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CORMISHT DEPOSEfc




St



Martial Heeds



OF



ENNSYLVANIA.



BY



Samuel P. Bates.



The field of history should not merely be -well tid.d, but well peopled. None is delightful to me, or
interesting, in which I find not as many illustrious names as have a right to enter it. We might as well in a
drama place the actors behind the scenes, and listen to the dialogue there, as in a history push valiant men
back, and protrude ourselves with husky disputations. Show me rather how great projects were executed, great
advantages gained, and great calamities averted. Show me the Generals and the Statesmen who stood foremost ,
that I may bend to them in reverence ; tell me their names, that I may repeat them to my children.

Landob's Peeicles and Aspasla.



AUTHOR'S EDITION.




Philadelphia :
T. T£. DAVIS & CO.



Entered according to an Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by

SAMUEL P. BATES,

In tbe Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.











PREFACE.




AVING had unusual facilities, while acting as State Histo-
rian, for gaining an intimate acquaintance with the part
which Pennsylvania bore in the late National struggle — a
Avar before which every other waged upon this continent
is dwarfed, and in the territory over which it spread was
never equalled — it has seemed a duty which could not with
justice be set aside, to place in an enduring form, while the
memory is fresh, and many avenues to information still open,
though daily closing, a full and careful chronicle of events.
Such a statement is fairly due to the Commonwealth which displayed such
vast resources and power, and to the faithful soldier who endured hardship
and privation at the call of patriotism or laid down his life a willing sacrifice.
The day of anger and resentment, if it ever existed between the combatants,
has passed, and the soldier only regards with pride his achievements, and
the State with complacency its honorable record.

A brief account of Pennsylvania history from the time of settlement, its
physical geography, its material resources, and the origin of its people,
seemed a fitting introduction, and the facts in the National history which
led to rebellion — stated without partisan feeling and supported by citations
from acknowledged authorities — a necessity to the proper understanding of
the mighty convulsions which ensued.

The battle of Gettysburg, the most important in many respects of the
whole war, having been fought on Pennsylvania soil, and the victory there
gained having saved the State from being overrun by a conquering foe, was
deemed worthy of generous space and minute description. Having studied
the field by frequent visits and under the most favorable auspices, and
mastered its various details, it is trusted that the language employed will
convey an accurate conception. Of the preliminaries to the battle, and its
management on the part of both the contending armies, the descriptions
and opinions expressed have been given with sincerity and candor, with no
desire to detract from the just fame of any, or to commend beyond due
desert,



/






?



'



6 PREFACE.

The biographical sketches comprise notices of nearly all the prominent
officers who were killed in battle, and with few exceptions the living also.
Mention of a very few, for lack of sufficient data, after reasonable efforts
made to obtain it, had to be omitted. The number of these, however, is
insignificant. There were innumerable privates and officers of lesser grade,
many of whom fell honorably in battle, who were equally deserving of men-
tion ; but the officers, generally by the voice of the privates, were made to
occupy representative positions. An honest effort has been made in this
part to do justly by all, though the scantiness of material which had any
particular significance prevented, in some cases, making the notices as long
as might have been desired.

The third part, which contains a large amount of miscellaneous matter,
is quite as important to the illustration of the Martial Deeds of the State,
as portraitures from the field. The Governor, who held for six years the
executive power, the Secretaries of War who managed complicate and
stupendous measures necessary to conquer a peace, and the Great Com-
moner, ever in the van and dying at his post, all merit recognition.

Old John Burns, the civilian, who fought at Gettysburg, a type " of
the past x>f the nation ; " an agent of the State, one of a class who
bore in their persons the thoughtful care of the Commonwealth ; repre-
sentatives of the Christian and Sanitary Commissions — he who wielded
the agencies which brought together the vast resources demanded for
their wide-spread operations; the Christian woman at the front bearing
tender care and consolation among the sick, the wounded, and the dying ;
and the no less devoted and Christian agent at home, wearing out her
life in wearisome days and nights of labor, are all types of a service which
was as patriotic as that of the soldier who bore the musket.

The Refreshment Saloons of Philadelphia furnish examples of a charity
as broad in their operations as the philanthropic sentiment by which their
projectors and supporters were moved. Like charities were established at
Pittsburg and Harrisburg, but on a less imposing model. It has been im-
possible to treat of all the topics which might with propriety have found a
place in this volume ; but it is believed that in the form in which it is now
given, it presents a fair image of the Agency of Pennsylvania in the
Great Struggle.

S. P. B.
Meadville, April 16, 1875.










s i



CONTENTS.



I



PART I.
GENERAL HISTORY.

CMAPTER PAGE

I. — Re"sume* of Pennsylvania History ■. 17

II. — Origin of Kebellion 44

III. — Outlook at the Opening of the Rebellion 74

IV. — Attempts at Pacification — The President-elect in Pennsylvania 88

V.— The First Campaign 116

VI.— The Great Uprising 141

VII. — Preliminaries to the Battle of Gettysburg under Hooker 15S

VIII. — Preliminaries to the Battle of Gettysburg under Meade 188

IX.— First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg 207

X. — Marshalling for the Second Day at Gettysburg 238

XI. — Severe Fighting on the Left at Gettysburg 255

XII.— Fighting on the Eight at Gettysburg 282

XIII.— The Final Struggle at Gettysburg 298

XIV.— The Retreat of Lee from Gettysburg 313

XV.— The Conduct of the Battle of Gettysburg 325

XVI. — Numbers engaged at Gettysburg 341

XVII. — The Militia — Capture of Morgan — Burning of Chambersburg — Final Triumph

—Death of the President 362



PART II,
BIOGRAPHY.

I. — Edward D. Baker — John T. Greble — Seneca G. Simmons — Charles Ellet, Jr. —
James Cameron — Amor A. McKnight — Mark Kern — Peter B. Housum —

Lansford F. Chapman — John W. McLane 387

II. — George D. Bayard — Strong Vincent — Charles F. Taylor — J. Richter Jones —
James H. Childs — Washington Brown — William Bowen — Samuel Croasdale
— Henry I. Zinn — Henry W. Carruthers — Richard H. Woolworth — George
A. Cobham, Jr. — Richard A. Oakford — Thomas M. Hulings — Edwin A. Glenn
—Guy H. Watkins— W. L. Curry— Edwin Schall— Joseph S. Chandler-
Thomas S. Brenholtz 427






8 CONTEXTS.

CHAPTEB \ PAGE

III. — John F. Reynolds — Henry golden — Hugh W. McNeil — John M. Gries — James
Miller — James Crowther-f Joseph A. McLean — Frank A. Elliot — William S.
Kirkwood — John W. Moore — Gustavus W. Town— Garrett Nowlen — A. H.
Snyder — John B. Miles — Harry A. Purviance — Charles I. Maceuen — H. Boyd
McKeen — O. H. Rippey — George Dare — Eli T. Cornier — Francis Mahler —
Elisha Hall — Edward Carroll — Richard P. Roberts 467

IV. — Alexander Hays — John B. Kohler — Charles A. Knoderer — Robert B. Hampton —
Thomas S. Bell — F. A. Lancaster — Calvin A. Craig — Henry J. Stainrook — Mil-
ton Opp — J. W. Crosby — Hezekiah Easton — Robert P. Cummins — George C.
Spear — Henry M. Eddy — C. Faeger Jackson — Samuel W. Black — Theodore
Hesser — Richard C. Dale— William G. Murray — John D. Musser — John M.
Gosline— Martin Tschudy — Dennis CKane — Geo. W. Gowen — Peter Keenan.. 509
V.— David B. Birney — Charles F. Smith — Robert Morris, Jr. — Charles R. Ellet —
Henry C. Whelan— Thomas A. Zeigle — Joseph H. Wilson — Thomas Welsh-
Joshua B. Howell — John B. Conyngham — David Morris, Jr. — Prosper Dalien. 556

VI. — Geo. G. Meade— James Q. Anderson — Hugh S. Campbell — Win. M. Penrose—
Wm. R. Gries — Wm. A. Leech — Rob't L. Bodine — Elisha B. Harvey — Oliver
B. Knowles— Andrew H. Tippin — Alfred B. McCalniont— George A. McCalL 590
VII. — John W. Geary— Charles J. Biddle— A. Schemmelfimiig — John Clark— Joseph
Roberts — S. A. Meredith — A. S. M. Morgan — Owen Jones — William D.
Dixon — John F. Ballier — James Starr — D. C. McCoy — James A. Beaver —

Langhorne Wister 628

VIII. — John F. Hartranft — Richard Coulter — A. Buschbeck — Charles P. Herring —
Matthew S. Quay — Jacob H. Dewees — Everard Bierer — Robert Thompson —
Joseph H. Horton — Joseph W. Hawley — John H. Cain — H. N. Warren —
Samuel B. M. Young— John Markoe — John B. Mcintosh 662

IX. — Winfield S. Hancock — Thomas J. Jordan — William McCandless — St. Clair A.
Mulholland — Samuel M. Jackson — William J. Bolton — John I. Curtin—
Joseph P. Brinton — Vincent M. Wilcox — DeWitt C. Strawbridge — Robert
L. Orr — Samuel D. Strawbridge — John M. Mark — Thomas F. B. Tapper —
William M. Mintzer — Thomas J. Town — William R. Hartshorne — Norman
M. Smith — Horace B. Burnham — Marcus A. Reno — William A. Robinson —

John F. Glenn— Charles M. Betts— W. B. Franklin 698

X. — Andrew A. Humphreys — George W.Cullum — Alfred Sully — Thomas H. Neill —
George Shorkley — Levi Maish — Lemuel Todd — D. Watson Rowe — Hiram L.
Brown — John S. McCalniont — Daniel W. Magraw — E. S. Troxell — John M.
Wetherill — James F. Ryan — T. F. Lehmann — Hiram C. Allemann — Michael
Kerwin — John P. Nicholson — John W. Phillips — David McM. Gregg 73G

XL — Samuel P. Ileintzelman — Isaac J. Wistar— R. B. Ricketts — W. W. EL Davis —
(liarles M. Prevost — William E. Doster — Gideon Clark — Samuel M. Zulick —
Thomas A. Rowley — George W. Gile — David M. Jones — John S. Littell — T.
Ellwood Zell — E. Morrison Woodward — R. Butler Price — James L. Selfridge
— John Devereux — Joshua T. Owen — William H. Lessig — Edmund L. Dana. 773



/



CONTENTS. 9

CHAPTEB PAGE

XII. — Samuel W. Crawford — Charles Albright— Ira Aver, Jr. — Henry J. Sheafer—
James G. Elder — James F. Weaver — Peter H. Allabach — David B. McCreary
— James A. Galligher — Benjamin F. Winger — Richard B. Roberts — Charles
H. Buehler — Charles C. Cresson — Henry B. McKean — David M. Armor —
Jacob G. Frick — David Miles — Henry G. Elder — Edward R. Bowen — John

E. Parsons — Robert C. Cox — Henry S. Huidekoper — Jacob M. Campbell —
Horatio G. Sickel 810

XIII. — William W. Averell — John I. Gregg — Roy Stone— Hector Tyndale— G. W.
Merrick — Thomas E. Rose — James Tearney — Amor W. Wakefield — Dennis
Heenan — Edward J. Allen — Henry R. Guss — Joseph S. Hoard — James T.
Kirk— Thomas F. McCoy— Edward O'Brien— Carlton B. Curtis— C. A.
Lyman — Isaiah Price — J. William Hofmann — Edward Overton, Jr. — William

F. Small— James Gwyn— William H. Boyd— F. S. Stumbangh— O. S. Wood-
ward — Robert M. Henderson — Isaac Rogers — Tilghman H. Good — Geo. E.
Johnson — J. W. H. Reisinger — A. J. Warner — L. Cantador — John Ely —
Edwin E. Zeigler — Asher S. Leidy — Thomas L. Kane 848

XIV. — Galusha Pennypacker — William J. Palmer — Samuel K. Schwenk — Martin D.
Hardin — Henry M. Hoyt — John P. S. Gobin — J. Bowman Sweitzer — John
Flynn — Charles H. T. Collis — James M. Thomson — John H. Taggart — Joseph
Jack — Franklin A. Stratton — George S. Gallupe — John A. Danks — Louis
Wagner — Thomas J. Ahl — Joseph M. Knap — William C. Talley — James
Nagle— M. T. Heintzelman— A. W. Gazzam— R. E. Winslow— J. P. Taylor—
W. M. McClure — William Rickards — William Sirwell — Seneca G. Willauer —
A. L. Majilton— C. C. McCormick — Benjamin C. Tilghman— Peter C. Ell-
maker — F. B. Speakman — Loren Burritt — Daniel Leasure — Charles T. Camp-
bell — George P. McLean — C. W. Diven — John Harper — Charles Kleckner —
Joseph B. Kiddoo — George F. Smith — David B. Morris — Henry M. Bossert —
Edward Campbell — T. Kephart — F.O. Alleman — Daniel Nagle — A. Blakeley —
J. W. Fisher — Noah G. Ruhl — James Carle — James S. Negley — James Miller
—Thomas F. Gallagher— J. R. Everhart— B. M. Orwig— Robert Patterson. 896



part in.

CIVIL AND MISCELLANEOUS.

I. — Andrew G. Curtin — Simon Cameron — Edwin M. Stanton — Thaddeus Stevens. . . 957
II. — Old John Burns — Francis Jordan — George H. Stuart — Mrs. John Harris —

Mrs. Hannah Moore 988

III. — The Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon — The Cooper Shop Volunteer

Refreshment Saloon 1023

IV— The Fort Pitt Works— The Petersburg Mine— Libbv Prison Tunnel 1041



JO CONTENTS.

CHArTEB PA0E

V.— The Gettysburg Cabbage-Patch— The Fall of Henry D. Price— Narrative of
Thomas F. Roberts in Rebel Prisons—" Sitting in the same position, the straw hat
on his head, the pipe in his mouth, dead "—Shot on Picket— The Swamp Angel
— A Surgeon's Adventure in the Rebel Lines — Daring Escape from Captivity—
The Devoted Wife before Mr. Lincoln — Incidents Related by Dr. Palm— Sallie,
the Faithful Brute — Death of Robert Montgomery — Rev. Dr. Brown's Account of
Chantilly — Captain William Hyndman— Jenny Wade, the Heroine of Gettys-
burg 10S1



INDEX TO MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.



REPULSE OF THE LOUISIANA TIGERS AT GETTYSBURG. . ..(F

FR OM FREDERICKSB URG TO GETTYSB URG To /ace page 1 5 3

FIELD OF THE FIRST DA Y AT GETTYSBURG 214

FIELD OF THE SECOND DA Y A T GETTYSBURG 248

FIELD OF THE THIRD DAY AT GETTYSBURG .

HISTORICAL MONUMENT A T GETTYSB URG



INDEX TO PORTRAITS.



ALBRIGHT, CHARLES To face pa

ALLEMAN, HIRAM C _^

ALLEN, EDWARD J 468

A VERELL, W. W.

BAKER, EDWARD D

BAYARD, GEORGE D 428

BEAVER, JAMES A I >53

BIRNEY, DA VID B 256

BURNS, JOHN L g

CAMERON, SIMON.

CARRUTHERS, H W 441

CLARK, GIDEON 510

CLARK, JOHN 64 1

COLLIS, CHARLES H. T. 91,;

COULTER, RICHARD

COX, ROBERT C.

CRA WFORD, SAMUEL WYLIE

CURTIN, ANDREW G 74

DANA, EDMUND L 1058

DAVIS, W. W. H

EVERHART, J. R ur, ;

FALES, SAMUEL B 1Q24

GEARY, JOHN W. 2^_>

GREBLE, JOHN T. 4 _

GUSS, HENRY R 865

HANCOCK, WINFIELD S _ •

HARTRANFT, JOHN F

11



12 INDEX TO PORTRAITS.

HEINTZELMAN, SAMUEL P To face page 44

HUMPHREYS, ANDREW A 730

HO YT, HENRY M 590

JACKSON, SAMUEL M. 698

JONES, DA VID M 628

JONES, OWEN 698

JORDAN, THOMAS J. 698

KNuDERER, CHARLES A 510

KNO WLES, OLIVER B 314

^URE, DANIEL 628

LITTELL, JOHN S 1058

MACEUEN, CHARLES 1 498

McCLAMONT, ALFRED B 590

MrCALMONT, JOHN S 556

) Y, D. W. C 656

M< LANE, JOHN W 510

MEADE, GEORGE G 188

MERRICK, GEORGE TV 468

MILES, JOHN B 468

NEGLEY, JAMES S... 950

WEN, JOSHUA T 468

PA TTERSON, ROBERT 110

PENNYPACKER, GALUSHA 890

PRICE, ISAIAH. ..y. 874

REYNOLDS, JOHN F 208

RI< KELTS, ROBERT' B 628

K 'HERTS, JOSEPH. 550

. THOMAS E 105S

RO WE, D. WATSON 550

8t HWENK, SAMUEL K 900

SELFRIDGE, JAMES L 802

SHORKLEY, GEORGE 550

SICKEL, HORATIO G 302

STANTON, EDWIN M 970

STEVENS, THADDEUS 982

SI RA WBRIDGE, D. W. C 698

SIRATTON, FRANKLIN A 510

STUART, GEORGE II • 1004

TO \VN, GUSTA VUS W 590

TYNDALE, HECTOR 80O

Jr. I RNER, ADONIRAM J 880

WETHERILL, JOHN M 556

WILLA UER, SENECA G ' 510

WIST. 1 A", ISAAC J 778

DWJ RD, A'. MORRISON 628

SAMUEL B. M. 105s

ZULICK, SAMUEL M 468



PART I.

GENERAL HISTORY.



15



MARTIAL DEEDS



OF



PENNSYLVANIA.



CHAPTER I.



RESUME OF PENNSYLVANIA HISTORY.




HE inhabitants of mountainous regions, it is ob-
served, have always manifested an ardent love of
liberty, a quick perception of its peril, and nerve
to strike in its defence. Beneath the shadows of
Israel, along the shores of the Adriatic, amid the
rocks of Uri, and under the glaciers of Switzerland
that spirit has prevailed. It was exhibited in the
late struggle for the Union and universal liberty,
by the populations along the Allegheny range, ex-
tending through West Virginia, East Tennessee,
even far into Georgia, where, amid the storms of a
threatened revolution, sweeping and convulsive, an
undying love for freedom was preserved, and, while
hunted down like wild beasts, and subjected to tortures by their
enemies, they maintained a faith unshaken. Betaking themselves
to their native fastnesses, the Refugees of this mountain district
showed a heroism unsurpassed by the martyrs of old.

The causes which operate to produce this inspiring influence
have been traced by modern science to the rural occupations
which such regions prescribe, to the grandeur of the scenery per-
petually spread out to view, to the limpid waters of the streams,
and more than all, to the purity and invigorating airs distilled
upon the mountain tops. This influence is strikingly figured by
2 17



18 MARTIAL DEEDS OF PENNSYLVANIA,

a writer in Harpers Magazine, just returned from a mountain
tour: "There is no delight in travel so electrical as that of the
Swiss mornings. Their breath cleanses life. They touch mind
and heart with vigor. They renew the loftiest faith. They
quicken the best hope. Despondency and gloom roll away like
the dark clouds which the Finster-Aarliorn and the Jungfrau
spurn from their summits. Nowhere else is life such a con-
scious delight. No elixir is so pure, no cordial so stimulating, as
that Alpine air. . . . The Alpine purity and silence seem to
penetrate the little commonwealth. It is such a state as poets
describe in Utopia, and Atlantis, and Oceana. The traveller in
Switzerland sees a country in which the citizen is plainly careful
of the public welfare ; and he is glad to believe that this spirit
springs from freedom, and that freedom is born of the lofty inspi-
ration of the mountain air, which dilates his lungs with health,
and fills his soul with delight. Indeed the hardy and simple vir-
tues are a mountain crop."

In Pennsylvania, the Allegheny range spreads out to its grandest
proportions, and towers to its loftiest heights ; and it is a notice-
able circumstance, that the troops gathered from its rugged moun-
tain regions, and by the flashing streams of its forests, were
among the most resolute and daring of any that served in the
late war. It may seem fanciful that the geographical features of
a country, its soil, and climate should affect the character of its
inhabitants ; but if a population is allowed to remain long enough
in a locality for these to have their legitimate iniluence, their
impress will be found in the prevailing characteristics.

Who are the people of Pennsylvania ? What the situation,
extent, and physical features of the region they inhabit? What
the peculiarities of its soil in its varied parts, and its equally
varied climate and productions? What the treasures hidden be-
neath its surface, about which the} 7 dream, for which they delve,
and which they transmute to cunning workmanship ? From
what families and nations of men have they sprung ? How has
been the growth of education, religion, civil polity? What their
attitude in the troublous times of other days ? And finally, what
were their numbers, and the spirit which actuated them at the
moment of entering the great civil strife?



RESUME OF PENNSYLVANIA HISTORY. 19

Pennsylvania is situated between latitude 39° 43' and 42° north,
and between longitude 2° 17' east and 3° 31' west from Washing-
ton, giving it a mean length of 280.39, and a breadth of 158.05
miles. Its form is that of a parallelogram, its sides being right
lines, with the exception of its eastern boundary, which follows
the course of the Delaware river, nearly the form of an elongated
W, its top pointing westward, with a slight curtailment at the
boundary of Delaware, and an enlargement in its northwestern
corner where it meets the lake. The Appalachian system of
mountains, generally known as the Alleghenies, comprising several
parallel ranges, trending from northeast to southwest, hold in their
folds more than half the territory of the State. The southeastern
corner, known as the Atlantic coast plain, 125 miles wide in
its greatest stretch, is gently rolling, has a mild climate, a fertile
soil, impregnated with lime, kindly to grains and the vine, is kept
under a high state of cultivation, and is filled with a dense popu-
lation. The valleys of the mountain region in the south are like-
wise fertile, and in characteristics and productions are similar to
the coast plain; but to the north, where they were originally
covered with forests of pine and hemlock, as they are cleared and
brought under the hand of cultivation, are better adapted to
grazing than to grain, where, the year through, copious streams
are fed by fountains of living waters, and the population, more
sparse, given to felling the forests and subduing a ruggeder clime,
is itself more resolute and hardy. The rolling table-lands of the
northwest are not unlike the latter in soil, in climate, in produc-
tions, and in men. Farther south, bordering upon West Virginia,
the warm season is longer and more genial, the surface is rolling,
flocks are upon the hills, and everywhere are orchards and green
meadows. No region is more picturesque than this; not the
vine-covered hills of the Rhine or the Anio.

The coast and mountain regions of the east and south are
drained by two great river courses — the Delaware, whose principal
tributaries are the Schuylkill and the Lehigh, and which finds its
way to the ocean through Delaware bay, and the Susquehanna,
fed by the East and West Branch, which unite at Northumberland,
whose chief tributary is the Juniata, pouring into it a few miles
above Harrisburg, and linked to the sea by the waters of the



20 MARTIAL DEEDS OF PENNSYLVANIA.

Chesapeake. Contrary to the law which almost universally
governs the directions of rivers, these streams, instead of follow-
ing the valleys, defy the most formidable barriers, cut through the
mountain chains, and run at right angles to their courses. These
huge rents or gaps in the rock-ribbed sides of the mighty ridges,
as though cleaved by the stroke of a giant, show, in their abut-
ments close in upon the streams, their formation, and give an awe-
inspiring aspect.

Draining the western slopes are the Monongahela from the
south, rising in West Virginia, with the Youghiogheny as a prin-
cipal tributary, and the Allegheny from the north, fed by the
Venango on its right, and the Clarion and the Conemaugh on
its left — which, uniting their floods at Pittsburg, form the Ohio.
Still further west is the Shenango, a tributary of the Beaver river,
draining one of the most fertile and populous valleys of the State.
Upon the summit, along the water-shed between the basin of the
great lakes and that of the Mississippi, is a system, of minor lakes
and marshes, among which are the Conneautee and the Conneaut
lakes, the latter the largest in the State, and the Conneaut and
Pymatuning swamps, these being but a part of a continuous line
stretching through New York, embracing the Chatauqua, the Can-
andaigua, the Seneca, the Cayuga, and the Oneida, and westward
through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; the Chicago river in the latter
State connecting with Lake Michigan, and at the same time with
the tributaries of the Gulf.

Such is the configuration of the surface of Pennsylvania ; but
under that surface were hidden from the eye of the early explorer
treasures of which he had little conception. Beneath the hills
and rocky ridges of the northeast, the central, and southern central,
following the general course of the mountains, were buried, in
ages far remote beyond the ken of the scientist, vast lakes of
anthracite coal ; and in the northern central, extending down far
past its southwestern verge, were piled up Titanic masses of bitu-



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