Samuel Armor.

History of Orange County, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its earliest growth and development from the early days to the present online

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Online LibrarySamuel ArmorHistory of Orange County, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its earliest growth and development from the early days to the present → online text (page 25 of 191)
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was found that most of the farmers of the county are employing one method or
another of keeping books, but in most cases their S}'stems are more complicated
than the one suggested by the University. Eight Farm Account Demonstra-
tion meetings were held during the year, at which the farmer was instructed in
the value of bookkeeping and the simplicity of the method recommended by
the University. The Farm Advisor expects to place at least fifty books more
in the county during the next two months.

It is becoming a fact now that bud selection in trees is as important as
cow testing in a dairy. The trees have to be bred up as well as stock, in order
to obtain the best returns. The Farm Bureau has been alert to this necessity
and has -been guiding the orchardist along that line. Three orchards have been
located by the Farm Advisor for the purpose of showing the value of bud selec-
tion, marking trees, and tree performance records. The citrus men of the
county, especially, are much concerned in this project. In going over the county,
we can pick out one orchard after another in which the trees are not bringing
the desired returns. Although every care has been given them in orchard man-
agement they do not respond. Such trees in most cases have been developed
from buds taken from non-bearing stock. The Farm Bureau expects to cooperate
with the riant Physiologist of the Department of Agriculture through the
coming year and bring before the farmers of the county all records and data
that may be furnished by the plots conducted by the Department.

Among the most popular demonstrations that have been conducted by the
Farm Advisor during the year are the pruning demonstrations, inasmuch as a
large portion of the county is devoted to horticultural interests. Six citrus
pruning demonstrations, nine deciduous pruning demonstrations, and one walnut
demonstration were held during the year. At some of these demonstrations mem-
bers of the Pomological Department and the Citrus Experiment Station assisted.
In the deciduous work the long system of pruning has been advocated over the
old system of heading back. Demonstration trees have been located in four
orchards of the county, where the comparison between the two systems may
be observed.

Two demonstrations were held showing the effect of arsenical poisoning in
the control of the morning glory. These demonstrations have not given satis-
factory results. The application of liquid arsenical poisoning has not proven
to give any better results than a very deep cultivation. However, we have been
able to show the farmer that he may use the poisoning as a substitute for culti-
vation under our conditions here, but that he must not allow the growing plant
to develop above the surface of the ground. If he would substitute spraying
for cultivation, he must do the same with absolute regularity so as to finall\-
choke the life out of the weed in question.

The new liquid gas method of fumigation is revolutionizing the fumigation
methods of the county. The Farm Bureau has been instrumental in disseminat-
ing the latest information, both chemical and field methods, to the citrus growers
of the county, 'i'he members of the Experiment Station Stafif and I'nitcd
Stales Department cif .Agriculture, liaving this work in charge, have cooperated


fully with the Farm Bureau during the year in promoting this new system. Two
special fumigation meetings were held at which the new method of applying the
gas was shown.

The walnut growers of the county are facing a very serious pest in the codling
moth, inasmuch as fifty per cent of the fruit of some groves has been infested.
The Experiment Station has been working on a dust spray for the purpose of
controlling the walnut worm. Six demonstrations were held during the year,
showing the method of mixing and applying the arsenical dust spray for this

A very destructive pest infesting the beet and garden truck fields of the
county is the soil nematode. The Farm Bureau is conducting a demonstration
plot in the sugar beet section in which substitute crops are being planted for
the purpose of demonstrating their resistance to the nematode, and also their
adaptability to the soil and climatic conditions of the county, ^^■ith the coopera-
tion of the Bureau of Plant Industry, it is hoped to work out a satisfactory
system of rotation by which the nematode infestation may be overcome.

A very satisfactory tractor demonstration was held in connection with the
annual meeting of the Farm Bureau. Ten tractors were on the ground, showing
many desirable features, and also demonstrating their class of work. Two thou-
sand two hundred people visited this tractor show. The Farm Advisor is also
arranging three special meetings at which repairing and the upkeep of the farm
tractor will be discussed by University experts.

EHiring the last days of the war. last fall and winter, the Farm Bureau
appealed to the barley growers of the county to plant a larger acreage to wheat.
The farmers responded nobly. Instead of the average planting of 700 acres in
the county as usual, they came forth with 4,400 acres, an increase of 600 per
cent. The use of Defiance wheat has been urged, as it is quite rust resistant.
The valley in which our wheat is raised is very subject to rust disease. The yield
per acre in Orange County was very encouraging this year, in spite of the dry
season generally experienced.

The Citrus Experiment Station has made a survey of irrigation waters in
Orange County for the purpose of determining the prevalence and degree of
alkalinity both in well waters and rivers from which waters are taken. The
Farm Advisor gave considerable time to collecting samples and getting the
farmers and water companies in general to take advantage of this survey. Some
injurious water was located through this analysis, and farmers warned not to use
same in large quantities for irrigation purposes.

The high values of land in the county make it practically impossible for
the farmer to' borrow to the extent that he may need help. He is limited to a
SIO.OOO loan on a valuation not to exceed $400 per acre. This amount should
be greatly increased, at least on citrus and walnut property. The Farm Advisor
has assisted in placing six loans with the Farm Loan Bank during the year.

The following is a numerical recapitulation of the Farm .Advisor's activities
during 1919: :\Iiles traveled by auto, 13,380; miles traveled by railroad, 1,49.=;:
office calls on agent, 1,362; letters written, 1.230; circulars and notices, 12.640;
farm vi.sits, 1,101; meetings and demonstrations, 213; total attendance, 11. .^73:
telephone calls, 1,19.^.

The Directors of the Orange County Farm Bureau have been the stanch
support of the County Agent in his work. Whatever success has been accom-
plished by the Farm Bureau has been due to their unqualified cooperation and
determined efforts. Credit is also due the splendid cooperation of the Extension
and Station Staff of the College of Agriculture, and also the Department of



The question about the growth of a community is ahvays an interesting one
for the inhabitants thereof. Hence various methods have been devised, and are
in vogue in all communities, for estimating population at other times than when
a federal census is pending. Such estimates are based on the school census,
on the registration of voters, or on the names in a directory. Provision also
has been made in the state law for a special census to be taken at intervals
under control of the board of supervisors. To show the unreliability of such
estimates, and even of a special census, let us give a few recent examples, as
follows :

Just prior to the harbor bond election, June 10. 1910, the county clerk pul)-
lished the number of voters registered in each ])recinct in the county. .Applvini?'
the usual rule for estimating population from the registration, of two and a half
people to each voter, the number of inhabitants in each incorporated city in the
county would a])pear to be as follows:

Population of Cities

Names of Cities Registration Population

Anaheim 1.998 4,99.^

Brea 432 1,080

Fullerton 1.602 4.00.^

Huntington Beach 745 1 .86.3

Newport Beach 5?7 1.393

Orange 2.310 5.775

Santa Ana 7.224 18,060

Seal Beach 286 715

Stanton 161 403

If the total number of voters in tlie count}-, as registered by party affiliations,
were multiplied by two and a half, the product would make the population of
the county appear to be as follows :

Population of County

Names of Parties 1910 1918

Republican 12.169 11.715

Progressive 144 141

Democratic 5,679 5,477

Prohibition 1,702 1,680

SociaHst 511 500

Decline to state 2,861 2.565

Total Registration 23,066 22.078

Population of County 57.665 55,195

The opportunity to compare an estimate of population with an actual count
of the same is quite rare, for when the people have the count they do not need
the estimate. There are, however, two instances in which an indirect comparison
may be made, without any intention to flatter or disparage either place. In 1916
a special census of the township of Santa Ana, which is of immense area, dis-
closed only 16,602 people in the whole township: now three years later the esti-
mate based on registration gives the city itself a population of 18,060. In the
same year, 1916. a special census of the city of .A.naheim showed a population
of 5,163 ; now three years later the estimate based on registration gives the city
covering the same territory, a population of only 4.905. \\'hile the city of Santa


Ana has undoubtedly made a good growth in the past three years, it is hard to
heheve that she made the giant strides indicated by the foregoing figures at a
time when the whole country was hampered by the restrictions of war. On the
other hand it is absolutely impossible to believe that the city of .-Anaheim, without
disaster of any kind and with all the evidences of prosperity, has actuallv lost
168 in population during the same three years. These two examples, similar in
length of time between the count and the estimate and in the method of making
the estimate, will suffice to illustrate, by the opposite results obtained, the uncer-
tainty of estimates of population.

Since the foregoing discussion of estimates of population was written, a
census of Anaheim township has been taken, under the authority of the board
of supervisors, which credits that township with a population of 9,241. Then,
as if to disparage Anaheim's special census and the estimates of both cities,
along came the federal census about August 12, 1920, with a population of 6.936
for Anaheim township, instead of 9,241 reported in the special census, and 5,526
for the city of Anaheim, instead of 4.995 given in the estimate on registration,
and with a population of 15.485 for the city of Santa Ana, instead of 18,060 given
in the estimate on registration.

Most people have heard the old chestnut about the farmer who could count
all his pigs except a little black one that wouldn't stand still long enough to be
counted. It seems as though the counting of the people living in a given territory
would be a comparatively easy task; so it would be, if the censustaker could
always find everybody at home when he calls. There are certain data about
each person, required in the enumeration, that he alone can give with any degree
of accuracy : hence the censustaker must often make a second or third visit
before he can secure a personal interview with some of the people. The work
of census taking is not so pleasant and profitable as to attract many applicants,
for the Government had difficulty in getting enough to fill the positions. How-
ever, the field work has been completed and. while the results are not up to the
expectations of most people. }et they show a consistent growth all along the
line in Orange County.

The population of the county, and of each of the nine incorporated cities,
as given by each federal census back to the organization of the county, or at least
as far back as each city's record goes, is as follows:
County and Cities 1920

( )range Count}' 61,375

Anaheim 5,526

Rrea 1,037

Fullerton 4,415

Huntington Beach 1,687

Newport Reach 898

Orange 4,884

Santa Ana 15,485

Seal Beach 669

Stanton 695

The population of each of the eighteen townships, as given by each federal
census back to the organization of the county, or at least as far back as each
township's record goes, is as follows :
Townships 1020 1910 1900 1890

Anaheim 6.936 4.051 2.261 2.917

Brea 2.515

Buena Park 947 1.441 995

Fullerton 5.037 4.984 1,719

Huntington I'.each 3,363 1,058

Laguna Beach 363

La Habra 1,911

Los Alamitos . . 620 499 253






















' '903








Newport Beach 1,300

Orange 8,134

Placentia 3,619

San Juan " 1 ,064

Santa Ana \7 ,777

Seal Beach 669

Stanton 695

Tustin 1,681

Westminster 4,181

Vorba 563

Sucli are the plain figures of the federal census of Orange Count_v and its
subdivisions, without comparisons, percentages or qualifications of any kind. Each
person can make his own comparisons or percentages, according to the point he
wishes to make ; but they should not be made in any invidious spirit, for, as
Admiral Schley said of the naval victory at Santiago de Cuba, "There's glorv
enough in it for us all."

"Comparisons are odious," because they are too often made with im])roper
motives, to crow over or sneer at a competitor, without taking into account the
real reason for his getting ahead or falling behind in the race. There is, however,
a legitimate use of comparison in argument, "to point a moral or adorn a tale."
For instance, the comparison of the growth of Anaheim with that of Orange,
while they were t\pica! "wet" and "dry" cities respectively, with practically the
same area and other similar conditions, was a fair argument against the influence
of the saloon upon the growth of a city. Orange, starting behind the "Mother
Colony," caught up with and passed her in 1910, and would doubtless have con-
tinued in the lead, had the conditions remained the same : but Anaheim, discard-
ing her saloons and securing a sugar factory, together with the development of
the oil industry in her vicinity, outstripped Orange in the 1920 census. In like
manner the growth of Orange County might be compared with that of River-
side County, its nearest competitor; but the conditions of the two counties are
not the same, and the comparison would serve no good purpose.

Perhaps the best way to exhibit the material resources of the county and
to show how they have been developed by the people, is to present the valuations
of the property in the county and in its ])rincipal subdivisions, as fixed bv the
county assessor for the purpose of taxation.

. The present constitution of California, adopted in 187'J, started out with
the plan of requiring all property, with very few exceptions, to pay taxes for
the support of the government. To this end, and to equalize the burden of state
taxation pro rata among the counties, it was required that "all taxable property
iTiust be assessed at its full cash value." Biennially the legislature adopted one
or more amendinents to the constitution exempting large blocks of property from
taxation. The county assessors throughout the state, in spite of efforts of the
state board of equalization to hold assessments up to the constitutional rec|uire-
ment, gradually lowered them to protect their constituents against paving an
undue proportion of the state taxes.

An amendment to the state constitution, authorizing the separation of state
and local taxation, was adopted by the legislature of 1909, having been under
consideration since 1905. This measure does away with the necessity for the
same valuations among the counties on account of state ta.xes, since such taxes
have been shifted thereby from taxpayers generally to public service and other
corporations. On the other hand, it is immaterial whether assessments are high
or low within a single county or district for local taxation, since, if they are
high, the tax rate will be low, or vice versa, to raise the necessary amount of
money ; but, of course, individual holdings within the county or district must
be similarly assessed according to the quantity, quality and other conditions of
such holdings.


Each county assessor, at least each conscientious, faithful one, being thus
practically released from the obligation to assess property at its full cash value,
tries to find a happy medium that will produce the necessary amount of taxes
without too high a rate and that will appear to all reasonable taxpayers to be
fair and just. Hence independent action among the counties must produce vari-
able results as to per cent, even if all could agree on the basis of "full cash
value" ; but it is safe to say that property is generally assessed away below its
market value in all the counties of the state. For instance, the Los Angeles
papers, in announcing the amount of the 1920 assessment of their county,
claimed that said amount was only forty-two per cent of the real value of the
property thus assessed.

Following are the official valuations of the property of Orange County and
its principal subdivisions, exclusive of operative property, which consists of
public service and other corporations and is reserved for state taxation. What
per cent of the full cash value of the property tliese valuations represent, depo-
nent saith not ; Ijut they answer very well as a basis for local taxation.

Valuation of County

Names of Items 1020 1910 Increase

Operative Property $ .5.498,275 $4,548,930 $ 949.345

Non-Operative Property 103.579,645 87,129,900 16,449,745

\'aluation of County $109,077,020 $01,678,830 $17,300,090

Valuation of Cities

Names of Cities 1920 1919 Increase

Anaheim $ 3,017,415 $ 2,130,020 $ 887,395

Brea 718,880 594,550 124,330

Fullerton 19,558,695 20,015,805 ' -457,1 10

Huntington Beach 1,023,635 099,650 23,085

Newport Beach 1,289,685 1,117,445 172,240

Orange 3,034,980 2,311,580 723.400

Santa Ana 9,076,950 7,474,535 1 .602.415

Seal Beach 638,755 630.270 8,485

Stanton 629,335 472,640 156,695

^'aluation of Cities $ 38,988,330 .$35,746,495 $ 3,241.835

Valuation of High Schools

Names of High Schools 1920 1919 Increase

Anaheim Union $ 7,742,035 $ 5,384,590 $ 2.357,445

Capistrano Union 1,723,215 1,723,215

Fullerton Union 46,985,505 40,934,920 6,050,585

Huntington Beach Union 5,677,400 5,154,980 522,420

Orange Union 10,296,620 7,006,525 3,290,095

Santa Ana High 9,076,950 7,474,535 1.602,415

Total \-aluations $ 81.501,725 $65,955,550 $15,546,175

Valuation of School Districts

Names of School Districts 1920 1919 Increase

Alamitos $ 525,850 $ 425,710 $ 100,140

Anaheim 4,885,070 3,500,980 1 .384.090

Bay Citv 1,009,555 959,145 50.410

Brea ' 6,478,200 5,669,210 808,900

Bolsa 423,425 319,255 104,170


LUiena Park 1,958.710 1,789.370 169,340

Centralia 627,025 459.490 167.535

Commonwealth 639.470 406.155 233.31^

Cypress 430,100 335,71? 94.385

Delhi 1,131,970 1,242.120 *110.150

Diamond 321,455 249,345 72,1 10

El Modena 1.873,150 1.241,330 631,820

El Toro 523,980 458.490 65.490

Fairview 554,290 431.150 123.140

Fountain \'allev 597.030 491,610 105,420

Fullerton 20.105.755 10,081,605 10.024,150

Garden Grove 1,452.385 1.060,555 391,830

Greenville 462.740 360,985 101,755

Harper 500,235 387.320 112,915

Huntington Heach 2,137,895 2,164,640 *26,745

Katella 1,150,355 772,905 377.450

Faguna 738,975 601,190 137,785

Fa Hahra 3.505,540 5.897,930 -2.392,390

Faurel 705,200 867,015 ^^-igigl?

Foara 1.049,625 646,460 403.165

Fowell loint 692,660 584,125 108,535

r^Iagnolia 656,985 464,245 192,740

X^ewhope 177,900 167,580 10.320

:Vewport Beach 1.368.425 1.177,730 190,695

Ocean View 838.030 595.335 242.495

Olinda 3.856,445 3,632.345 224.100

Olive 1.758,415 1,110.200 648,215

Orange 5,304,105 3,803,645 1.500.460

Orangethorpe 1,231,970 7,996,515 *6,764,545

Paularino 349,550 266,940 82.610

Peralta .' 335,505 206.825 129.680

I'lacentia 7.536.820 6.787.660 749,160

Richfield 721,575 199.390 .522.185

San Joaquin 4,738,720 3.598.880 1 .139.840

San Juan 1,479,570 1.200.230 279,340

Santa Ana 9,076,950 7.474.535 1.602,415

Savanna 196,390 151.055 45,335

Serra 243,645 207.970 35,675

Silverado 164,440 146.025 18.415

Springdale 430,600 377.520 53.080

'IVahuco 186.095 160.895 25,200

Tustin 4,496,455 3.092.500 1.403,955

Villa Park 1.360,950 851,350 509.600

Westminster 664.290 566.530 97,760

Vorha • 974,150 819.730 154.420

^'c.rba Finda : 951,020 670.265 280,755

Totals of School Districts $103,579,645 $87,129,000 $16,449,745

*Decrease by forming new districts or other causes.

The foregoing tables of population and valuations tell a wonderful story of

Orange County's growth and development in the past thirty years. Only where
many and varied natural resources abound and where the people are industrious
and enterprising could such progress be made. The tables also show that the
population and wealth are widely distributed over the county, thereby maintaining
the ideal state of a maximum of producers and a minimum of parasites, which

condition made France so prosperous before being devastated l)y war. Tlie iieoijle.


as a rule, believe in the eternal verities and practice the old-fashioned virtues that
make them dependable and good citizens in every way. They, almost without
exception, own their homes and other property free of encumbrance, and figura-
tively fulfill the prophecy of ]\Iicah, when he foretold the glory, peace and victory
of the church, as follows :

"Rut thev shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and
none shall make them afraid: for the mouth of the Lord of hosts hath spoken it."

Santa Ana Chamber of Commerce's Estimated Value of Important
Products for 1919

Apricots $ 200,000

Apples 50,000

Avocados 13.000

Beans (90 per cent Limas) 3,000,000

Bees and Honey 73,000

Berries (all kinds ) 123,000

Celerv 100,000

Dairy Products 350,000

Fish (salt water) 100,000

Fruits (miscellaneous ) 500,000

Grain ( barlev. corn, wheat, etc. ) 1.000,000

Hav (alfalfa, barlev, oat. bean, etc.) 2.000.000

Lemons 3,500.000

Livestock 1.500,000

Loquats 37,500

Nursery Stock 500,000

Oil, Gasoline and Natural Gas 31,273.000

Olives and Olive Oil 125.000

Oranges 12,000,000

Peppers ' 1,125,000

Persimmons 25,000

Poultry and Eggs 1.500.000

Potatoes— Irish and Sweet 930.000

Sugar and Bv-products : 10,300,000

Tomatoes and Tomato Seed 350.000

Vegetables (miscellaneous) 500.000

Walnuts (California) 5.750,000

Total $77,152,500

1913 Grand Total Prbduction $32,769,000

1914 Grand Total Production 31,800,000

1915 Grand Total Production 35,711,500

1916 Grand Total Production 40,746,323

1917 Grand Total Production 55746,823

1918 Grand Total Production 63,410,.^00




About the year 18''4. while the supervisors were discussing the burden of the
law library upon the litigants, one of the members got the title twisted into "the
lie lawbray" ; and so it clung to him to the end of the discussion, in spite of his
etTorts to correct the lapsus linguae. In like manner, on another occasion, an old
gentleman appeared before the board and oiTered to sell the county a piece of
land in which it could bury its "indignant dead." "You mean indigent dead,"
suggested a supervisor. "No, I mean indignant dead," was the reply ; so no
further attempt w-as made at correcting the mispronunciation.

When the Orange County fruit growers had become very much alarmed at
the havoc the red scale (a new parasite at that time) was making in the San
Gabriel orchards, and questions of quarantine and other methods of protection
were under discussion, an aspirant for the position of horticultural commissioner
met a member of the board on the street with the peremptory prediction, "Mr.
Supervisor, them bugs must go." Suffice it to say that "them bugs" have largel}'
gone, not because of the pronunciamento against them, but because of the intelli-

Online LibrarySamuel ArmorHistory of Orange County, California : with biographical sketches of the leading men and women of the county who have been identified with its earliest growth and development from the early days to the present → online text (page 25 of 191)