Samuel Manning.

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DRAWN WITH PEN AND PENCIL



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REV. SAMUEL MANNING, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF

"SWISS PICTURES," "THOSE HOLY FIELDS," ETC.




THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY,

56 PATERNOSTER Row, 65 ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD,
AND 164 PICCADILLY.



NEW AND REVISED EDITION.







" The beaver builds

No longer by these .streams, but far away,
On waters whose blue surface ne'er gave back
The white man's face among Missouri's springs,
And pools whose issues swell the Oregon,
He rears his little Venice. In these plains
The bison feeds no more. Twice twenty leagues
Beyond remotest smoke of hunter's camp,
Roams the majestic brute, in herds that shake
The earth with thundering steps yet here I meet
His ancient footprints stamp'd beside the pool."

W. C. BRYANT.



Bancroft U




IN THE YOSEMITE VALLEY.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Reno Station, Nevad:i, on the Central Pacific Railway
Lake Mohonk . . . . . .

In the Yosemite Valley .....



Frontispiece.
. page iv.



HOW IT f:>TF(IKE A $TF(ANQER.



The Celtic crossing the Atlantic in Winter page 10
Headpiece At Hohokus . . . . .11

Martha's Vineyard, off the Coast of Massachusetts 12
Long Island, and Staten Island . . . 13

Broadway, New York, from Trinity Church. . 14

Barber's Shop ...... 15

On the Erie Railway . . . . .16

Lewiston Narrows, on the Juniata River. . 18

Ice-harvest on the Hudson . . . .20

A Bayou in Florida f. . . . . 21



Harper's Ferry ..... page 21
Hills of New England. . . . . 2 j

Natural Bridge, Virginia . . . . -25

House lately standing at Providence, said to have

been used by Roger Williams for Prayer-Meetings 2(5
Carrying the United States Mail across the Sierra

Nevada, 1870 . . . . . .28

Carrying the United States Maii across the Prairies,

1860 ....... 29

Tailpiece Nantucket Lighthouse . . 33



J_(0ui TO DENVER.



Headpiece Crossing the Prairies . . -33

Great Steel Bridge at St. Louis, crossing the
Mississippi ...... 34

A Homestead in Kansas . . , . .35



Prairie Fowl . . . .

Bullock-waggon crossing the Cjreat Plains
Buffalo Hunting. . .

Sioux Village. ....



36
37
38

39



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Indian Burial-ground .... f-age 40
Street in Denver . . . . . -41
Map of Country round Denver. ... 42
Colburn's Butte . . . . . -43
In the Garden of the Gods .... 45
Entrance to the Garden of the Gods . . -46
Clear Creek Canon, in the Rocky Mountains 48, 49
Monument Park ..... 51

Middle Park 52



George Town, Rocky Mountains
Distant View of Pike's Peak .
Traditional Buttc .
Ancient Watch-tower . .
Cliff House, M ancus Canon
Cliff House, Mancos Canon .
Ruins on the Hovenweep.
Tailpiece Glen kis Falls



53

55
56
56
57
58
59
60



THE



Headpiece Indians west of the Rocky Mountains . 61

Old Post Station on the Prairie ... 62
The Narrows, Utah . . . . -63

The Devil's Slide 65

Inspection Car on Pacific Railway approaching the

Great Salt Lake . . . . . 67

Salt Lake City in 1850 .... 69

Waggon load of Mormons at Ogden Canon . . 70

Salt Lake City ...... 71

The Tabernacle in Salt Lake City . . 73



Crossing the Rocky Mountains . . . '74

Residence of Brigham Young, Salt Lake City . 75

Fort Douglas Camp, and Red Buttcs Ravine, near

Salt Lake City

The Narrows, North Fork of the Rio Virgen,

Utah

Brigham Young ......

Townsefcd House, Salt Lake City . . .

Tailpiece Eagle Gate at the School-house of

Brigham Young ... ...



THE NEW EL DORADO.



Ifeat1f!eceCM\c Ranch in California . . 83

Silver Mining in Nevada .... 85

Silver City, Nevada 86

Street in Virginia City, Nevada ... 87

Hydraulic Mining . . . . . .88

Cape Horn, on the Pacific Line ... 83

Trestle-bridge on the Pacific Railway . . .89

Trestle-bridge viewed from beneath. . . 90

^Snow-sheds on the Pacific Line . . . -90

Cisco Station, California .... 91

Pollard Station upon Lake Donner . . .93
Crystal Lake, near the Cisco Station, 5,907 feet

above the level of the Sea .... 94

San Francisco, 1849. . . . . . 95



Street in San Francisco . . . . . 96

New City Hall, San Francisco ... 97
The Golden Gate . . . . . -97

Bird's-eye View of San Franci.co, 187"; . . 98

Alley in Chinese Quarter . . . . . 99

Chinese Opium Den ..... 100

Chinese Theatre, San Francisco . . . 101

Sea-liens on rocks off San Francisco . . 102
Mount Shasta, the Northern Peak of the Sierra

Nevada ....... 103

Tree in Petrified Forest .... 104

Vulcan's Steam Works ..... 104

The Devil's Canon ..... 105

Tailfiece Bridge over Pluton Creek . . . 106



THE YdgEMITE AJ^D YELLOW3TONE.



Headpiece Waterfall in the Yosemite.

First Log Hut in Mariposa Grove .

On the Way to the Big Trees .

Result of Woodpeckers' Industry .

The Sentinels, Calaveras ....

In the Pine Forest .....

The Pioneers' Cabin, " Room for twelve
inside "......

The Fallen Monarch .....

Preparing to Fell Big Tree

Augur-holes in Tree .....

The Keystone State, 325 feet high

Cathedral Rocks, 3,660 feet ....

Entrance to Yosemite Valley

Cap of Liberty, 4,000 feet ....

El Capitan, 3,300 feet ....

Bridal Veil Fall, 630 feet ....



The Yosemite Falls, 2,600 feet .
North Dome, 3,568 feet
South, or Half Dome, 4,737 feet
Mirror Lake .....
Sentinel Rocks, 3,043 feet
Nevada Falls, 700 feet. . . .

Tower Falls, and Column Mountain .
Rock Pinnacles above Tower Falls.
Hot Wells on Gardiner's River (Upper Basin)
Hot Wells on Gardiner's River (Lower Basin) .
Upper Falls of the Yellowstone . .
Lower Falls of the Yellowstone
Yellowstone Lake .....
The Great Yellowstone Gorge
Grotto Geyser . . . . .

The Giantess Geyser of Yellowstone
Tailpiece Prairie on fire ....



CHICAGO TO



141
142



Headpiece- Clark's River Fall, Lake Superior.
The Upper Missouri . . . .

Wabash Avenue, Chicago ....
The City Hall, Chicago ..... ,45
Clark Street, Chicago ..... 147
First House built in Chicago . . . .148

The Sherman Hotel ..... 149
Moose Hunting in the North-West Territory . 153
6



Pictured Rocks of Lake Superior The
Great Cave. .....

Niagara from the Suspension Bridge
Suspension Bridge .....

At the Foot of the American Fall .

The Whirlpool below the Fall .

Niagara from the edge of the American Fall

Father Hennepin's Sketch of Niagara, 1677 .






1 19

120
12O
121
122
I2 3
126
I2 7
128
12 9
130
131

'33
"35
136
'37
140



'55
156
158
>59
160
161
163



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



NEW



Headpiece New Hampshire Scenery . . page 165

Initial Bible and other Relics brought over in

the MayJIoiver 165

Pilgrim Fathers going to Church . . .167

Landing-place of the Pilgrims, at Plymouth . 169
Evening in New England. .... 171

Monument on Bunker's Hill . . 173

Old State House . . . . . .174

Faneuil Hall . . . . . .174

Boston, from Bunker's Hill . . . . 175



Old Street in Boston

Liberty Tree, Boston Common

Gore Hall, Harvard College .

Yale College

In the White Mountains .

Pepperill, near Boston, the Home of Prescott the
Historian ......

Salem, Massachusetts .

Nantucket Wharf .....

Ta apiece Near Hancock. .



Page 177
. 178



179

1 80



183
184
185



THE



Headpiece Portage Falls and Bridge . . . 187

Mouth of the Hudson ..... 188

Grain Fleet in New York Harbour . . 189

Ferry-boats by Night ..... 191

Excursion Steamer on the Hudson . 192

New Amsterdam ..... 193

New York in 1673 ...... 193

Castle Garden and Battery Park . . . 194

A Squatter Village, in the Outskirts . . . 195

Broadway at St. Paul's .... 195

St. Mark's Church . . . . . .196

Old House in New York .... 197

The Fifth Avenue 198

Washington Heights ..... 199

Trinity Cemetery ...... 159

Central Park Drive ..... 200

Lake in Central Park 201

Bridge in course of construction between Brooklyn

and New York ..... 202

Sandy Hook, from the Lighthouse . . 203



Turtle Bay and Blackwell's Island. . . 203

Spuyten Duyvil Creek ..... 204
Headwaters of the Hudson in the Adirondacks. 205
Arbor Vita; Grove on the Hudson . . 207

Foot of the Storm King .... 207
The Palisades on the Hudson . . . .207

Vassar College 209

The Observatory . . ... -20

The Gymnasium . . .21

Ithaca, and the Cornell University . . .22

Anthony's Nose, and the Sugar Loaf . 23

Glen's Falls 23

Entrance to the Flume . . .24

The Flume . . . -24

Horse Shoe Falls 24

Sentinel Rock and Table Rock . . . .24

In the Catskills 2 5

The Dudley Observatory, Albany . .25

Falls on the Ramapo . . . 216



PHILADELPHIA AND



Headpiece On the Delaware
Arch Street, Philadelphia
Public Ledger Building
The Court House .



217
218
219
220



Baltimore

The Capitol .

Tailpiece The White House, Washington




222

223



\








AMERICAN CENTENNIAL HYMN.



OUR fathers' God ! from out whose hand
The centuries fall like grains of sand,
We meet to-day, united, free,
And loyal to our land and Thee,
To thank Thee for the era done
And trust Thee for the opening one.

Here, where of old, by Thy design,
The fathers spake that word of Thine,
Whose echo is the glad refrain
Of rended bolt and falling chain,
To grace our festal time, from all
The zones of earth our guests we call.

Be with us while the New World greets
The Old World thronging all its streets,
Unveiling all the triumphs won
By art or toil beneath the sun ;
And unto common good ordain
This rivalship of hand and brain.

Thou who hast here in concord furled
The war-flags of a gathering world,
Beneath our Western skies fulfil
The Orient's mission of good-will,
And, freighted with love's Golden Fleece,
Send back its Argonauts of peace.

For art and labour met in truce,
For beauty made the biide of use,
We thank Thee ; but, withal, we crave
The austere virtues, strong to save,
The honour proof to place or gold,
The manhood never bought nor sold !

Oh ! make Thou us, through centuries long,
In peace secure, in justice strong ;
Around our gift of freedom draw
The safeguards of Thy righteous law ;
And, cast in some Diviner mould,
Let the new cycle shame the old !

May, 1876. JOHN G. WHITTIER.



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CHARLES LYELL commences the narrative of his Second Visit
to the United States by saying, "On leaving the wharf we
had first been crammed into a diminutive steamer, which looked
like a toy by the side of the larger ship of twelve hundred tons
in which we were to cross the ocean. I was reminded, how
ever, that this small craft was more than three times as large
as one of the open caravels of Columbus in his first voyage,
which was only fifteen tons burden, and without a deck. It is
indeed marvellous to reflect on the daring of the early adven-
for Frobisher, in 1576, made his way from the Thames to the
of Labrador with two small barks of twenty and twenty-five tons,



HO IV IT STRIKES A STRANGER.



not much surpassing in size the barge of a man-of-war, and Sir Hum
phrey Gilbert crossed to Newfoundland, in 1583, in a bark of ten tons
only."

In the quarter of a century which has elapsed since these words were
written, the size of the steamers plying between Liverpool and New York
has gone on continually increasing, and the vessel of twelve hundred tons,
of which Sir Charles speaks, would be dwarfed by the side of the Celtic, of
three thousand nine hundred tons, in which I crossed the Atlantic, or the




MARTHA'S VINEYARD, OFF THE COAST OF MASSACHUSETTS.



Britannic, of four thousand five hundred tons, in which I returned. In these
floating palaces, with their spacious and splendidly-furnished saloons,
their sumptuous cuisine, their bath-rooms, and all other appliances for
comfort, the inconveniences of ocean travel are reduced to a minimum, and
Dr. Johnson's dictum becomes almost absurd : " No one goes to sea, sir,
unless he's obliged. It is being in prison with the additional chance of
being drowned."

A voyage to America so closely resembles a voyage to any other part
of the world that there is no need to dwell upon it here. For a week or
ten days we are in the centre of the same vast circle. Day by day the log



FIRST IMPRESSIONS.



tells us that we have advanced three hundred or three hundred and fifty
miles on our course, but we have the same dome of sky above us, the same
boundless waste of waters around us. The only changes which break in
upon the monotony of the voyage are the alternations of storm and calm,
clouds or sunshine. A bird alights upon the rigging ; a ship is sighted in
the distance ; icebergs are seen in perilous proximity ; a shoal of porpoises are
gambolling in our wake ; little details like these are hailed as exciting events
and awaken an interest altogether disproportionate to their importance. At




LONG ISLAND, AND STATEN ISLAND.

length, the welcome cry ot Land
ahead is heard, the coast of Long

Island or of Massachusetts comes into view, and in a few hours more
we set our feet on the shores of the New World.

The first impressions of English visitors to America vary so greatly,
according to the idiosyncrasies of the individual, that no two exactly
coincide. I went, expecting to find the Old World reproduced in the
New, and that Boston, or New York would be little more than
a new London, or a new Liverpool on the other side of the Atlantic.
The reality was something altogether different. I was surprised by




NEW YORK.

the unlikeness of
America to England.
There is, of course,
a general similarity.
But the many points
of comparison only
serve to throw out
the points of con
trast into more
marked prominence.
In Asia, or Africa, or
Southern Europe, we
see little to remind us
of home. We might
almost be in another
planet. But in
America we have a
New England, which,
with a basis of iden
tity has widely di
verged from the ori
ginal type. In the
cities, the perfect clear
ness of the atmosphere,
the absence of smoke,
the brilliant colouring,
the vivacity and dress
of the people, the style
of street architecture,
are rather French
than English. Walk
ing up Broadway, I
could understand how
it is that New Yorkers
commonly feel them
selves more at home
in Paris than in Lon
don. The hotels are
upon the Continental
model. Differences in
the names of common



things give



a sense



of strangeness shops



FIRST IMPRESSIONS.



are "stores," railway stations are "depots," carriages are "cars," shopmen are
"clerks," a good-tempered person is " clever," a bad-tempered person is "ugly ;"
we "mail " a letter, and "wire" a telegram ; a direct railway route is an "air
line," and a fast train " a lightning express." The mysterious letters C. O. D.
constantly appearing in tradesmen's signs greatly perplexed me, till I found
that they represented Cash on Delivery In the barber's shop we ascend a
throne, and rest our feet upon a high stool, so as to bring our head and chin
and boots within easy
reach of the operator.
Who in England ever
saw buckwheat, or corn-
cakes, with maple-syrup
at breakfast ? Who in
America ever sawabreak-
fast without them ? We,
in England, regard ice as
a luxury, to be rarely in
dulged in, save by the few.
In America, it is so much
a necessary of life, that on
Black well's Island, the
prison and poor-house of
New York City, the aver
age consumption is a ton
per week the whole year
round ; and on one hot
day in June, the stock-
keeper of the Fifth
Avenue Hotel supplied
six tons for the require
ments of the house.
These are trifles which
seem to be unworthy of
serious record, but it is
the constant recurrence of
these trifles which makes
the visitor feel that, though the Americans are " brethren in blood, brethren in
language, brethren in religion," they are not a mere reproduction of ourselves.

Soon after landing in New York, I began to make arrangements for
crossing the continent to San Francisco. It was now that I gained my first
adequate impression of the immense extent of the United States.* Our

* I said to the well-known Brooklyn preacher, " Mr. Beecher, they tell me that I shall have no sense of the American
continent till I have crossed it." He replied, " Doctor, when you have crossed it you'll have no sense left at all."





ON THli ERIE RAILWAY.



ocean run
had been
three
thousand
and fifty-
four miles,
as shown
by the
log ; a

distance sometimes accom
plished in seven days. The
overland journey from the
eastern to the western coast
exceeds this by two hundred
and fifty miles in a nearly
straight line, and occupies the
same time, travelling night
and day. Cities of half a
million inhabitants, such as
Cincinnati, St. Louis, or
Chicago, are passed ; moun
tain chains and mighty rivers
are crossed, a thousand miles
of prairie are traversed, and
still the goal is not reached. We lie down
at night, we wake in the morning ; we spend
the day in such amusements as the American
railway train affords, and still we are rushing
on. A whole week must elapse before the
waters of the Pacific, rolling in through the
Golden Gate, gladden our eyes.



EXTENT OF TERRITORY.



ThouQfh no accumulation of arithmetical figures can communicate a sense

o o

of the vastness of the continent, a few statistics may be given. To people
the Mississippi Valley with the same density as Great Britain would require
a population of six hundred millions of human beings ! The State of Texas
alone covers an area of two hundred and fifty-seven thousand five hundred
and four square miles considerably more than twice that of Great Britain.
The whole area of the United States, including lakes and rivers, is about
four millions of square miles ; a hundred thousand miles more than that of
the whole continent of Europe.

A curious and characteristic anecdote is told in the biography of
Dr. John Breckenridge, an eminent American clergyman. When travelling in
England some years ago, he was asked by a stage-coach companion, " Pray,
sir, have you any river in America equal to the Thames ?" He replied,
"Why, sir, I reside, when at home, on the banks of a river, formed by the
confluence of two rivers, which, coming from opposite directions, unite after
flowing, each of them, four hundred miles ; the united stream then rolls on
one thousand miles, with mighty cities on its shores ; when it meets a river
which has come from another direction three thousand miles to meet it ; and
these flowing on together, soon take in another, which has come two thousand
miles from another direction, and these five rivers make the Mississippi,
which now rolls about fifteen hundred miles farther on, and there disembogues
itself by thirty mouths into the sea !" Dr. Breckenridge adds, " My English
friend settled himself into his corner and declined any further conversation,
fully believing that I was romancing." But the statistics are literally true.
The Alleghany and Monongahela form the Ohio, which empties into the
Missouri, which soon meets the Mississippi, and the united rivers bear the
latter name to the Gulf of Mexico.

One effect of this vast extent of territory has been to foster in the
American mind an admiration for mere bigness. Let a thing be big enough,
and it becomes at once an object of patriotic pride. The peculations of
"Boss Tweed" are spoken of by New Yorkers with a scarcely-veiled
admiration, they were so immense. To have fought through the bloodiest
war, and incurred the heaviest debt of modern times, is matter of boasting.
A citizen of Chicago said to me : " Our city is the biggest thing on the
planet. We've had the biggest fire. We lifted the city eight feet out of the
mud. We made a river run up hill : it wouldn't go where we wanted it, so
we turned it end and end about. And it's the only city on earth every inch
of which is covered three inches deep in mortgages." This love for the
gigantesque reminded me of the earlier stages of art, the Egyptian for
instance, where the hero is represented as of colossal proportions, whilst
inferior persons are pigmies reaching no higher than his ankles, bulk being
the symbol and representative of high and noble qualities.



HOW IT STRIKES A STRANGER.



A more obvious consequence of the territorial extent of the republic is the
unparalleled variety of its natural productions. . It includes almost every range
of climate. The newly-acquired territory of Alaska runs far up into the
Arctic Ocean, whilst the southern extremity of Florida is in close proximity
to the tropics. The Iruits and vegetables indigenous to each of these zones




ICE-HARVEST ON THE HUDSON.



have not to be imported from abroad, or forced by artificial cultivation at
home, but are " native to the soil." The ice-harvest of the Northern
States vies in importance and value with the rice crops of the Carolinas.
The orchards of New England bear enormous quantities of apples, pears,
cherries, and other fruits of a temperate clime. In Delaware and the
Central States peaches ripen to perfection in the open air. Whilst in the



VARIETY OF NATURAL PRODUCTIONS.



Gulf States bananas, oranges and semi-tropical fruits grow in wonderful
profusion. The "Great South" can supply the world with cotton, the
Middle States with tobacco, Nevada and California with the precious metals.
The vineyards of the West bid fair at no distant date to supplant the
wines of France and Spain in the home market. One has but to glance at







A BAYOU IN FLORIDA.



the map, and remember the degrees of latitude and longitude which the
continent covers, to know that this must be so ; and yet it was with a
constant and ever-growing surprise that this boundless and inexhaustible
variety of production was observed.

The natural scenery of America, though in many parts tame and flat,



HOW IT STRIKES A STRANGER.



has the same characteristic of immensity. Everything is projected on a vast
scale. The great lakes of the North are inland seas. At Niagara the drainage
of half a continent pours down over a single wall of rock. In crossing the
prairies, a feeling is produced not unlike that of crossing the ocean. We have
the same measureless expanse around us, its level surface only broken by
long wave-like undulations, which call to mind the Atlantic rollers. Not
only is the Mississippi navigable for two thousand two hundred miles from




HARPER S FERRY.



its mouth, but it has more than fifteen hundred navigable branches. We
may therefore sail for weeks along these inland waters, traversing distances
greater than in many ocean voyages. Visitors to the Mammoth Cave of
Kentucky may, so it is said, travel for two hundred miles along its
different labyrinths and avenues beneath a roof of rock rising to one
hundred feet above them. The cliffs of the Yosemite Valley are absolutely
perpendicular, and from five thousand to six thousand feet high. The "big







NATURAL BRIDGE,
VIRGINIA.



trees" in its
neighbour
hood attain
an altitude of
over three
hundred feet two-thirds
the height of the great
pyramid of Egypt. We
cannot wonder that the
inhabitants of a country
where nature works upon
so vast a scale should be
prone to indulge in " tall talk."

To the general tameness and
flatness of the American landscape
there are some remarkable excep-
tions. The picturesque beauty of
the hills and valleys of New



HOW IT STRIKES A STRANGER.



England babbling brooks, hanging woods, hillsides as brightly green as those
of the old country, lakes glittering in the sunshine, the whole dominated by
the White Mountain range reminded me of the finest parts of Derbyshire
or Wales. The traveller by the Erie or Pennsylvania Central Railroads will
pass many points of rare attractiveness. In Maryland and Virginia, we find
a succession of scenery of the very highest order, ranging from the rounded
hills and fertile valleys of the former to the grand mountain forms of the
latter. Harper's Ferry memorable from its connection with John Brown's
raid, and as the scene of some of the most exciting events of the war well




HOUSE LATELY STANDING AT PROVIDENCE, SAID TO HAVE BEEN USED BY ROGER WILLIAMS

FOR PRAYER-MEETINGS.

deserves a visit, apart from its historical associations. And the Natural Bridge
of Virginia is in the centre of a district of extraordinary beauty, which no
tourist in the States should omit to see. The grand scenery of the Rocky
Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, Niagara, the Hudson River, and the great
lakes will receive more extended notice in subsequent pages. Still the
general feeling produced on the mind of the traveller in America is that of
vast and somewhat monotonous plains, over which he may travel for days


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Online LibrarySamuel ManningAmerican pictures drawn with pen and pencil → online text (page 1 of 12)