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service between Weymouth and the Channel Islands.

She has one deck, also a poop 58 ft. long, and a bridge and forecastle
180 ft. long. There are eight bulkheads, and capacity for 14 tons of water
ballast in a forward tank and 26 tons aft.

The two sets of engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 22 in.,
34 in., and 51 in. diam., by 33 in. stroke. Steam at 160 Ib. pressure is
supplied by two double-ended steel boilers, with twelve corrugated furnaces,
and a total grate surface of 250 sq. ft.

Gross register, 1,150 tons; length, 265 ft.; breadth, 32-5 ft.; depth,
14-2 ft.

304. Rigged model of S.S. " Tynwald." (Scale! : 48.) Lent
by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.,
1895. N. 2357.

This twin-screw schooner-rigged passenger steamer was built of steel at
Glasgow in 1891, for the Liverpool and Douglas, Isle of Man, service. She
has two decks, and a shelter deck ; her bar keel is 6 in. deep, and she has six
bulkheads, while for water ballast a tank of 16 tons capacity is provided aft.



97

She is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines, with
cylinders 22 in., 36 in., and 57 in. diarn., by 36 in. stroke. Steam at 160 Ib.
pressure is supplied by two double-ended steel boilers, with 16 ribbed
furnaces, and a grate area of 366 sq. ft.

Gross register, 936 tons; length, 265 ft.; breadth, 34 -5 ft.; moulded
depth, 14 5 ft.

305. Rigged model of S.S. " Campania." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by the Cunard Steamship Co., 1897. N. 2054.

This twin-screw steamer and her sister ship the " Lucania " were built
and engined by the Fairfield Shipbuilding Co. at Glasgow in 1892, for the
Cunard Steamship Co. They are rigged with two pole masts, and were built
under Admiralty supervision for use as armed cruisers if required.

They have four decks, three of which are of steel, wood sheathed, and
there is a steel promenade deck 370 ft. long, also wood sheathed.

The propelling engines consist of two three-stage expansion sets, each in
separate engine rooms, on either side of a dividing centre line bulkhead
fitted with watertight doors for communication. Each set has five cylinders,
two high pressure 37 in., one intermediate 79 in., and two low pressure
98 in. diam., by 79 in. stroke.

Steam at 165 Ib. pressure is supplied by twelve main double-ended boilers,
18 ft. diam., and 17 ft. long, each having eight corrugated furnaces ; and by
two smaller boilers which are chiefly used for auxiliary purposes.

The diameter of the funnels is 19 ft., and their height above the bottom
of the ship 130 ft.

The twin propellers have steel bosses, and three manganese bronze
blades ; each blade weighs 8 tons. The propeller shafts are 24 in. diam.

On the steam trial in April 1893, with a draught of 25 ft., and a dis-
placement of 18,000 tons, the mean speed was 23 18 knots ; the engines
indicated 31,050 h.p., at 84 revs, per min., with a boiler pressure of 165 Ib.
and a vacuum of 28 in.

The rudder, 253 sq. ft. in area, is of the centre-fin plate pattern, with
special arms on either side, and strengthened by webs on the top and bottom ;
it can be put hard over when the ship is going at full speed, and will turn
the ship in her own length. The rudder and steering gear are entirely
under water.

The accommodation is for 600 first-class passengers, 400 second class,
and 700 to 1,000 third class, while the ship's complement consists of 61
sailors, 195 engineers and firemen, and 159 stewards.

Displacement at load draught, 21,920 tons ; gross register, 12,950 tons ;
length (over all), 622 5 ft. ; breadth, 65 2 ft. ; depth from upper deck, 43 ft.

The development of the Cunard liners is indicated by a scale diagram on
the wall.

306. Whole model of S.S. "Ratcliff." (Scale 1: 48.) Lent
by Messrs. Short Bros, 1893. N. 2020.

This steam collier was built of steel at Sunderland in 1892, for the East
London Steamship Co., to carry coal cargoes above the bridges on the
Thames. In order to do this the funnel, masts, bridge rails, and davits are
hinged so that they may lie flat on deck. She has one iron deck, web
frames, raised quarter deck 63 ft., bridge deck 8 ft., and forecastle 14 ft.
long. She has a cellular double bottom 126 ft. long, with a water ballast
capacity of 355 tons, a fore-peak tank of 86 tons, and an aft-peak tank of
45 tons. She is schooner-rigged, has a flat keel, and four bulkheads.

Her engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 18 in., 29 in., and
47 in. diam., by 33 in. stroke, and drive a four-bladed propeller. Steam is
supplied at 160 Ib. pressure, by one single-ended steel boiler, with three
plain furnaces, a grate area of 50 sq. ft., and 2,000 sq. ft. of heating surface.

Gross tonnage, 802 tons ; length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. ; moulded
depth, 16 ft.

u 6773. n.



98

307. Rigged model of P.S. " Koh-i-noor." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the New Palace Steamers, Ltd., 1899. N. 2203.

Tliis paddle steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 1892, by the Fail-field
Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., from the designs of Mr. R. Saxon "White.
She is said to be .the first swift river steamer adequately provided with
watertight bulkheads.

She is divided into ten watertight compartments in accordance with the
recommendations of the Bulkhead Committee. So completely has the sub-
division been carried out that the 1st class dining saloon is in two portions
separated by a bulkhead ; communication between the two being afforded
by means of a watertight door which upon an emergency can be closed from
the deck above. Any person shut in the after part can escape to the upper
deck by means of a trunk staircase which is always kept open.

Two rudders have been fitted ; the after one, which is 9 ft. long and of
large area, is worked by a steam steering gear on the engine-room platform
whilst the bow rudder, which is completely within the stem, is provided
with a screw steering gear. The funnels and mast can be raised and
lowered, by means of small steam winches, so that the vessel can pass under
London Bridge.

The " Koh-i-noor" has two decks, and on the upper one are two deck
saloons, one at each end of the machinery space, and these support the
promenade deck, which is 300 ft. long and extends the full width of
the ship.

The engines are two- stage expansion with cylinders 45 in. and 80 in.
diani. by 66 in. stroke, indicating 3,500 h.p. and giving a speed of
19 '5 knots. The cylinders are placed side by side and work on two cranks
set at an angle of 90 deg. with each other. Steam at 120 Ib. pressure is
supplied by four Scotch boilers, with three corrugated furnaces in each.

The paddle-wheels are of steel and of the feathering type, with concave
floats.

Tonnage, gross, 884 tons ; tonnage, net, 275 tons; length (o.a.), 310 ft. ;
length (b.p.), 300-4 ft. ; breadth over paddle-boxes, 58 ft. ; breadth (moulded),
32-1 ft. ; depth, 10 -6 ft.

308. Rigged model of S.S. " Hound." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by Messrs. G. and J. Burns, 1901. N. 2282.

This schooner-rigged steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 1893, by
the Fail-field Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., for Messrs. G-. and J. Burns*
mail and general service between Ardrossan and Belfast. She is built with
a bar keel, 8 5 in. deep, and has two decks ; the poop is 78 ft. long, the
bridge deck 80 ft. and the forecastle 48 ft. The huU is divided by four
watertight bulkheads, and is provided with an after-peak tank having a
water ballast capacity of 30 tons.

Her engines consist of a three- stage expansion set, with cylinders
26 '5 in., 42 in. and 68 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke, indicating 2,000 h.p. and
driving a single four-bladed screw which gave her a speed of 15 knots.
Steam at 165 Ib. pressure is supplied by a pair of double-ended boilers
having a total of twelve furnaces, a grate area of 220 sq. ft. and a heating
surface of 6,213 sq. ft.

Gross register, 1,061 tons; length, 250 '3 ft.; breadth, 32 -1 ft.;
depth, 15 -5 ft.

309. Rigged model of S.Ss. " Alma " and " Columbia." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by the London and South Western Railway
Co., 1896. N. 2096.

These schooner-rigged twin-screw steamers were built of steel at
Sunderland in 1894, for the mail service between Southampton and Havre,
in connection with the London and South Western Railway.

In each ship the frames are of the reversed angle type, spaced about
21 in. apart. The interior is subdivided by watertight bulkheads into twelve



99

compartments. The bulkheads are constructed of plates flanged verti-
cally, instead of with angles, the plates themselves overlapping. Three of
the compartments are occupied by machinery, one in the centre of the ship
by first-class state rooms, one at the after end by second-class accommo-
dation, while two at each end of the ship are devoted to cargo, the others
being for storage, cargo, &c. ; the vessel would float with any two com-
partments flooded. There are three ftecks, the promenade, upper, and
main, while on the top of the bridge house on the promenade deck is a boat
deck, carried out to the full width of the ship.

There are two sets of vertical three- stage expansion engines, with
cylinders 19 in., 29 in., and two 33 '5 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, indicating
3,700 h.p. at 184 revs, per min., and giving a speed of 19 knots. Steam at
160 Ib. pressure is supplied by two single-ended boilers, with four furnaces
in each worked under forced draught, the air being supplied by two
double-breasted fans, one in each stokehold.

Gross register, 1,145 tons; net register, 410 tons; length, 270 ft.;
breadth, 34 ft. ; depth to the promenade deck, 23 ft.

310. Half block model of S.S. "Norman Isles." (Scale 1 : 96.)
Presented by Messrs. William Doxford and Sons, 1903.

N. 2343,

This screw cargo steamer was built by Messrs. W. Doxford and Sons at
Sunder land in 1896, for the Norwegian trade ; it belongs to the " turret-
decked " class of vessels originated by them in 1891 (see No. 673).

The characteristics of the type are : A high navigation platform carried
upon a central trunk, called a " turret," with vertical sides and curved base,
extending from end to end of the vessel ; rounded gunwales ; and absence
of sheer. These features are stated to provide the requisite strength and
freeboard at a somewhat less cost than the ordinary construction, while the
relatively small under-deck measurement renders the vessel economical for
dead- weight cargoes, and the rounded section and considerable capacity of
the turret facilitate the trimming and feeding of grain or bulk cargoes.

In addition to other details the model shows an arrangement for
alternative hand and steam steering ; a right-and-left-handed screw gear
being used when steering by the hand wheel aft, while a quadrant arm
secured to the rudder head provides the chain attachment for a steam
steering engine below the deck. Stockless anchors stowing in the hawse
pipes are fitted, and the main ventilating shafts amidships are utilised also
as derrick posts.

The engines are a three-stage expansion set with cylinders 24 '5 in.,
40 in., and 65 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke.

Gross register, 3,455 tons; net register, 2,190 tons ; length, 341 -2ft.;
breadth, 45 -6 ft. ; depth, 24- 7 ft.

311. Half block model of S.S. "Kamakura Mara." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by the Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha,
1901. N. 2271.

This twin-screw, four-masted, schooner-rigged steamer was built of
steel at Belfast in 1897, by Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co., for the Nippon
Tusen Kaisha (Japan Mail Steamship Co.).

She is constructed with deep framing and a cellular double bottom
extending 190 ft. forward, 53 ft. under the machinery space, and 145 ft. aft,
with a water ballast capacity of 1,150 tons ; in addition there is a midship
tank with a capacity of 480 tons, a fore-peak tank of 95 tons capacity, and
an after-peak tank of 45 tons capacity. She is subdivided internally by
eight watertight bulkheads.

A feature in the construction of this vessel is the almost entire absence
of stem and stern castings, their place being taken by arched plating
incorporated with the framing of the ship and so shaped as to greatly

G 2



100

reduce " deadwood," while at the same time diminishing the total weight.
The stern post, to which the rudder is attached, is of cellular construction,
and the rudder is plated on both faces, so as to possess some buoyancy
while leaving the interior accessible, an arrangement that has since been
adopted in eleven vessels built for the Ocean Steamship Co.

Her engines consist of two three-stage expansion sets, built by Messrs.
Barclay Curie & Co., with cylinders 20 in., 33 -5 in., and 56 in., diam., with
a stroke of 48 in. Steam at 200 Ib. pressure is supplied by two double and
two single-ended boilers, fired in 18 corrugated furnaces giving a total grate
surface of 313 sq. ft., while the total heating surface is 8,271 sq. ft. The
propellers are four-bladed and, through the absence of deadwood, are
exceptionally clear of the stern.

Gross register, 6,123 tons ; length, 445 ft. ; breadth, 49 -7 ft. ; depth,
30*4 ft.

312. Rigged model of S.S. " Omrah." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd.,
1908. Plate V., No. 4. N. 2450.

This twin-screw steamer was built of steel and engined at Glasgow in
1898-9, by the Fairfield Co., for the Australian mail service of the Orient
Steam Navigation Co. ; she is also on the Admiralty list of subsidised
merchant cruisers.

A cellular double bottom extends throughout the vessel, and the hold
space is so subdivided by ten watertight bulkheads that the ship would keep
afloat with any two of the compartments flooded. The lower, main, and
spar decks are of steel, sheathed with wood. The vessel is fitted with
refrigerating plant and electric light, and has accommodation for 830
passengers.

The propelling engines are of the inverted three- stage expansion type,
in two sets, with cylinders 33 in., 54 '5 in., and 89 in. diam., by 57 in.
stroke. Steam at 180 Ib. pressure is supplied by three double and two
single-ended boilers with ribbed furnaces, heating surface 27,070 sq. ft.,
grate surface 588 sq. ft., arranged to work with Howden's forced draught.
At the steam trials in 1899 a mean speed of 17*3 knots was realised with
"9,200 indicated h.p. at 77*5 revs, per min., and a coal consumption of 1 4 Ib.
per indicated h.p. per hour.

Register tonnage, 8,291 tons ; length (over all), 507 ft. ; breadth (moulded),
56 7 ft. ; depth, main deck, 26 ft. ; do., spar deck, 37 5 ft.

313. Rigged model of S.S. " Clan Colquhoun." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Messrs. Cayzer, Irvine & Co., 1905. N. 2371.

This cargo vessel was built of steel and engined at Sunderland in 1899,
by Messrs. Win. Doxford and Sons, for the Clan Line of steamers. She is a
-good example of the turret-deck type of steamer (see Nos. 310 and 673).

There is an enclosed forecastle 54 ft. long and a short poop deck ; between
these positions on the " turret" deck are placed the deck-houses, navigation
bridge, hatchways, and the principal deck fittings. A number of large
.openings in the " turret " bulwarks ensure the rapid escape of deck water.

An elaborate system of derricks is provided for quickly loading and
discharging cargo. Vertical masts are fixed midway between the large
hatchways at each end of the vessel, and each serves as the common post
for six radial derricks, for working which four steam winches are provided.
A central hold has also two derricks pivoted on the boiler-room ventilating
shafts.

A specially constructed plate rudder of the balanced type is used. The
vessel is propelled by three-stage expansion engines having cylinders 27 "5 in.,
45*5 in. and 75 in. diam. with 60 in. stroke.

Gross register, 5,856 tons ; length, 440 ft. ; breadth, 51 6 ft. ; depth of
hold, 28 -9 ft.



101

314. Rigged model of S.S. " Colombia." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., 1903. N. 2328.

This twin-screw steamer was built of steel by Messrs. Caird & Co.,
Greenock, in 1899, for the mail and coasting service between Panama and
Valparaiso.

In addition to the main and lower decks, the vessel has a shade- deck,
beneath which light cargo may be carried, while above this is a long
promenade deck for the use of passengers. A breakwater, formed of
diagonal screens, 3 ft. high, divides the shade-deck from the anchor-deck to
protect it from the effects of head seas : on the anchor- deck in the model
are shown many details of the cable arrangements adopted.

On each side of the vessel are three large baggage ports, used in
connection with the cargo hatches on the main deck ; these hatches are each
fitted with a derrick and windlass, but all heavy weights are lifted by a
larger derrick on the fore -mast.

The propelling machinery consists of two sets of three-stage expansion
engines, with cylinders 19 -75 in., 32 in., and 52 in. diam. respectively, by
36 in. stroke, giving a total of 3,500 indicated h.p.

Length (b.p.), 359 '5 ft.; breadth (moulded), 43*2 ft.; depth of hold,
19-5 ft. ; tonnage (gross), 3,335 tons.

315. Rigged model of S.S. " Augusto Montenegro." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by the Amazon Steam. Navigation Co., 1901.

N. 2276.

This schooner-rigged, screw steamer was built of steel at Port Glasgow
in 1900, by Messrs. A. Rodger & Co., for the Amazon Steam Navigation Co.

She has two decks and an awning deck. Her engines are a three- stage
expansion set, with cylinders 12*5 in., 20 in., and 32 in. diam. respectively,
by 24 in. stroke ; they indicate 450 h.p. and drive a three-bladed propeller.

Gross tonnage, 318 tons; length, 140-5 ft.; breadth, 29 ft.; depth,
8-4 ft.

316. Rigged model of S.S. " Syria." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by
Messrs. A. Stephen and Sons, Ltd., 1901. N. 2278,

This schooner-rigged, twin-screw steamer was built of steel at Glasgow,
in 1901, by Messrs. A. Stephen and Sons, for the Peninsular and Oriental
Steam Navigation Co., and she has been specially fitted up for the passenger
and cargo service to India and China. The passengers' cabins are arranged
on the poop, bridge, and boat decks, and are made exceptionally large ; the
" 'tween decks " are fitted for the transport of troops. She has a poop 84 ft.
long, a bridge deck, and a boat deck above it, each 170 ft. long, and the
forecastle is 90 ft. in length.

Her engines consist of two three- stage expansion sets, with cylinders
22 '5 in. diam., 36 in. diam., and 60 in. diam., by 48 in. stroke, driving three-
bladed propellers, and giving a speed of 12 5 knots.

Gross tonnage, 6,900 tons; length, 450 5 ft. ; breadth, 52 2 ft. ; depth,
30-5 ft.

317. Half block model of S.S. " Hadley." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by Messrs. W. Cory and Son, Ltd., 1907. N. 2447.

This schooner-rigged, screw collier was built of steel by Messrs. S. P.
Austin and Son and engined by Messrs. G. Clark at Sunderland in 1901, for
Messrs. W. Cory & Son.

She is of the " well- deck " type with poop, quarter, bridge, and forecastle
decks. Her hull is subdivided by four main watertight bulkheads, and, in
the way of her large holds, deep transverse framing is used. A cellular
double bottom extends over four-fifths of her length, and this, with the
fore- and after-peak tanks, provides a total water ballast capacity of about
600 tons.



102

Her engines are of the three-stage expansion type, having cylinders
20 '5 in., 33 in., and 54 in. diam. by 39 in. stroke. Steam, at 160 Ib. pressure,
is supplied by two single-ended boilers with plain furnaces.

Her principal particulars are : Coal-carrying capacity, 2,700 tons ; gross
register tonnage, 1,777 tons; length, 268 ft.; breadth, 37 '9 ft.; depth
(moulded), 19 -8 ft.

318. Rigged model of S.S. " Cedric." (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent by
Messrs. Ismay, Imrie & Co., 1908. N. 2483.

This four- masted, schooner- rigged steamer was built and engined at
Belfast in 1902 by Messrs. Harland and Wolfe, for the White Star Line
(Oceanic Steam Navigation Co.). The sister vessel "Celtic" was built for
the same Company at Belfast in 1901. As regards gross tonnage and
displacement, these were the largest vessels afloat at that date and were
used for intermediate passenger and cargo service between Liverpool,
Queens town, and New York.

The lower portion of the hull is constructed on the cellular system with
an external flat keel 4 in. thick : the ordinary frames and deck beams are of
channel section and spaced 34 in. apart. The principal structural decks are
known as orlop, lower, middle and upper ; above these are the shade, bridge,
and sun decks. Bilge keels, 18 in. deep, are fitted, one on each side, over a
midship length of 250 ft. The rudder is of cast steel sections bolted
together.

Stockless anchors are used with cables 3 '375 in. diam. ; the engines for
working these were supplied by Messrs. Napier Bros., as were also the cable
and warping capstans shown on the forecastle and poop decks.

The two sets of propelling engines are of four-stage expansion type
with cylinders 33 in., 47 '5 in., 68*5 in., and 98 in. diam. by 63 in. stroke.
Steam is supplied, at 210 Ib. per sq. in., by eight double-ended boilers
having a total grate area of 1,014 sq. ft. and heating surface of 41,680 sq. ft. ;
the average speed is 16 knots. The screw propellers are 20 ft. in diam.
and, as their paths closely approach the centre line of the hull, an aperture
similar to that in a single- screw vessel is formed in the stern.

A special feature in both of these vessels is the large accommodation for
third-class passengers, the various classes being thus provided for : First
class, 347 ; second class, 160 ; third class, 2,352.

Gross register, 21,000 tons ; length, over all, 700 ft. ; breadth, 75 -3 ft. ;
depth, moulded, 48 '4 ft.

319. Rigged model of S.S. "Queen Alexandra." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros., 1905.
Plate V., No. 5. ' N. 2374.

This steel turbine -driven screw steamer was built in 1902 by Messrs. W.
Denny & Bros., Dumbarton, to the order of the Turbine Steamers, Ltd., for
service on the Clyde. Though of larger dimensions, she is similar generally
to the S.S. " King Edward," constructed by the same builders in 1901, which
was the first passenger vessel propelled by steam turbines.

She has three decks, in addition to a bridge deck extending for a
considerable distance amidships.

The engines of the " Queen Alexandra" consist of three steam turbines
of the parallel-flow type, developing about 4,400 h.p., and were made by the
Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Co. Steam at 150 Ib. pressure is admitted
into a high-pressure turbine on the central line, which drives a shaft carrying
one propeller, and afterwards passes into two low-pressure turbines driving
wing shafts, the total ratio of expansion being 1 : 125. Each of the wing
shafts originally carried two propellers which were afterwards replaced by a
single propeller of larger diameter, as shown in the model. Reversal is
effected by supplementary turbines placed in the exhaust ends of the low-
pressure casings ; when going ahead these reversing turbines revolve idly in
a vacuum. For manoeuvring purposes steam can be admitted independently



103

into the low pressure or into the reversing turbine on either side. A model
of engines of this type is shown in the collection of Marine Engines
(see No. 866).

On trial this vessel attained a speed of 21*6 knots with the central
turbine making 750 and the side turbines 1,100 revs, per min.

Tonnage, gross register, 665 ; length, 250 ft. ; breadth (moulded), 32 1 ft. ;
depth to promenade deck, 18 75 ft. ; depth to main deck, 11 5 ft.

320. Masted whole model of S.S. " Silverlip." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Shell Transport and Trading Co., 1903.

N. 2337.

This three-masted, schooner-rigged, screw steamer was built of steel at
Newcastle in 1903, by Messrs. Sir W. G-. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. ; she
was specially designed for carrying liquid fuel, or petroleum in bulk, a
service which has greatly increased since the discovery in 1900 of such oil
in Texas.

The vessel has two complete steel decks, and a cellular double bottom
under the machinery space. 73 ft. long with a capacity of 196 tons ; there are
also forward and after peaks and a deep tank in the fore-hold, all constructed
for water ballast purposes and giving a total capacity of 1,287 tons. The
machinery is placed aft, but forward of the boiler room, and there are 15
transverse bulkheads, in addition to a strong middle line bulkhead extending
from keel to main deck. To insure oil-tightness the scantlings are excep-
tionally heavy, the rivets closely spaced, and large plates are used to reduce



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