year that L. C. Tibbetts, of Riverside, planted
two trees from the Department of Agriculture, which secured a small shipment
of trees from Bahia, F.razil. The superiority of the fruit of these trees was
quickly recognized. The trees were named the Washington Navel, and in the
next decade several thousand acres of Washington Navels were planted in Cali-
fornia. The original trees are still living and are objects of interest to the
people and visitors of Riverside. Some years ago one of these trees was removed
from its original home to the grounds of the Glenwood Inn, and reset with great
pomp and ceremony on the occasion of a visit of President Roosevelt, the
distinguished visitor taking part in the work of transplanting.

By Charles C, Chapman

Orange County, as the name implies, gives splendid evidence of being the
ideal section for the culture of the orange. It is as highly developed here as in
any other part of the world. Indeed, I do not hesitate to say that the orange
grown here has no equal. This is demonstrated by the fact that for years



148 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY

oranges from this county have brought the highest prices, in the most discriminat-
ing market of the country, of any oranges grown in the world.

The soil afid climate of Orange County are splendidly adapted to the culture
of the orange. Indeed, the Divine hand has been lavish in bestowing upon all
Southern California, and upon Orange County in particular, rare natural advan-
tages, perhaps greater than those enjoyed by any other section over which the
flag floats. The magnificent mountain ranges not only form picturesque scenery
and giant bulwarks to guard the fertile valleys, but are our great natural reser-
voirs. Our coast is washed by the boundless Pacific. Our climate is faultless.
In fact, it is not too much to say that as to the fertility of soil, the charming
climate and the scenery with its grandeur and beauty, it is not surpassed the
world around.

Not only are the climate and soil of this county adapted to the culture
of the orange, but irrigating water is in abundance and rain is as plentiful as
in any other section in Southern California. The temperature does not go as
high in summer or as low in winter here as in the more inland sections. The
extremes are not experienced, and, therefore, oranges are frequently held here
upon the trees for many months after they are fully matured and without serious
detriment to their texture, color or flavor.

The splendid equipment for packing oranges now found in our packing
houses is the result of a very considerable evolution in the orange industry.
Ingenious men have invented machinery, as well as discovered new and improved
methods of doing work in every department, from clipping the fruit from the
tree to putting it on the market.

The methods of handling oranges were very crude and simple at first.
There was no uniformity of pack, or any method in general adopted by the early
growers and packers. The only thought seemingly in the mind of the shipper
was to get the fruit in some sort of package in order to ship to the consumer.
During these early days Chinamen were generally employed to do the packing.
The fruit was cut from the trees and piled up on the ground or in sheds, and
the Chinamen sat upon the ground or floor and made selection as to size from
the pile and put them in the box, sometimes wrapping them with the ordinary
coarse brown paper, such as was usually found in the grocery stores of that day.

Soon, however, enterprising shippers began to realize that if the fruit was
uniformly sized it would pack more evenly and be more attractive. Some very-
simple and inexpensive machinery for doing this was invented. Perhaps the
first machine for sizing of any pretensions was the one known as the California
grader. This was a simple rope grader about ten feet long and worked by foot
power. From time to time this was lengthened until some were made from
twenty to thirty feet long, delivering fruit to bins arranged on either side and
extending five to ten feet longer.

Other sizers more complicated and with greater capacity and accuracy have
been invented. There are two or three quite extensive factories in Southern
California which make packing-house equipment for doing practically all work
in the handling of the orange. There are now on the market washers, driers,
polishers, graders, sizers, separators and wrapping machines of several designs
and at various prices.

Progress has been made along all lines of the business. Uniform packages
have been adopted for both the orange and the lemon. These are embellished
with lettering and designs printed in colors on slats and ends. Shippers have
individual brands, and most shippers use elaborate and beautifully colored litho-
graphic labels of these on the ends of the boxes. The orange wrappers have
also been changed from the coarse brown paper to fine silk tissue, upon which
richly colored designs or monograms are printed. Some of the most enterprising
shippers use two-color prints on their wrappers, and some who cater to the
best Eastern trade use beautifully laced and printed side curtains for the boxes.
Thus we have now going from all our packing houses uniform and attractive



HISTORY OF ORAXGE COL'XTV 149

packages. One shipper in Orange County even tags every orange of a certain
brand with a little green and gold tag, a specially prepared macliine being used
for the purpose. In some packing houses the equipment is very elaborate and
expensive, costing many thousands of dollars, and with a capacity of ten cars
per day.

The first orange trees put out in Orange County, as in Los Angeles and
Riverside counties, were seedlings, the present popular varieties being unknown
here. Much time was required for these to come into bearing, as the seedling
is slower in this regard than the budded varieties. However, the time came
when there were a few oranges ready for the market.

The modern packing houses with their splendid equipment were, of course,
unknown in that early day ; nevertheless the fruit was, after a fashion, packed
and shipped. It found a ready market and at such splendid prices that the
culture of the orange became an attractive and established industry in several
sections of the country.

Very naturally an occupation which is so attractive as citrus culture soon
interested many enterj^rising men. * Some realized that other varieties than the
seedling might prove more profitable. Immediately steps were taken to secure
varieties adapted to the climate. The result in a few years was the introduction
of a number of varieties which have proven productive and profitable and well
adapted to our soil and climate.

Among the standard varieties of oranges grown in this county, besides
the Washington Navel, are the IMediterranean Sweets, St. ]\Iichael, Malta and
Ruby Blood, Satsuma and the Valencia Lates. From 1886 to 1890 quite a run
was made by the ^Mediterranean Sweets and many thousand trees were put
out. It was thought that this variety would supply the late spring demand, after
the season of the \\^ashington Navel had passed. It has proven a tender orange
and not altogether -satisfactory. One reason for this variety not being in more
favor (though of late years it has very generally proven profitable"), was the
introduction of an orange that more completely filled the requirements of a late
orange. This is the ^'alencia Late, which in many respects, as it has been
developed here, is the best orange grown in the world. For more than twenty
years it has made the record for prices received for California oranges. It
has many excellent qualities which make it a most desirable and profitable
orange for grower, handler and consumer. It is the best keeper on or off the
tree, and therefore a splendid shipping orange for the autumn. It has been
the most popular orange with growers for many years, and especially in Orange
County, which seems to be able to produce this splendid variety more perfectly
than any other .section of the state.

The writer has been informed by A. D. Bishop, an old and honored orange
grower living near Orange, that the first orchard planted in that section, if not
in the county, was by Patterson Bowers. He put out about two acres in 1873
on the south side of what is now Walnut Avenue, a street running east from
the city of Orange and where the street descends into the bed of Santiago
Creek. In 1874 B. River planted five acres of seedling trees. These trees were
purchased from T. A. Garey, of Los Angeles, and hauled down in a wagon.
The following year the remainder of the ten-acre ranch was set out with trees
grown in the nurseries of D. C. Hayward and Joseph Beach at Orange. This
orchard was on land platted by Chapman and Glassed and known as the Rich-
land farm, and now a part of the city of Orange. This was soon followed by
an orchard planted by a Mr. Diminock and Joseph Fisher. This was located
northwest of Orange. In 1876 Dr. W. B. Wall put out an orchard at Tustin.
This was soon followed by orchards set out in that district by Samuel Preble.
Mr. Tustin, Mr. Wilcox, Mr. Snow and Mr. Adams, old-time residents.

In 1878 M. A. Peters and John Gregg planted orchards about one mile south
of Orange from trees grown by themselves budded from trees purchased from the
Garey Nursery in Los Angeles.



150 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY

The Gregg place is the one now owned by A. D. Bishop. Trees in good
bearing condition are here which were budded in the nursery in 1876, now
forty-three years ago. Some of the trees planted by ]\Ir. Peters in 1878 are
producing fruit equal to if not identical with the \'alencias coming from
Florida at a later date.

The first orchard set out in the Placentia district was by R. H. Gilman. lie
put out forty acres in 1875 on what is still known as the Gilman ranch on
Placentia- Avenue, ^\'illiam M. McFadden, about 1880, put out twenty acres
further up the same avenue. The following year Dr. Tombs, whose property
lay between Gilman's and McFadden's, put out several acres. These men
planted seedlings and Australian Navels, as it was before the stock of the
Washington Navels was on the market.

Closely following the setting of the above orchards came Theodore Staley.
Peter Hansen and "Sir. McDowell into the neighborhood. These men set out
small orchards, the two former on Placentia Avenue and the latter the orchard
now owned by ^Ir. Klokke. For a few years thereafter there was considerable
activity in planting orchards in this district. -

Even before any of the above orchards were put out there were scattered
about in the yards of the residents of Anaheim a few orange trees. These v.-ere
seedlings, but they demonstrated that what is now the northern part of Orange
County was adapted to orange culture. Among the first, if not the very first, to
put out orchards of any considerable size about Anaheim was a Air. Knappe and
Henry Brimmerman.

It is thought that the black scale was brought in on trees from Los Angeles.
We are to suppose, therefore, that growers from the very beginning of the indus-
try were troubled with this pest.

The red scale, which has at times done great damage to orchards, did not
make its presence felt until 1884 and 1885. T. A. Garey, above mentioned, is
supposed to claim the honor for having introduced it into California. Some, how-
ever, say it was brought in by jMr. Hayward on Australian Navel stock which he
brought from Australia. The fact, however, that this scale appeared in the San
Gabriel orchards some time before it did at Orange would seem to disprove the
latter statement.

These scale pests soon became a real menace to the orange business and
very early efiforts for their destruction were made. About 1882, spraying with
caustic washes, using fish oil as a base for carrying the alkali was pretty generally
adopted. Little benefit, if any, was had from this spray, it not proving effective,
and often doing damage to the fruit and tree. In 1885 i\Ir. Bishop invented what
is known as the raisin wash. This was quite generally used until the invention of
fumigating in 1889.

Fumigating with gas made from cyanide of potassium antl sulphuric acid
has proven the most effective method of destroying scale pests yet discovered, and
is used in all orange sections infected with scale. A. D. Bishop must have the
credit for giving to the growers this splendid discovery. It has really been the
salvation of the orange industry in Southern California. The division of ento-
mology of the Department of Agriculture at ^^'ashington sent special agents here
from time to time to discover some method, if possible, to destroy the scale pests
which were becoming a serious menace. For several years experiments were
made chiefly with sprays. These have proven unsatisfactory, in fact, practically
worthless as an insecticide.

There was trouble at first in fumigating because of the gas burning the trees
and fruit. Then it was noticed that the injury was less on cloudy days ; so the
tents were painted black. In their experiments Drs. \\'. B. ^^'all and j\I. S. Jones
discovered that fumigating at night was even better than with painted tents, be-
cause of the lower temperature at night. They accordingly associated themselves
with A. D. Bishop and took out a patent on night fumigation, which soon was
dubbed the "twilight patent." This patent was oft'ered to the fruit growers of



HISTORY OF ORAXGP: COL'XTV 151

Soutliern California for $10,000; but they lacked one vote on the board of super-
visors of Orange County to consummate the sale to the counties. The courts
afterward annulled the patent on the ground that darkness, or the absence of
light, was not patentable.

The first cars of oranges were shipped in 1883 by M. A. Peters and A. D.
Bishop. These gentlemen sent two cars to Des Moines, Iowa. A few other cars
were sent out from the county that year. The shipment for 1910 was 840,960
boxes of oranges and 43,392 boxes of lemons: that for 1920 was estimated
2,000,000 boxes of oranges and about 300,000 boxes of iemons.

Many hundreds of acres only recently set out will soon be in bearing, so that
we may confidently expect to ship out of Orange County before many years from
five to six thousand cars of the finest citrus fruit grown in the world.

Crop estimators have used the returns of the Orange County Fruit Exchange
for 1919 as a basis for estimating the value of the county's citrus crop for that
year. This exchange, with headquarters at Orange, is the selling agent for eleven
citrus associations, all located southeast of the Santa Ana River, except the one,
at Garden Grove, and handles at least seventy per cent of the crop in that territory.
It is claimed that the territory northwest of the river produces fully as much fruit
as that southeast of the stream.

At the annual meeting of the exchange, February '), 1020, the following direc-
tors were elected for the ensuing vear: D. C. Drake, \\'illard Smith, R, W. Jones,
Wade Flippen, George B. Shattuck, Ed Utt, E. B. Collier, E. D. White, J. O.
Arkley, D. E. Huff, A. E. Bennett. The board organized with D. C. Drake as
president; Willard Smith, vice-president; L. D. Palmer, secretary, and A. E. Ben-
nett, exchange representative.

From the secretary's annual report it is learned that the exchange shipped
2,622 carloads of oranges, of 462 boxes to the car, and 584 carloads of lemons.
The shipments, divided according to varieties, were as follows: \'alencias,
1,152,145 boxes; lemons. 239,609 boxes; Navels. 42.073 boxes; sweets. 12.858
boxes ; miscellaneous. 3.022 boxes ; total. 1.450,707 boxes. The returns from these
shipments were $5,495,444,49, which is $1,261,525.42 more than for any previous
season.

The large acreage of orajiges set out during the last live years will soon
increase the orange crojj for the county to five and six million boxes annually.
In no other section in Southern California have so many orange trees been put
out in recent _\ears as in Orange Count}'.



CHAPTER XXVII
BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY

The following description of the beet sugar industr\- has been largely gleaned
from an article on that subject prepared by Truman G. Palmer, secretary of the
United States Beet Sugar Industry, in 1913, three years subsequent to the publi-
cation of the first volume of this history, and one }ear prior to the beginning of
the recent World \\ar.

The earliest atteniiit to ])roduce sugar from beets in the United States was
made in Philadelphia in 1830 by two Germans named \'aughan and Ronaldson,
but their efforts were unsuccessful. Eight years later David Lee Child erected a
small factory at Northampton, Mass., and succeeded in producing a small quantity
of sugar, for which he was awarded a silver medal which bore the following
inscription : "The ^lassachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, Award to
David Lee Child, for the first beet sugar made in America, Exhibition of 1839."

Due to lack of technical knowledge in both field and factory, the Xortham]iton
plant operated but one season.



152 HISTORV OF ORANGE COUNTY

In 1852 Bishop Tyler, of the Mormon Church, purchased. in France the ma-
chinery for a factory, shipped it by water to Fort Leavenworth, Kans., and hauled
it by ox team from there to Salt Lake City. This effort was also a failure. Dur-
ing the next few years, attempts were made to produce beet sugar in the LTnited
.States as follows? Illinois, 1863-71; Wisconsin, 1868-71; New Jersey, 1870-76;
Maine, 1S76 ; but all these efforts ended in failure, which absorbed some $2,250,000,
and ruined most of the men who attempted to establish the industry in America.

The first American to wrest success from failure was E. H. Dyer, who erected
a small plant at Alvarado, Cal., in 1879. Although a failure for many years,
much of which time the plant was idle, it finally became a success. Several times
it has been rebuilt and re-equipped with machinery and while running today, it
never will pay interest on more than a fraction of the money invested in it.

In 1883 the Federal Treasury needed money and Congress had become en-
thusiastic about the possibility of producing our sugar supply at home, so our
national legislature enacted a tariff bill which carried a duty of three and one-
half cents a pound on refined sugar and two and one-half cents on raw. But no
one knew what soil or climate were required for producing high grade beets, nor
how to grow them, nor how to operate a factory, and the string of dismal failures
reaching from ocean to ocean made capitalists cautious. Even when our Federal
Treasury was overflowing in 1890 and sugar was placed on the free list, the bounty
of two cents per pound, which was placed on domestic production, failed to attract
capital, as did also the Wilson forty per cent ad valorem bill of 1894.

However, when the Dingley bill of 1897 was passed and William McKinley
made James Wilson secretary of agriculture, a new order of affairs was estab-
lished. Although the duty fixed on sugar imports was but fifty-two per cent of
what it had been under the bill of 1883 and but six factories were in existence,
the Department of Agriculture set to work to determine where favorable natural
conditions existed, to learn and to teach the farmers cultural methods and to ex-
ploit the industry generally. It was deemed wise that a great industry, destined
to supply a large portion of the $400,000,000 worth of sugar which we annually
consume, should be scattered as widely over the states as possible. To this end
• the Department issued a wall map, on which was traced the theoretical beet sugar
area of the United States. This map was changed from time to time to corre-
spond with increased knowledge of the adaptability-tDf the country to this industry.
The last statement of the Department concerning this subject shows that we have
in the L'nited States 274.000,000 acres, the soil and climate of which are adapted
to sugar beet culture. If but a fraction of one per cent of this area were planted
to sugar beets, it would furnish all the sugar we consume.

Doctor Wiley and the Bureau of Chemistry and Doctor Galloway and the
Bureau of Plant Industry were set to work ; a field agent was placed on the road
to investigate conditions throughout the country and experiments were conducted
in various states. As a result of the information and the inviting conditions set
forth in the numerous bulletins and reports of the Department, in fourteen years.



Online LibrarySamuel ArmorHistory of Orange County, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its earliest growth and development from the early days to the present → online text (page 19 of 191)