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Columbia (Bntoetsitp
intijeCttpoOtotark



THE LIBRARIES




TRAVELS



EUROPE AID THE EAST



A YEAR IN

ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, IRELAND, WALES, FRANCE, BELGIUM,

HOLLAND, GERMANY, AUSTRIA, ITALY. GREECE,

TURKEY, SYRIA, PALESTINE, AND EGYPT.



BY SAMUEL IREffHUS PRIME,

IN T \V O VOLUMES

VOL. II.



NEW YORK:

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHER?,

FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1855.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand
eight hundred and fifty-five, by

HARPER & BROTHERS,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District
of New York.






Q



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

THE ALPS : TURIN : THE WALDENSES.

Priest and holy Women — Savoy — Beggars — The Cross — Vale of Aix
— Chamberry — Night Ride — Breakfast — Woman and Dog — Peas-
ants — Houses of Refuge — Dragging the Coach — Down Hill — Turin
— Processions — General Beckwith — Visit to the Waldenses — Hon.
William B. Kinney — The Vaudois — College — School — People —
Reception — Interview — The Martyrs 7

CHAPTER II.

GENOA AND ITS PALACES.

Railways in Italy — A Lady smoking in the Cars — The Country —
Fete Day — Crossing the Apennines — First Sight of the Sea — Genoa
— The Palaces — Churches — Strada Nuova — Brignole Rosso — Cos-
tume of the young Women — Galley Slaves — Di Negro Palace and
Grounds — Balbi — Sunset 24

CHAPTER III.

MILAN AND LAKE COMO.

A Russian General, Wife, and Daughter — Milan Cathedral — Da
Vinci's Last Supper — Amphitheatre — Arch of Peace — Dr. Capelli
— The Hospital — Police — An Inquisitive Englishman — Monza and
the Iron Crown — Como, the loveliest Lake — Villas on Shore — Bel-
lajio — A Maid on the Wall — Selbelloni Palace and Gardens — The
Russian offers me his Daughter — Melzi Villa — Summa Riva 32

CHAPTER IV.

VERONA — MANTUA — VENICE.

Posting it — Breschia — Roman Antiquities — Lake di Garda — The
Peasantry — Verona — Lords and Tombs — Frescoes — The Amphi-
theatre — Mantua — The Scenes of the Georgics — Ducal Palace — No
Virgil — An Italian Sunset — The Queen of the Adriatic — Cause-
way — Custom-house — Gondolas — Canals — San Marc — Piazza —
Church — Piazzetta — Sleep and Dreams 46

CHAPTER V.

VENICE.

Stones of Venice — Aristocracy — Doge's Palace — Giant's Stairway —
Lion's Mouth — Council of Ten — Council Chamber — Titian's
"Faith" — His "Assumption"— Dungeons — State Prison — Bridge
of Sighs — Gondola — Manfrini Palace — Foscari — Byron — Paint-
in gs — Rialto — San Marc — Churches — A Life Picture 54

Vol. II.— A



14741 i



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER VI.

FROM VENICE TO FLORENCE.

Leave Venice — Dissolving Views — Padua: its Churches and Uni-
versity — Arrest on the Frontier — Ferrara — Ariosto and Tasso — •
Bologna — Guards — Robbers — Tuscany — "Welcome to Florence —
Brothers of Mercy 63

CHAPTER VII.

FLORENCE.

'lower of Michael Angelo — Fiesole — An Etruscan City — Haunts of
great Poets — Monks and Beggars — Amphitheatre — Galileo and
Milton — Hallam's Description — The Duomo — Dante's Seat — Bru-
nelleschi's Genius — Santa Croce, the Westminster Abbey of Italy
— Michael Angel o's Spouse — Angel-painting — " Night and Day" —
Frescoes— Street of Statues— Uffizii Palace— Pitti Palace— Society
in Florence — The Brownings and others — Mrs. Somerville — Mrs.
Trolloppe— Morals of Italy— Manners 75

CHAPTER VIII.

THE STUDIO OF POWERS.

A Day with Hiram Powers— The Story of the Man— Thorwalsden
calls— Powers' Studio— Statue of America— Washington— Cali-
fornia— La Penserosa— Other Artists 98

CHAPTER IX.

DYING AAV AY FROM HOME.

My friend Rankin sickens — Fever of the Country — Improves — Re-
lapses — Is Delirious — Dies — Is Buried — Coincidences — Flowers
for his Tomb 104

CHAPTER X.

ITALY — PISA — ROME.

Leaving Florence — Pisa — Leaning Tower — Cathedral — Campo Santo
— Leghorn — A Night on the Sea — Civita Vecchia — Ride to Rome
— In the Gates — Capitoline Hill — The Forum — Ruins — Coliseum
— Catacombs — Tomb of Cecilia Metella — Of Augustus 109

CHAPTER XL

WONDERS OF ROME.

St. Peter's Church — Village on the Roof— Ascent to the Ball — View
in Front— Utility and Worship— The young Lady's Idea— Mosaics
—Kissing St. Peter's toe, and the Pope's— Heathen Mythology-
Canonizing a Saint — Pope Pius IX. appears — Ceremonies — The
Vatican Paintings and Statuary — Laocoon — Apollo Belvidere —
Churches of Rome — Mummy Monks — Sacred Stairs — Pompey's
Statue — Dying Gladiator — American Artists in Rome 123



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XII.

ITALY — NAPLES.

Leaving Kome— The Campagna— Ruins— Three Taverns— Pontine
Marshes— Terracina— Old Town— Tomb of Cicero— St. Agatha-
Beggars— Capua— Arrival at Naples— View of Vesuvius — Museum
— Campo Santo— A Dead Show— The Bay— Paradise and the Pit
—Lake Avernus— Sibyl's Cave — Cicero's Villa— Nero's Baths—
Baite — Grotto del Cane— Sulphur Baths 117

CHAPTER XHI.

POMPEII AND VESUVIUS.

Day in Pompeii— Smart Englishmen— Along Shore— A Soldier
knocked over— A Chase and Capture— The Gate of the City-
Street of Tombs— House of Diomede— Walks about Town— An-
tiquities— House of Sallust— Paintings and Statuary— Fountains
and Baths— Temples and Theatres— The Burial of the City-
Vesuvius— The Ascent— The Crater— The Crust— The Descent—
Herculaneum 1 fi2

CHAPTER XIV.

FROM ITALY TO GREECE.

In the Bay of Naples — The Shore — Capri — Tiberius — Messina-
Malta— The Company— Greece— A Hermit— Syra— The Pi rams—
Natives— Their Costume— Xerxes and Mount Egalios— Ancient
Walls— Temple of Theseus— Otho's Palace— Rev. Dr. Jonas King 176

CHAPTER XV.

ATHENS AND ITS ENVIRONS.

The Acropolis— Parthenon— Mars' Hill — Prison of Socrates — Pnyx
— King and Queen— The Stadium — Jupiter Olympus— Streams
and Fountains — A Funeral— Market— Olives— Eleusis— Tower of
Winds— Future of Greece— The People— Greek Church— Mission-
aries 190

CHAPTER XVI.

ASL4l MINOR SMYRNA.

Leaving Greece — The "Maid of Athens" — Mrs. Black and her
Daughter— Syra— Bay of Smyrna— The City— Mixed Population
—Mount Pagus—Polycarp— Camels— Bazaars— Trade— Homer-
Seven Churches of Asia — American Missionaries — Robbers in the
Mountains — Hamals or Porters 217

CHAPTER XVII.

A FEARFUL VOYAGE.

Going to the Wars— Turks, Arabs, and Nubians on Board— Muti-
nous, ragged, wretched Fellows— Sickness— Fat Turk sleeps with
us— Isle of Tenedos— Site of Old Troy— Turks demand to be put
ashore— Quieted again— Death comes— In the Dardanelles— Bur-
ial of the Turk — Abydos — Sea of Marmora 228



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XVIII.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

The City at Sunrise — Magnificence of the Sight — The "Wife-murder
Door — Dogs — Porters — Mud — Cordial Reception — Rev. Mr. Ben-
jamin and Family — A Turkish Bath — Rev. Dr. Dwight — Golden
Horn — Rev. Mr. Everett and Family — Female Seminary — Preach-
ing — Rev. Mr. Goodell — Cemetery — Sultan going to Prayer — The
Bazaars — Slave Market — The Harem — Slavery in Turkey — Howl-
ing and Dancing Dervishes — Miracle-working — A Lady smoking
— Turkish Women — Social Life 242

CHAPTER XIX.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

A Firman — The Seraglio Palace — Audience and Throne Room —
Harem — Armory — Bedchamber — Kitchen — Stables — Mosque of
Santa Sophia — Tombs of the Sultans — Shores of the Bosphorus —
Europe and Asia — Giant's Mountain — Egyptain Sailors — Allied
Fleets — Kaudali — Bebek — The Missionaries and their Work .... 267

CHAPTER XX.

COASTS OF ASIA MINOR.

Departure from Constantinople — Our Passengers — "Women apart —
Turk with his two "Wives — Merchants and Merchandise — Smyrna
— Islands of the Sea — Scio — Samos — Nicaria — The Harem in
Trouble — Patmos — Rhodes — Colossus — Turkish Concert of Music
— On Shore — Deserted Streets — Library — Sail again — Meet Vessel
out of her Way — Tarsus — Italian Mountebanks — Jew and Greek
Pilgrims — New Year's in the East — Boston Rum — Alexandretta
— Latakea — Fearful Scene — Isle of Cyprus — Venus — Cyprian
Wine — Scriptural association 282

CHAPTER XXL

SYRIA — MOUNT LEBANON.

Beyroot — Arrival — Reception — Disappointment — Engaging a Drag-
oman — Contract — Social Life with the Missionaries — Grave of
Pliny Fl.;k — Mission Families — Arab Curses — Meeting an old
Classmate — Ride to Lebanon — Sacred History — Almonds, Figs,
Olives, and Kharibs — Fountains — Women wearing Horns — Sheep
with large Tails — The House of my Friend — His School — Arab
Curiosity — View from a peak of Lebanon — Tomb of a Druse
Saint — Cedars of Lebanon — Superstitions — Excursion to the Nin-
eveh of Syria — Ancient Inscription — Remarkable Features — Arab
Race 299

CHAPTER XXIL

SYRIA AND PALESTINE.

Punctual Dragoman — Leave-taking — Evil Eye — Khan Khulda—
Sarcophagi — Cross a River and lunch under a Palm — Mr. Cal-
houn joins us — Residence of Lady Hester Stanhope — Singular
Facts — lonah's Tavern — A roving Englishman — Escape from



CONTENTS.



Drowning — Approach Sidon — Orange Groves — Jackals — Tents
pitched — Rev. Mr. Thompson welcomes us to Sidon — The Vice-
Consul — Night on the "Wall — Old City — Leave in the Morning —
Horde of Robbers — Ancient Aequeduct — Sarepta — Tomb of Elijah
— Tyre — Elders in the Gate — Rabble — Streets — Hovels — Sea-side
— Columns under water — "Walls — Dinner — Night in Tent — Alarm
— Rass-el-Ain — Acre — Oriental Tavern — Safura — Cana of Galilee
— Nazareth — Convent — Hospice — Missionaries 312

CHAPTER XXIII.

LAND OF PALESTINE.

Civil War breaks out — Bedouins from beyond Jordan — Guards em-
ployed — Leaving Nazareth — Looking on the Plain of Esdraelon
— Scripture History — Scenes on the Plain — Party of Bedouins —
Fulah — Jezreel and Shunem — Gilboa — Saul and Jonathan — A
new Guide — Invited — Cross the Kishon — Women at the Fountain
— Berkeen — Wretchedness of People — Sleeping with a Horse —
Quarrel with our Host — Swearing a Debt — Villages — Plain of
Dothan — Joseph's Pit — Samaria — Nablous 845

CHAPTER XXIV.

LAND OF PALESTINE.

Our Quarters in Nablous — The House-top — Scripture Illustrations —
Place of Retirement or of Proclamation — Solomon's Idea — Man-
ners and Customs without Change — Rumors of Wars — Hostility
to Christians — Ebal and Gerizim — Blessing and Cursing — History
of the City — Jacob's Arrival — Congress of Israel — Sabbath Serv-
ices — Samaritans — Synagogue — Ancient Manuscripts — Ascend
Mount Gerizim — Place of Burnt Sacrifice — Holy Ground — View
of Salem and Region round about — Descent — Women at Dinner
— Eastern Salutation — The Guards back out — Muleteers mutiny. 360

CHAPTER XXV.

LAND OF PALESTINE.

Excursion to Jacob's Well — Taking away the Stone — Getting in —
Measuring the Well — The Bedouins coming — Getting out — Mount-
ing in hot Haste — Flight — Pursuit — Overtaken — Assault — Mr.
Righter's Gallantry — He is wounded — Escape — Guides robbed —
Return to Town — Appeal to the Governor — Contract with a Sheikh
— Preparation — Party enlarged — Escape by retired Route — Plain
of Sharon — Antipathies — Village Life — Fight among Muleteers —
Maid at the Well— Reach Jaffa 377

CHAPTER XXVI.

EGYPT ALEXANDRIA.

Donkey-boys of Egypt — Mixed People — Alexandria — The Square —
Ruins of Alexandrian Library — Bastinado — Paying Workmen —
Penny a Day — Cleopatra's Needles — Alexander's Tomb — Pom-
pey's Pillar — Catacombs — Women with Children on their Shoul-
ders — Flies on their Eyes — Ophthalmia — Tyranny — Recruits —
Funeral Customs 397



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXVII.

CAIRO AND THE PYRAMIDS.

Egyptian Steamers— Omnibus— Canal— Women on Shore— Mounds
and Ruins— Managing the Craft— English Captain throwing his
dead Child overboard— Funeral— Atfeh— The Nile— Overflow—
Boolak— Caravan— Cairo— The Streets at Night— The Streets by
Day — Citadel — Mosques — Mamelukes — Palace of the Pasha — The
Sphinx and the Pyramids 408



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Florence from San Miniato 74

The Campanile "6

The Duomo 82

Church of Santa Maria Novella 85

Pitti Palace 92

St. Peter's 122

Kissing the Pope's Toe 127

Granting Absolution in St. Peter's 128

The Pope in his Pontifical Robes 130

Cardinal in full Costume 131

The Holy Stairs 139

The Pantheon at Rome 142

The Theseum at Athens 183

Statue of Theseus 184

The Acropolis restored 191

The PropyljEA 192

The Parthenon 193

Frieze of the Parthenon 195

Plato 197

The Erechtheum 198

Caryatides 199

1 1 1 ax OP Socrates 201

III i. I'nyx 202

Temple op Jupiter ( >lympus 204

Jove 205

Boreas 209

Alexandrian Donkey-boys 398

Irrigating Wheel, Nile Boat. Pyramids 412

The Bazaar 416

Mosque of Sultan Hassan 425

T< >.m b of Sultan K aitlay 426

The Ferry at old Cairo 429

Tin. Sphinx and Pyramids 430

The Great Pyramid 434

The Pyramids 439



EUROPE AID THE EAST.



CHAPTEE I.

THE ALPS: TURIN: THE WALDENSES.

Priest and holy Women— Savoy— Beggars— The Cross— Vale of
Aix— Chamberry— Night Ride— Breakfast— Woman and Dog-
Peasants— Houses of Refuge— Dragging the Coach— Down Hill-
Turin — Processions — General Beckwith — Visit to the Waldenses
—Hon. William B. Kinney— The Vaudois— College— School-
People— Reception— Interview— The Martyrs.

For many days ahead the seats in the Malle Poste
and the diligence had been engaged, and to get away
from Geneva, over the Alps, into Italy, was not an
easy matter. We finally secured places, and at seven
in the morning set off for Turin, "by way of Mont
Cenis. Among our passengers was a Romish priest,
who brought his prayer-book with him, and read it
attentively ; and a couple of " holy women" of some
sort, who were accompanied to the place of starting by
several of their sisterhood. Their leave-taking was
very tender, and many tears were shed. I was curi-
ous to know, and my neighbor, the priest, could have
told me who they were and where they were bound,
but I did not choose to make inquiries. They were
quiet passengers, and left us at Chamberry. The



EUEOPE AND THE EAST.



lidggage una beggars. s es ia nei^o.

scenery was charming, the day fine, and the ride ex-
ceedingly agreeable, bringing us at noon to the fron-
tiers of Savoy, and the inevitable nuisance of a cus-
tom-house. Every thing was taken down from the
top of the diligence, and trunks, bags, and boxes
turned inside out without ceremony or mercy. It
was the most unsparing overhauling we had experi-
enced, and duties were exacted from some of the pas-
sengers on articles that had passed through various
kingdoms unchallenged. This is one of the customs I
hope to see abolished, even in advance of the millen-
nium.

We are now in Savoy. And the first indication of
the change of country, after crossing the line, was
the attack upon us by a swarm of beggars ; the lame,
the blind, the diseased and deformed, young and old,
gathering about us when we stopped, and especially
hovering at the foot of hills up which the carriage
must go at a slow pace, and all this time they could
press their claims in the ears and eyes of the travel-
lers : one man would thrust the stump of an arm into
the window, and implore pity for the love of God ; a
woman would point to a sickening sore in her bosom,
and plead as only a poor woman can plead, till it was
impossible to resist the appeal. Often we came by
the CROSS reared on the wayside, and sometimes vo-
tive offerings were at the foot. The Romish priest
who sat next to me, called my attention to them, and
asked "If we had them in my country." I told him
that we loved the cross, but were not in the habit of
setting it up in the street or in corn-fields. We be-



CROSSING THE ALPS.



Vfilo of Ai



lieved in Him who died on the cross, and loved the
symbol too much to make so common a use of it as
they do in Italy.

A diligence ride in a foreign land is dull enough, if
the parties wedged together are not congenial, but we
managed to wear away a pleasant day ; stopping for
twenty minutes at Annecy to dine ; passing Alby and
its noble bridge of a single arch ; getting a fine view
of the old ruined castle of the Countess of Geneva.
Toiling over a tedious hill, and coming down into a
wide and lovely valley, I seemed to have found my
ideal of Italian scenery ; but this was soon forgotten
when we entered the Vale of Aix, a region famed for
its baths, and a resort for the rich and the invalids,
all the way down from the old Komans to the present
hour. A valley that has been improved as a watering-
place for two thousand years, should by this time have
become a fairy-like spot, and so this seemed to be,
with its streams and fountains, walks amidst groves
and lakes, and the vines trained on trees planted for
the purpose, making the hillsides and the plains to
rejoice in the gayest attire. The ancient city of Cham-
berry lies in another of these charming vales, sur-
rounded by vine-clad hills, on which are fine chateaus
and Oriental villas, smiling all over the country side,
and cheering the traveller, who feels that he is now
entering a new land, of which he has read from child-
hood and has longed to see. The Alps are yet be-
tween us and Italy, but we have already begun to see
what it is, the earnest of beauty yet to come. Cham-
berry, with its numerous convents and its venerable

A*



10 EUROPE AND THE EAST.

Elephant monument. Night ride.

cathedral, received us, and detained us some hours
while we wandered over its streets ; read the inscrip-
tion on the most singular monument I have ever seen,
four elephants of stone sustaining a marble fountain,
erected to the memory of some one who had distin-
guished himself in the East where elephants are com-
mon. At the coach-office I fell in with another Ro*
mish priest, who addressed me in Latin, and we had
a pleasant chat in that language supposed to be dead,
though we now and then find it alive, as in this case.
He was on his way to London to reside, and was full
of his mission, delighted with the prospect before him,
and wishing to push on still further and go to America.
At nine in the evening we set out for a ride all
night ! A ride never to be attempted by travellers
when there is any door of escape. There was none
for us, as we were but two, and could not afford a pri-
vate carnage. Oh the weary hours of that long night !
and oh, "how welcome was the morning light!" A
wretched tavern furnished us a wretched breakfast,
which was devoured almost without thankfulness, I
fear, by a worn and wretched party, disposed to grum-
ble at each other and every thing else. And our tem-
per was to be tried still further when we mounted
again, and an ugly French woman presented herself
at the door of the coach, and was to get into the seat
of a passenger who left us here. We had no objection
to herself personally, but she carried in her arms a
dog, about four times as large as a lady should carry,
which she proposed to introduce as one of our inside
party. At this we remonstrated in half a dozen Ian-



CROSSING THE ALPS. 11

Pet dog hooked. Rude husbandly.

guages, and with more gestures lest the tongues
should fail. But she carried her point — the ladies
always do — and with her pet, and in a pet besides,
she entered the door, when the dog instantly set up
a cry of distress as he was carried over the knees of
my companion. I confess I thought Rankin, in mis-
chief, had pinched him terribly, but the cry continued
so long, and increased after the woman was seated,
that we began to fear he was mad. Presently Rankin
missed the hook which he carried to hang his hat by,
and a general search was made in the bottom of
the coach ; the woman with the dog found blood on
her dress, and soon the hook was discovered in the
flesh of the animal, and the mystery of his yell as he
crossed the lap of my friend was solved. I pulled
out the hook, and pitied the brute, whose suffering
somewhat reconciled us to his company. In fact he
was more of a favorite than his mistress the rest of
the day. The poverty and general wretchedness of
the inhabitants in the midst of a beautiful country
were painfully obvious. The peasants we met fre-
quently, with donkeys laden with faggots, and often
with reeking bags of manure. The plowing was of
the rudest kind ; a. wooden plow was drawn by
cows, and a girl followed with a rake to serve as a
harrow. What could be expected from such hus-
bandry as this ? At St. Michel we were beset by an
army of the sturdiest and most importunate beggars,
and having escaped them, we came upon the fort and
castle of Leseillon, defending this great pass of the
Alps. Battery rises above battery on the verge of an



12 EUROPE AND THE EAST.

Fortification. Toiling up hill.

awful precipice overlooking the road, and plainly bid-
ding defiance to all hostile comers. The gorge is so
deep through which the road passes, that while a
foaming river appears to be going up, we are all the
time going down. Underneath the ground are wind-
ing ways to lead out and into this fortification, and to
an unprofessional eye it looks as though an enemy
would in vain attempt to make a passage at this point.
The mastery of Napoleon's genius now strikes the
mind. We are coining to the ascent, to Mont Cenis,
and are now on the great military road which was con-
structed by his order, at an expense of a million and
a half of dollars. At Lanselbourg we put on seven
extra horses, making a team of eleven to draw the
coach up the road. At every few miles of the zigzag
ascent, a "House of Refuge" has been erected, and
these are kept by persons appointed for the purpose
to receive and succor benighted or exhausted travel-
lers ; and whenever we reached them, the people came
out and proffered their help, which was sometimes
needed, for the strain upon the harness was so great
that we were often compelled to stop and repair dam-
ages. The road is smooth, though very steep, and
now it was heavy with recent rains, which had here
and there broken it up and rendered it almost im-
passable. At times we were compelled to leave the
carriage till it was dragged over a bad spot, which it
was safer for us to cross on foot. It was late in the
night when we reached the summit, and if the glory
of the prospect was to be any compensation for the
toil of travel up, we were not to have it. No wide-



CROSSING THE ALPS..



On the sum mit. Subo. The plains.

spread scene of hills and vales and lakes below ; no
signs in the sky even; for a miserable sleet of snow
and rain was falling ; the coach lamps barely giving
light enough to let us know that we were crossing the
Alps in one of the darkest, dismalest times that it ever
happened to the fate of pleasure travellers to stumble
on. So in patience possessing my soul and my body
in a blanket, I went to sleep while the coach went
thundering down the hills ; not with the Jehulike
drive of old on the Alleghanies, where the stage some-
times went over the horses, but with a steady roll, the
wheels being locked, and one man holding hard on the
brake, while another steered the steeds ; and so we
went down, down to SuSA, an ancient town about
which an extraordinary chapter might be written, had
we time to study it. But the daylight has come, and
we are now on the plains of Sardinia. We looked
back to see the morning breaking on the snowy peaks
of the Alps we had left. We were in another clime,
The soft air of spring seemed to breathe gently on us.
It was a joy to inhale it— to look out on the vineyards
and meadows we were passing through, and gardens
with oranges hanging over the fence, luscious and
tempting. And now we are entering an avenue of
trees, noble shade-trees, and far ahead for miles their



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