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UC-NRLF




of Education,



CATALOGUE



OF THE



NAVAL AND MARINE ENGINEERING
COLLECTION



THE SCIENCE MUSEUM,

SOUTH KENSINGTON.

fITH DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL NOTES.



WAR AND MERCANTILE VESSELS ;
'ACHTS, BOATS, TUGS, BARGES, ETC. ;
nHIP DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION;
LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES.



MARINE ENGINES AND BOILERS ;
PADDLE-WHEELS AND SCREW PROPELLERS ;
STEERING APPLIANCES;
AUXILIARY MACHINERY.



AERIAL NAVIGATION.



Second Edition, with a Supplement containing illustrations




LONDON:

PUBLJSHKD BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFK
To be purchased, either directly or through a My Bookseller, from

WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FKITER LA.NE, E.G.; or
OLIVER AND BO YD, T.VEEDDALE COTJET, EDINBURGH? or
E, PONSONBY, LTD. 116, GRAJPTON Si KKKT, DUBLIN. -

PRINTED BT

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, LTD., EAST HARMING STRBBT, B.C.,

PRINTERS TO TUB KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJKS .

1911,
Price (including illustrations) On? Shilling and Si






Boarb of Education.:'



CATALOGUE

OF THE

NAVAL AND MARINE ENGINEERING
COLLECTION



IN



THE SCIENCE MUSEUM,

' SOUTH KENSINGTON.

WITH DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL NOTES.



WAR AND MERCANTILE VESSELS ;
YACHTS, BOATS, TUGS, BARGES, ETC. ;
SHIP DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ;
LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES.



MARINE ENGINES AND BOILERS ;
PADDLE-WHEELS AND SCREW PROPELLERS ;
STEERING APPLIANCES;
AUXILIARY MACHINERY.



AERIAL NAVIGATION.



Second Edition, with a Supplement containing illustrations.




LONDON:

UBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.
To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from

WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., FETTER LANE, E.G. ; or

OLIVER AND BOYD, TWEEDDALE COURT, EDINBURGH? or

E. PONSONBY, LTD., 116, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.



PRINTED BT

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, LTD., EAST HARDING STREET, B.C.,

PRINTERS TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.
1911.

icc. (including illustrations) One Shilling and Sixpence,



PREFACE.



THE collection of Models of Ships and Marine Machinery
was first formed in 1864, when the Royal School of Naval
Architecture and Marine Engineering was established at South
Kensington by the Lords of the Committee of Council on
Education, at the request of the Lords Commissioners of the
Admiralty.

It consisted at first principally of models lent by the
Admiralty, which were transferred to Greenwich in 1873, when
the Royal School of Naval Architecture was removed thither.
In the meanwhile, however, the collection had been very largely
supplemented by models obtained, principally on loan, from
other sources ; and the owners not wishing that they should be
removed from South Kensington, all but the Admiralty models
were retained there as a division of the Science Branch of the
South Kensington Museum.

The President and Council of the Institution of Naval
Architects waited on the Lord President of the Council on the
30th June, 1887, and laid before him a memorandum relating
to the collection. In this memorandum, after recapitulating
the history of the collection and the various proposals that had
been made with reference to it, they go on to say :

" The Council of the Institution wish to bring under the
notice of the Lord President the fact that Shipbuilding and
Marine Engineering is, after agriculture, the largest industry in
the United Kingdom. * * * The importance of

good museums in furthering the work of technical education
cannot be overestimated ; the Council of the Institution there-
fore specially recommend that the suggestions contained in the
report of the majority of the Inter-Departmental Committee
(Sir F. Bramwell's) be carried into effect, so far as regards the
collection of Naval Models and Marine engines, by retaining
the collection at South Kensington Museum, and by providing
the requisite space for its present and future development.
The Council of the Institution consider that South Kensington
is the best site for the Museum, because of its central position,
which is readily accessible both to professional men and to
students, and also because of its proximity to the Normal School

of Science (now the Imperial College of Science and Technology)."
:: :: # -s-

The collection has been increased year by year, partly by
purchases and by models made to order (in some cases in the



fef

. 3

Royal Dockyards), but principally by donations and loans from
Engineering, Shipbuilding, and Shipowning firms, and from
Lloyd's Committee.

The Board of Education trust that they may continue
to receive liberal assistance in their endeavours to maintain
a collection which may illustrate the history and development
of Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering as well as the present
condition of those arts.



. : : : . Many of the engine models are shown in motion daily
from 11 a.m. till dosing time, the motive power being supplied
by a compressed air service.

The more important objects in the Naval and Marine
Engineering Collections have been photographed, and particulars
of prints and lantern slides that are available may be obtained
on application.



e



456677



n (11)6773 Wt 28651 4250 9,1 1 AS



4
CONTENTS.



(The objects in the various sections are arranged
chronologically.)

Page

Warships - 5

Sailing - ...... 7

Steam - - 24

Mercantile Vessels - .... 52

Sailing - ..... 54

Steam - ...... 60

Yachts - . 104

Racing - - 106

Cruising - 117

Motor boats - - 122

Boats, Barges, Launches, Tugs, etc. - 123

Open boats - 125

Decked craft - - 136

Life-boats - 144

Steam tug boats - 149

Boats' fittings - 150

Ships and Boats, chiefly of Oriental Design - 152

Masts, Yards, Rigging, and Sails - - 168

Ship Design - - 172

JShip Construction - 182

Wooden - - 186

Composite - 192

Iron and steel - - 196

Ships' fittings, etc. 213

Slipways, Docks, etc.

Lighthouses, etc. - - 229

Life- Saving Appliances - 237



Marine Engines - 241

Paddle - - 244

Screw - - 261

Details - - 285

Marine Boilers - 292

Boiler fittings - - 306

Propellers - 315
Paddle-wheels -

Screws - - 323

Other forms - 341

Steering Arrangements 343

Capstans, Winches, etc. 355

Anchors, Cables, etc.

Logs and Clinometers

Dredging Appliances - 374



Aerial Navigation

Appendix - . 389

List of Donors and Contributors - fc

Index 396



CATALOGUE



OF THE



NAVAL AND MARINE ENGINEERING
COLLECTION



IN



THE SCIENCE MUSEUM,
SOUTH KENSINGTON.



When a reference is made in the text it is usually to the serial numbers
at the beginnings of the entries. When an object is illustrated the
reference is given immediately after the entry. The numbers in the
right-hand lower corners of the headings are those under which the objects
are registered in the Museum.



SHIPS OF WAR.

The earliest vessels, used indifferently for all purposes, were
" dug-out," i.e., hollowed out of a log, as still practised by
certain tribes, or else were formed of mat or wicker work.
Examples of such constructions are shown in some of the
Oriental boats. Such vessels were necessarily very small, the
larger ones only becoming possible after some system of
shipbuilding had been evolved.

Accounts of early shipbuilding are given in the records of
the ancient Egyptians, and on the Mediterranean coasts great
advances were made by the Phoenicians, who about B.C. 800
constructed warships having two banks of oars. About this
time also the Greeks built their first warships, while in B.C. 350
they possessed a navy and a complete dockyard equipment.
Their warships were provided with several banks of oars, to
allow of quick evolutions in all weathers and to facilitate the
use of the beak or ram with which each was provided. They
were, however, small vessels, making short voyages only ; the
hull length was 7'5 times the beam. The Roman warships
were about 5 times the beam in length, but were known as " long "
ships, to distinguish them from their merchant vessels, which
were only 4 beams in length ; the merchantmen carried few
oars, relying rather on sails, as they undertook oversea voyages ;
their carrying capacity was about 250 tons. The narrow or





galley type of armed ship, with, convicts or prisoners as rowers,
remained as a naval factor in the Mediterranean until steamships
became general.

Before the invention of gunpowder, fighting was of the hand-
to-hand order, or at ranges at which arrows could be used ;
from the 12th to the 15th centuries lofty structures at the
bow and stern were usually provided for the accommodation
of the archers and combatants. The introduction of cannon
into land warfare, about 1350, was followed by their use at
sea. The early guns were placed broadside, over the gunwales,
but the use of ports soon followed, and then the arrange-
ment of the guns in tiers. These changes very gradually
led to the suppression of the fighting towers, although the
name survives in our word "forecastle."

Henry VIII. established the first Royal Dockyards at Deptford
and Woolwich, about 1510, thus laying the foundation of our
present naval system. The Cinque Ports were previously bound
to supply a certain number of fighting ships in lieu of taxes,
from which they were exempted, while as late as the time of the
Armada the Navy was chiefly composed of vessels impressed or
hired from private owners. At this period all merchant ships
were prepared and equipped for fighting, with the result that
many of their engagements would now be considered as of the
buccaneering order.

In the 17th century the warships of all European nations
embodied the following features that have since disappeared :
High stern, decorated sides, square bulkhead across the bows,
spritinast and sails below the bowsprit, and a lateen sail on the
mizen mast ; the armament at this period was increased by
the use of larger guns, rather than by adding to the numbers.
With slight changes in rig and an increased weight of broadside,
this type of warship survived till the beginning of the 19th
century, largely owing to the action of the Navy Board in
1719, which laid down a scale of dimensions and tonnage for
the construction of vessels of each rate.

In 1832 commenced the great change in. the Navy due to
the introduction of steam power ; in that year the paddle
steamer H.M.S. "Salamander" appeared, and subsequently
numerous paddle-driven war vessels were constructed. In 1843
H.M.S. " Rattler " was built and fitted as a screw-propelled
fighting ship. Her complete success, combined with the obvious
advantages of machinery below the water-line, at once rendered
the ultimate adoption of steam propulsion inevitable. These
early steamships were only despatch boats or brigs, and it was
not till 1848 that the screw was applied to line-of-battle ships, and
then only as an auxiliary power to fully-rigged sailing vessels.

Although the use of iron for shipbuilding was a practical
success by 1832, its adoption in warships was much later, for
it was only in 1850 that iron beams were substituted for wooden
ones, while not till 1856 were the first iron-built war vessels
constructed. These were the floating batteries " Erebus,"



*' Terror," and " Thunderbolt," designed for use in the Russian
war, where the destructive effect of shell-fire upon wooden ships
was very severely experienced.

In consequence of the building in France of " La Gloire," an
armoured wooden ship, an immense change was inaugurated in
this country by the construction in 1861 of the first iron-built
armoured vessel, H.M.S. " Warrior." Since then, the arrange-
ments of a warship have continued to diverge from those of
a, merchant vessel, so that now, the latter is never improvised
for line of battle, but is sometimes used for subsidiary war
purposes.

The early armour was of wrought iron, which well resisted
the chilled cast-iron projectiles so long used, but with the
introduction of steel shot a harder armour was rendered
necessary. (See " Armour," p. 185.)

From about 1870 till 1887 the primary guns of battleships
were generally arranged in armoured revolving turrets, but since
then the barbette mounting has been almost exclusively adopted,
the guns being carried on a revolving platform, the base of
which is protected by a stationary ring of heavy armour. In
1906, the growing importance of rapid and concentrated gun-
fire at long ranges resulted in the British "Dreadnought"
design, in which the universal practice of a mixed armament,
of light and heavy guns, was abandoned and an augmented
number of the most powerful guns were carried in a vessel of
^greatly increased dimensions and speed. Although this sim-
plification of armaments had advantages as regards general
fighting efficiency at extreme ranges, yet the continued improve-
ments in torpedo-attack, at medium ranges, have shown 'the
advisability of still carrying a number of quick-firing guns of
smaller calibre.

SAILING SHIPS OF WAR.

1. Rigged model of King's Ship (llth to 13th cent.). (Scale
1 : 24.) Presented by James Dixon, Esq., 1908. Plate I,
No. 1. N. 2489.

The term " King's Ship " appears to have been applied originally to the
long-ships or war galleys of about 60 oars built by Alfred the Great in 875.

This model, made by Mr. F. H. Mason, KB. A., represents an English
man-of-war of the Norman and early Plantagenet periods, such as may be
seen on the 13th century seals of some of the Cinque Ports. It has greater
proportional beam and fuller lines than the contemporary warships of the
oar-propelled galley type.

Oak was generally used in construction; the planking was worked
flush and then caulked with moss, hair, and pitch ; the sides were further
strengthened and protected by external timbers and rubbing-pieces.
Temporary structures or " castles " at the bow and stem, and smaller
" top-castles " at the mast-head, were erected for the use of the fighting men.
Decks and platforms were also of a portable character. Wooden shields
were hung around the bulwarks for the better protection of the crew ; the
shields and banners of the knights were hung upon the castles. A single
pole inast was used, spreading a large decorated square-sail ; sail was taken



8

in when necessary by detaching the " bonnet " or lower portion. Steering
was effected by a large oar on the right-hand side. These vessels were
decorated with heraldic carvings and painted in bright colours, red being a
favourite colour. Their burden varied probably from 40 to 160 tons.

2. Rigged model of carrack (15tli cent.). (Scale 1 : 48.)

Presented by James Dixon, Esq., 1908. Plate I., No. 2.

N. 2488.

This model, by Mr. F. H. Mason, R.B.A., represents a type of ship
developed, largely by the Genoese, Portuguese, and Spaniards, during the
14th and 15th centuries for the purposes of the sea-borne commerce of the
period. Oversea expeditions, such as those of Columbus and Vasco da Gama,,
were also made in vessels of similar type.

The most striking features of these vessels were: A low freeboard
amidships, a high overhanging forecastle, and a heavy superstructure at the
stern. These erections, developed from the temporary fighting " castles "
of earlier date, were now incorporated with the ship structure ; they provided
accommodation for the crew and afforded means of defence, although they
increased the tendency to heavy rolling and pitching. In war vessels of the
16th century these superstructures reached extreme proportions " for majesty
and terror of the enemy."

The carrack usually carried from three to four pole masts ; lateen sails
were always used, but upper and lower square- sails were fitted to the fore
and main masts in the later and larger examples. A rudder, hung at the
centre line of the stern, had, at this date, superseded the steering oar. The
ship's boats were carried in the waist, when they could not be towed.

The model represents a vessel of about 150 tons burden, but during the
16th century Genoese carracks of 1,600 tons burden are recorded as having
been built.

3. Engraving of "Henri Grace a Dieu " or "Great Harry"

(1514). Received 1905. N. 2393,

This engraving, from a contemporary painting ascribed to Hans Holbein r
is believed to represent one of the first vessels of considerable size belonging
to the Royal Navy of England.

Owing to the practice of giving the same name to successive ships of
somewhat similar characteristics, it has been difficult to distinguish clearly
between the " Great Harry " reputed to have been built by Henry VII.
about 1488-1503 and the " Great Harry " or " Henri Grace a Dieu " of the
folloAving reign. Authentic records, however, exist as to the building of
this latter ship at Woolwich, in 1512-15, of her engagement with a French
fleet off the Isle of Wight in 1545, and of her accidental destruction by fire
at Woolwich in 1553. She carried four masts, each made in a single length
without a separate top-mast and all square-rigged, and a long bowsprit ;
she was of about 1,000 tons burden, and had a crew of 700 men and an
armament of 20 to 30 cannon with a large number of smaller guns.

Various drawings of this vessel are in existence. The adjacent prints of
" Henri Grace a Dieu " (No. 5), from a drawing in the Pepysian Library,
Cambridge, and " The Embarkation of Henry VIII." (No. 4), show structures
having abnormal proportion of height to length and breadth, which probably
more nearly represent the actual type of ship in use at the beginning of the
16th century than does this engraving, which in some characteristics shows
an advance towards vessels of the Elizabethan period.

4. Engraving of the Embarkation of Henry VHI. (1520)..

Received 1905. N. 2394.

This engraving is taken from the large painting now in Hampton Court
Palace ascribed to Vincent Volpe, a contemporary Court painter ; it
represents Henry VIII. of England, with his fleet, leaving Dover Harbour
for Calais, preparatory to his historical interview with Francis I. of France,,
on the Field of the Cloth of Gold.



In the foreground are views of the two forts commanding the western
side of the harbour entrance, while in the "background appears Dover Castle,
Among the leading vessels, to the right of the picture, is shown the
celebrated " Henri Grace a Dieu " or " Great Harry," with the King
standing upon the upper deck. Interesting details are given of the masting,,
rigging, and external design and ornamentation of ships-of-war during the
early part of the 16th century ; these features are in general accord with
the drawing of the " Henri Grace a Dieu " in the Pepysian Library,
Cambridge, a partial reproduction of which appears in the upper part of an
adjacent frame (No. 5).

5. Prints of early shipping. Presented by T. Dyer Edwardes,

Esq., 1868. N. 1209,

These are a collection of woodcuts or engravings representing chiefly
mediaeval vessels. They include a British coracle of 50 B.C. ; Mediterranean
Avar galleys ; a fireship and seven other vessels of 14th to 15th centuries ; the
"Great Harry" of 1503; the "Henri Grace a Dieu" of 1514; the "Royal
James " of 1675 ; and the ill-fated " Royal George " of 1756.

6. Rigged model of English man-of-war (1580-1600). (Scale

1 : 72). Lent by R. Morton Nance, Esq., 1908. Plate l. r
No. 3. N. 2456.

This model of an Elizabethan warship was made by Mr. Nance from
information obtained from contemporary prints, paintings and detailed
descriptions.

The hull shows features of both the round- ship or mediaeval merchant
vessel, and the long- ship or war galley a combination which gave a vessel
capable of carrying a considerable spread of sail and ample armament while
possessing the speed and handiness associated with lightness in construction.
The narrowing or housing-in of the topsides, which rendered the vessel more
seaworthy and strengthened the decks as gun platforms, as well as the
beakhead and the open stern galley were new features of this period, while
gratings and nettings in the waist as a defence against boarders were
adapted from an earlier arrangement.

Four masts are shown ; the foremast is placed before the bulkhead of the
forecastle and the bowsprit is stepped beside it ; the two mizen masts are
fitted with lateen sails only, an outrigger from the stern being used to
extend the sheet of the smaller or bona venture mizen- sail. On the ends of
the bowsprit and yard-arms are sheer-hooks intended for catching in an-
enemy's rigging. No stay-sails were carried but the stays themselves were
used for securing the standing parts of braces, bowlines, &c., the crow-foot
being a favourite method of attachment. Marnetts or martinets, similar to
leech lines, are shown upon the fore and main- sails, while the methods of
furling adopted at this period are illustrated by the main- sail, fore top -sail
and sprit-sail. The model is shown close-hauled with the fore-sail so canted
as to resemble a lug-sail and having its tack hauled down to a comb-cleat
under the head knee. The detachable bonnet, an equivalent of reefing,
shown laced to the fore-sail, and the striking of topmasts were innovations
of this period.

There is an armament of 30 large guns, besides which a number of small
swivel-guns would have been carried.

The principal dimensions of the vessel are : Length, on gun deck, 80 ft. ;,
breadth, 26 ft. ; depth of hold, 13 ft. ; displacement, about 450 tons.

7. Built and rigged model of a Maltese galley. (Scale 1 : 24.)

Bequeathed by Miss M. A. Peek, 1906. Plate I., No. 4.

N. 1029,

This ancient model is believed to have belonged to the Knights of Malta,
It is planked on the starboard side, but shows the timbers on the port..



10

Such armed vessels were usually rigged with three masts carrying large
lateen sails ; in calms they were propelled by sweeps, manned by slaves or
convicts.

The dimensions would be approximately : Length, 165 ft. ; breadth,
22 ft. ; breadth from gunwale to gunwale, 31 ft. ; depth, 9 9 ft. ; number of
sweeps, 44.

8. Drawings and engraving of H.M.S. " Sovereign of the

Seas," 1637. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1893 and 1905.

N. 2044 and 2395.

The pencil sketch and the engraving give general views, and the design
shows the sheer, half-breadth, body plan and stern elevation of the
" Sovereign of the Seas," laid down at Woolwich in 1636 by Mr. Peter Pett,
and launched in 1637 ; she appears to have been the first three-decked ship
built in England.

In 1637 Thomas Heywood wrote : She hath three flush Deckes, and a
Fore -Castle, an halfe Decke, a quarter Decke, and a round house. Her
lower Tyre hath thirty ports, which are to be furnished with Deniy-
Cannon and whole Cannon throughout. . . . Her middle Tyre hath
also thirty ports for Demi-Culverin, and whole Culverin : Her third Tyre
hath Twentie sixe Ports for other Ordnance, her fore -Castle hath twelve
ports, and her halfe Decke hath fourteene ports ; She hath thirteene or
fourteene ports more within Board for murdering peeces, besides a great
many Loope-holes out of the Cabins for Musket-shot. She carrieth
moreover ten peeces of chase Ordnance in her, right forward ; and ten
right off. . . . She carrieth eleaven anchors, one of them weighing
foure thousand foure hundred, etc," (i.e., lb.). Fincham considered that
she was so gorgeously ornamented with carving and gilding that she
seemed to have been designed rather for a vain display of magnificence
than for the service of the State."

In Blake's time she was cut down a deck, and then was considered one
of the finest ships in the world ; she was constantly employed in the naval
wars of Cromwell and Charles II., but in 1696 was accidentally burnt at
Chatham, where she had gone to be rebuilt.

Burden, 1,867 tons; length of gun deck, 173 ft. ; length of keel, 139 ft. ;
breadth, extreme, 50 ft. ; depth of hold, 20 ft. ; height from keel to lanthom
top, 76 ft. Armament, 102 guns.

9. Rigged model of Dutch war vessel (1650-75). (Scale 1 : 72.)

Lent by R. Morton Nance, Esq., 1903. Plate I., No. 5.

N. 2338.

This represents a man-of-war of the largest type in the Dutch Navy
towards the end of the seventeenth century ; the model was made by
Mr. Nance from data obtained from contemporary drawings and some
original models deposited in Continental churches. At this period the
naval power of Holland equalled that of any country, but the shallow waters
of her coast and harbours so limited the draught of her ships that they
were generally of less tonnage than those of other powers.

The model shows the " square tuck " or " transom stem," common to the
Dutch, Spanish and French men-of-war of the time, therein differing from
the English rounded stem in which the outer planking was worked in con-
tinuous lines to the stern post. The channels for securing the lower rigging



Online LibraryScience Museum (Great Britain)Catalogue of the naval and marine engineering collection in the ... museum .. → online text (page 1 of 58)