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with the engines by a friction coupling. The ship had also four masts and
a sail area of 1,540 sq. yds.

Under steam alone, the engines at full power made 59 revs, per min. and
gave a speed of 11 knots, with a coal consumption of 37 tons per 24 hours.

E 2



68

Under sail alone, with the screw held vertically, the speed was 5 5 knots,
but when the screw was allowed to run freely the speed increased to 7 5
knots. Her average speed was 11 66 knots.

Load displacement, 3,000 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 1,852 tons ; gross
register, 1,350 tons ; length on load water-line, 261 ft. ; breadth (extreme),
38 ft. ; depth at side, 27*6 ft. ; draught (laden), 17 '5 ft. ; immersed midship
section (laden), 590 sq. ft.

199. Whole models of P.S. " Wave Queen." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868.

N. 1235-6.

This vessel, built in 1852, was intended for sea voyages of 100 to 150
miles. She was believed to be the smallest vessel capable of attaining the
speed required ; her dimensions were remarkable, her length being over
13 times her breadth and 25 times her depth.

The engines were of the angular oscillating type, with four cylinders
27 in. diam. by 2*5 ft. stroke, and made 50 revs, per min. Steam at 25 Ib.
pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers, 15 7 ft. long, 10 5 ft. wide,
and 6*5 ft. high, having a total grate area of 100 sq. ft. and 2,342 sq. ft. of
heating surface. The weight of the engines, boilers, and water was 55 5
tons. The paddle-wheels were 12 -4 ft. diam., and each had 18 feathering
floats 6 ft. by 2 5 ft. Her average speed was 15 5 knots.

Load displacement, 225 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 250 tons ; gross register,
196 tons; length on load water-line, 205 -7 ft.; breadth (extreme), 15 -5 ft. ;
depth at side, 8 '5 ft.; draught (laden), 5ft.; immersed midship section,
67 sq. ft.

200. Whole models of P.S. " Rouen," 1853. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868.

N. 1245-6.

This iron-built vessel was constructed and engined by Messrs. Scott
Russell and Co. in 1853 for the London and Brighton Railway Co.'s services
between Newhaven and Dieppe.

She was designed on Mr. Russell's wave principle, and was given a
tumble-home bow.

Gross tonnage, 357 tons; length, 180 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. ; depth, 8-8 ft.

201. Whole model and paintings of P.S. ''Pacific." (Scale
1 : 48.) Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868.

N. 1238-41.

This mail steamer was built and engined by Messrs. Russell & Co.
in 1853 for service in the Mediterranean. She could accommodate 80 first
class and 165 second class passengers, with a certain amount of cargo, and
was intended for a voyage of about 2,000 miles.

She was built of iron, on the longitudinal system, with " wave lines " and
only a few feet of parallel middle body. She had nine watertight compart-
ments ; her plating rose to the top of the gunwale, and was continuous with
the interior skin of the paddle-boxes, thus strengthening the centre of the
vessel. Her sponsons were provided with open gratings to diminish the
surface exposed to wave impact.

The engine was of the oscillating condensing type, with two cylinders
74 in. diam. by 7 ft. stroke ; they indicated 1,684 h.p. and weighed
240 tons.

Steam at a pressure of 18 Ib. was supplied by four tubular boilers,
14 8 ft. long, 18 ft. wide, and 12 5 ft. high, each with 5 furnaces. The
total heating surface was 9,507 sq. ft., and the grate area 420 sq. ft. They
weighed 91 tons, and contained 69 tons of water. The consumption of coal
was 1 ' 6 tons per hour.

The paddle-wheels were 27 ft. diam., and each had 14 floats 10 ft. long
by 4 ft. wide. She had also two masts and a sail area of 883 sq. yds. ; her
average speed was 14*5 knots.



69

Load displacement, i,378 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 1,268 tons ; gross register,
1,4-69 tons ; length on load water-line, 245 25 ft. ; breadth, 32 ft. ; breadth
across paddle-wheel boxes, 54 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 12 ft. ; immersed
midship section (laden), 320 sq. ft.

202. Half block model of S.S.J' Colombo." (Scale' 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co.,
1878. " N. 1493.

This screw steamer was built of iron by Messrs. R. Napier & Sons
at Glasgow in 1853 for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. In 1859 she was
lengthened, making her dimensions : Gross register, 2,127 tons ; length,
320 5 ft. ; breadth, 37 ft. ; depth, 29 ft.

Her engines, which indicated 1,538 h.p., were of the beam type, and
drove the propeller shaft through spur gearing.

203. Half block model of S.S. " Candia." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co.,
1878. " N. 1498.

This screw steamship was built of iron at Blackwall in 1854, by
Messrs. C. J. Mare & Co., for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. She
was lengthened in 1857 by Messrs. Laird Bros. Her leading dimensions
then were : Gross register, 1,951 tons ; length, 317 4 ft. ; breadth, 40 5 ft. ;
depth, 26 -2 ft.

A coloured drawing, showing the vertical trunk engines with which this
vessel was first fitted, is described under No. 829. In 1876 new two-stage
expansion inverted engines were fitted to her, with cylinders 44 in. and 72 in.
diam., by 42 in. stroke.

204. Half block model of S.S. " Ellora." (Scale 1 : 48. )
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co.,

1878. " N. 1495.

This brig-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Birkenhead in
1855, for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. She was altered to a sailing
ship in 1876.

Her engines, constructed by Messrs. J. and G. K-ennie, London, had
two horizontal direct-acting cylinders, and indicated 1,005 h.p., with
a boiler pressure of 20 Ib.

Tons (b.m.), 1,665 tons; gross register, 1,727 tons; length, 261 -2 ft. ;
breadth, 36-2 ft. ; depth, 25 '8 ft.

205. Lithographs of Mississippi river steamers. Presented
by T. Silver, Esq., 1861. N. 703-4.

In one lithograph (printed 1855) the " Natchez " and " Eclipse " are
represented racing at midnight on the Mississippi ; the other lithograph
(printed 1860) represents the " Mayflower." They may be taken as typical
of the Mississippi steam-boats of that date. The hulls are flat-bottomed
with fine lines, but are very shallow ; the general description of the steamer
in No. 189 is also applicable here.

The " Eclipse " was propelled by a high-pressure engine with a single
cylinder 36 in. diam. by 12 ft. stroke, which drove paddle-wheels 40 ft. diam.
by 15 ft. wide.

The two boilers are placed forward and about 3 5 ft. above the deck ;
they are 3-6 ft. diam. by 30 ft. long, and have internal return tubes 9 in.
diameter. The fronts are supported by cast-iron plates, while the back
ends rest on a tank which acts as a mud receiver ; the sides are closed
by sheet iron lined with firebrick, and the grates which are 4 ft. long,
are at the front. Either coal or wood may be burnt, and the waste
gases, after travelling under the shell the whole length, return through
the tubes and escape by the funnels, which reach 50 ft. above the
hurricane deck.

Length, 360 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. ; draught, 5 ft. ; immersed
midship section, 200 sq. ft.



70

206. Whole model of coasting cargo steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 12^7.

This class of iron screw ship was introduced about 1855 for service in
the North Sea. This design shows how Mr. Scott Russell's system could be
applied, by the aid of a long parallel middle body, so as to give a capacious
ship. She was rigged with three masts and had a sail area of 822 sq. yds.

The engines were of the oscillating type, with two inclined cylinders
36 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, arranged opposite each other, and working on
to a single crank on the propeller shaft. The propeller was a two-bladed
screw 10 ft. diam. by 20 ft. pitch.

Load displacement, 551 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 615 tons ; gross register
tonnage, 677 tons; length on load water-line, 157' 75 ft. ; breadth, extreme,
28 ft. ; draught of water, laden, 12 ft. ; immersed midship section, laden,
272 sq. ft.

207. Whole model of general cargo steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868.

N. 1248.

This vessel has the same breadth and draught as that described in
No. 206, but greater length of parallel middle body and wave-line ends.
The screw propeller is abaft the rudder, which is entirely below the pro-
peller shaft, there being a loop in the rudder stock, through which the
propeller shaft passes.

The engines were of the oscillating type, with the two inclined cylinders,
36 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, arranged opposite each other and working on
to a single crank on the propeller shaft. The engines weighed 35 tons, and
made 74 revs, per min.

Steam at a pressure of 12 Ib. was supplied by a tubular boiler, con-
taining 360 tubes 3 in. diam. by 5*5 ft. long, and having a total grate area
of 72 sq. ft.

The propeller was three-bladed, and 10 ft. diam. by 17 ft. pitch. Three
masts were also provided, which spread 1,497 sq. yds. of canvas ; the average
speed maintained was 9 5 knots.

Load displacement, 1,066 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 643 tons ; gross register
tonnage, 597 tons ; length on load water-line, 166 '25 ft. ; breadth, extreme,
28 ft. ; draught of water, laden, 12 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden),
296 sq. ft.

208. Whole model of Baltic trader. (Scale 1 : 48.) Con-
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1249.

This is another variation of the vessel described under No. 2C6, with
long parallel middle body and wave-line ends. The beam is the same, viz.,
28 ft., but the length is increased to 177 ft.

Although not shown in the model, the chief peculiarity of the design is
the long forecastle, extending to the midship deckhouse, which was fitted up
for first-class passengers. At the after end was a poop for the accommoda-
tion of the officers.

The engines were of the inverted oscillating type, with two cylinders
36 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, and made 60 revs, per min.

Steam at a pressure of 12 Ib. was supplied by two tubular boilers, each
10 ft. long, 7 ' 5 ft. wide, and 12 ft. high, containing 180 tubes 3 in. diam.
The total grate area was 84 sq. ft., and the heating siirface 2,129 sq. ft.

She was propelled by a two-bladed screw, 10 ft. diam. by 22 ft. pitch ;
her sail area was 1,240 sq. yds., and her average speed 9- 75 knots.

Load displacement, 750 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 713 tons ; gross register
tonnage, 472 tons ; length on load water-line, 177 ft. breadth, extreme,
28 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 10 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden),
222 sq. ft.



71

209. Whole models of P.S. " Baron Osy." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862 and 1868.

N. 899 and 1242.

This iron-built vessel was constructed in 1855 on " wave-lines," for the
service between London and Antwerp. -

She was built on the longitudinal system, with continuous fore-and-aft
plate stringers between which were fitted transverse web frames.

The engine was of the oscillating condensing type, with two cylinders
56 in. diam. by 6 ft. stroke, and made 29 revs, per min. ; it weighed
121 tons.

Steam, at 18 Ib. pressure, was supplied by two tubular boilers; 9 75 ft.
long, 18 ft. wide, and 11 75 ft. high, each with five furnaces. The total
heating surface was 4,063 sq. ft., and the grate area 195 sq. ft. The weight
of the boilers was 42 tons, and that of the contained water was 26 65 tons.

The paddle-wheels were 20 ft. diam., and each had 18 fixed floats,
8 ft. long by 1 75 ft wide.

Load displacement, 980 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 792 tons ; gross register,
607 tons ; length on load water-line, 208 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 28 ft. ;
draught of water (laden), 10ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 217 sq. ft.

210. Lithograph of S.S. " Pera." Received 1905. N. 2402.

This ship-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Blackwall, in 1855,
by Messrs. 0. J. Mare & Co., for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam
Navigation Co., and proved herself a fast boat. She is represented in the
illustration under sail and steam ; her topsails are fitted with Cunningham's
patent self -reefing gear (see No. 581).

She had vertical trunk engines by Messrs. G-. Rennie and Sons, with two
cylinders each 70'25 in. diam. and 48 in. stroke, indicating 1,500 h.p., and
driving a three-bladed propeller, 15 "5 ft. diam. and 21 ft. pitch, which, at
60 revs, per min., gave a speed of 12*5 knots. There were four sheet-flue
boilers, and the bunker capacity was 700 tons, the daily consumption being
44 tons. She was re-engined in 1872.

Tonnage, 2,607 tons ; length (b.p.), 303" 7 ft. ; breadth, 42 25 ft. ; depth,
27 -2 ft.

211. Lithograph of S.S. " Royal Charter." Received 1905.

N. 2401.

This full-rigged clipper ship was built of iron, in 1855, at Sandycroft,
near Chester, from the designs of Mr. Grinrod, of Liverpool ; she was laid
down as a sailing ship, but, being purchased by Messrs. Gibbs, Bright & Co.,
she was fitted with screw engines of 200 h.p.

She sailed from Melbourne on August 26th, 1859, with a small cargo of
skins and wool, 79,000 ozs. of gold, 388 passengers and a crew of 112 ; 13
passengers landed at Queenstown, and 11 riggers were taken on board for
passage to Liverpool. On October 26th, about five miles from Point Lynas
lighthouse, and within a mile of Moelfra light, Isle of Anglesea, she was
wrecked in a heavy gale ; of the 498 persons on board only 39 were saved.

She is represented in the illustration under all plain sail, on the port
tack close hauled, taking in royals, flying jib, main, and mizen courses.

A portion of the stern bush for the propeller shaft, recovered nearly two
years after the wreck of the vessel, is shown in an adjacent case (see No. 888).

Register tonnage, 2,719 tons ; length, 320 ft. ; breadth, 41'5 ft.

212. Whole and half models of P.S. " Lyons." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862.

N. 898 and 1251-2.

This vessel was built in 1856 for the packet service between Newhaven
and Dieppe. She had exceptionally long and fine hollow lines at the bow,
but generally, with fine lines below, the upper ones were full.



72

The engines were of the angular oscillating type, with two cylinders
42 5 in. diam. by 54 in. stroke, working on a single crank ; the air pump
was worked from another crank on the paddle shaft. At 38 revs, per min.
the indicated h.p. was 1,108.

Steam at 28 Ib. pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers, each
8 5 ft. long, 16 25 ft. wide, and 11 75 ft. high, giving a total of 3,589 sq. ft.
of heating surface and 170 sq. ft. of grate area.

The total weight of engines, boilers, and water was 116 tons. The
paddle-wheels were 19 ft. diam., and each had 11 feathering floats, 8 ft. by
3 ft. wide. The average speed was 15 2 knots.

Load displacement, 315 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 421 tons ; gross register,
279 tons; length on load water-line, 190 ft.; breadth, 21 '5 ft.; breadth
over paddle-boxes, 39-5 ft.; depth at side, 11 ft. ; draught of water (laden),
6 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 110 sq. ft.

213. Block models of the "Great Eastern." (Scale 1:48.)
Contributed by Messrs. John Scott Russell & Co., 1857
and 1868. N. 901 and 1259-61.

The " Great Eastern," originally called the " Leviathan," was built at
Millwall in 1853-8; the four models shown are those used during her
construction, and represent the " lines," the plating of the inner and outer
skins, and the stern.

About 1852, Mr. I. K. Brunei proposed to the Eastern Navigation Co.
the construction of a steamship for the Indian and Australian trade, five or
six times the size of any then in use. It was well known that large vessels
possessed great advantages over small ones on long voyages, and that the
greater the ship the higher the speed ; it was estimated that a vessel of the
dimensions proposed for the " Great Eastern " would maintain a speed of
15 knots, with less power per ton than ordinary vessels required at 10 knots.
The size would also give superior passenger accommodation and cargo
capacity, with a fuel endurance that would render coaling abroad unnecessary.

The construction of such a vessel being decided upon, arrangements
were made by Messrs. Scott Russell & Co., of Millwall, to build the hull,
the paddle-wheels, and their engines, while Messrs. James Watt & Co., of
Birmingham, were entrusted with the construction of the screw engines and
their machinery. The first plates of the great ship were laid on May 1st,
1854, and she was finally launched on January 31st, 1858.

Her model followed the lines that had for many years been adopted by
Mr. Scott Russell, as embodying his "wave-line" principle, and she was
given 120 ft. of parallel middle body. Mr. Brunei, however, proposed the
use of the two systems of propulsion, and also the cellular construction of
the hull.

The framing of the vessel was entirely longitudinal ; the longitudinals
were 2 8 ft. deep by 5 in. thick, and were 2-5 ft. apart on the flat of the
bottom, and 5 ft. apart from the bottom to a height of 36 ft. From the
keel to the water- line the hull was double ; the distance between the skins
was 2 8 ft. and rendered cellular by the longitudinals. The deck of the
ship was also double or cellular, so that the longitudinal strength of the hull
was obtained by arrangements resembling those adopted in the girders of
the Menai Tubular Bridge.

The hull was divided transversely by iron bulkheads, into compartments,
each 60 ft. long, through which there was no opening whatever below the
second deck. Two longitudinal bulkheads, 36 ft. apart, traversed 350 ft. of
the length of the ship ; but, besides the principal bulkheads, there was in
each compartment a second intermediate bulkhead forming a coal bunker
and carried up to the main deck. At the bow and stem were additional
bulkheads. Two continuous tunnels ran through the principal bulkheads,
near the water-line, along one of which the steam pipes passed.

The scantlings of the hull were fixed as follows : The plates of the
inner and outer skins, 75 in. thick, 10 ft. long, and 2 75 ft. wide ; other
inner plates, all '5 in. thick. All rivets '875 in. diam., and 3 in. pitch ;
while all of the angle iron used was 4 in. by 4 in. by 625 in



73

Accommodation for passengers : 1st class, 800 : 2nd class, 2,000 ; 3rd
class, 1,200 ; or, as a troopship, she would carry 10,000 men.

She had five funnels and six masts, which could spread 6,500 sq. yds. of
canvas. She was fitted with 20 anchors, which, with their cables, &c.,
weighed altogether 253 tons.

The " Great Eastern " was launched sideways into the Thames three
months after the first attempt. She weighed at the time 12,000 tons, and
rested in two cradles, each 80 feet square, which were to slide on inclines
80 ft. wide and 200 ft. long, set at a slope of 1 in 14, but after starting a
few feet the inclines failed, and the vessel was subsequently slowly got into
the water by the application of extensive hydraulic machinery. These
troubles caused financial difficulties, which stopped the work, so that it was
only in September, 1859, that the trial trip took place. Her first voyage
across the Atlantic was made in June, 1860 ; the greatest speed attained
during the passage was 14 5 knots. Her average speed was 14 knots, and
coal consumption 12 5 tons per hour. She, however, did not pay either as
a passenger or a cargo steamer ; but, from 1865 to 1873 was extensively
engaged in laying submarine cables with considerable success. After this
she did no useful work, and in 1888 was sold as old metal, and broken up in
the two ensuing years.

The paddle and screw engines of the ship are shown and described in
Nos. 814 and 831 respectively.

Displacement, 27,384 tons ; tonnage, gross, 18,914 tons ; length on the
upper deck, 692 ft. ; length on load water-line, 680 ft. ; breadth, extreme,
82-5 ft.; breadth across the paddle-boxes, 120 ft.; depth at side, 58ft.;
depth of hold, 24 -2 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 30 ft. ; area of immersed
midship section, 2,204 sq. ft. ; coal capacity, 10,000 tons ; cargo capacity,
6,000 tons.

A lithograph (N. 2403), two oil paintings (N. 1265-6), and a photograph
are also exhibited.

214. Rigged model of " Great Eastern." (Scale 1 : 96.)
Contributed by Messrs. John Scott Russell & Co., 1862.
Plate V., No. 1. N. 901.

The " Great Eastern" was built at Millwall in 1853-8, and until 1888-90,
when she was dismantled and broken up, was the largest vessel afloat, nor
was it until 1899 that her dimensions were exceeded.

This model, although probably commenced by the builders while the ship
was under construction, was finished and the rigging added in the Museum
in 1901. For detailed particulars of the history and construction of this
remarkable vessel, see No. 213.

215. Coloured drawings of the " Great Eastern." Contri-
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1861. N. 700.

These eight drawings show various elevations and sections of the vessel,
which help in elucidating the previous models.

216. Whole model of river steamer. (Scale 1 : 96.) Contri-
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S, 1868. N. 1267.

This paddle-wheel steamer was built in 1859 for service on the Indus,
where, owing to shoals, a draught of only 20 in. was permissible.

The hull was a cellular raft constructed without frames, but to carry
the engines and boilers, which weighed altogether 150 tons, the walls of
the deck cabins were worked into the depth, and the vessel became a girder
200 ft. in length. A run of 115 ft. of her middle length was included in a
couple of plate-girders, 15 ft. deep, forming the sides of the cabins, and
these girders were prolonged 35 ft. beyond the cabins, but under the deck.

In form, the vessel consisted of a middle body resembling a parallel box,
while the stem was rounded and the keel turned up 2 ft. to allow the water
to rise abaft ; the bow had, however, wave lines.



74

The engines had three oscillating cylinders, 36 in. diam. by 48 in.
stroke, made 38 revs, per min., and indicated 688 h.p. The engine
framing was a triangular structure of plate iron, continuous with the
longitudinal girders of the bottom of the vessel ; the weight of the engines
was 40*6 tons.

Steam at 25 Ib. pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers 9 25 ft.
long, 14-5 ft. wide, and 12 '2 ft. high. The total heating surface was
3,300 sq. ft., their weight 37 '4 tons, and that of the contained water
22 tons.

The diameter of the paddle-wheels was 14 3 ft., the floats being radial
and measuring 9 ft. by 1 6 ft. ; the speed on trial was 11 3 knots.

Load displacement, 831 tons; tonnage (b.m.), 136 '3 tons; length on
load water-line, 198 25 ft. ; breadth, 38 ft. ; breadth across paddle-boxes,
60 ft. ; depth at side, 6 ft. ; immersed midship section, 75 sq. ft.

217. Half block model of P.S. "Leinster." (Scale 1: 48.)
Received 1893. N. 2021.

This schooner-rigged vessel is one of four paddle-wheel steamers,
''Ulster," "Munster," "Leinster," and " Connaught," constructed for the
mail service between Holyhead and Kingstown ; she was built of iron at
Poplar in 1860 by Messrs. Samuda Bros.

There are nine watertight bulkheads, two of which separate the engines
from the boilers ; the total length occupied by the machinery is 106 ft.,
22 ft. in the middle being apportioned to the engines, and the remainder to
the boilers.

The bulwarks are of iron plates, without any break for gangways, these
not being required for landing either at Holyhead or Kingstown. To give
additional strength to the centre of the vessel, where the weight of the
engines, boilers, and paddle-wheels is concentrated, the inside s of the paddle-
boxes are formed of iron plates, continued from the sides and bulwarks of
the vessel, with a strong bow girder, so as to provide ample resistance to the
severe shocks which such long vessels encounter when driven at their full
speed in a rough sea.

For the Irish mail service the four vessels were in 1896-7 replaced by
larger ones with the same names, propelled by twin screws and three-stage
expansion engines.

Displacement, 2,000 tons ; gross tonnage, 1,467 tons ; length, 343 ft. ;
breadth, 35 ft. ; depth, 19 ft. ; draught, 13 ft. ; immersed midship section,
336 sq. ft.

For a working model of the engines and the paddle-wheels of these ships,
see No. 816.

218. Rigged model of P.S. " Connaught," (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Messrs. Laird Bros., 1869. M. 1303.

This schooner-rigged paddle steamer was built of iron at Birkenhead
in 1860, by Messrs. Laird Bros., for the mail service between Holyhead and



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