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the number of joints, while the compartments are separately tested by water
pressure. From the oil compartments trunks are carried up, to provide for
the expansion of the oil. Large hatchways are fitted to each compartment
to admit of loading with ordinary cargo on the outward voyage, for which
reason also 16 derricks worked by steam winches are provided. Oil pipes oi
large diameter, fitted with controlling valves, are carried from the compart-
ments to the shore connections fitted at the stern, and powerful pumps for
discharging the oil are placed in a pump-room amidships. These pumps
have also sea connections, so that they can be used to cleanse the oil tanks
when other cargo has to be carried, and a fan is provided for ventilating the
tanks when so employed.

The propelling machinery, built by the Wallsend Slipway Co., consists of
a set of three-stage expansion engines, with cylinders 29 "5 in., 48 in., and
78 in. diam. by 54 in. stroke. Steam is supplied by six single-ended boilers,
working at 180 Ib. pressure, and arranged for consuming either oil or coal
as fuel.

Gross register, 7,492 tons ; net, 4,904 tons ; length, 470 ft. ; breadth,
55 2 ft. ; moulded depth, 35 ft.

321. Rigged model of S.S. "Regina." (Scale 1: 48.) Lent
by Messrs. A. McMillan and Son, Ltd., 1908. N. 2475.

This represents a typical Canadian lake steamer, of moderate dimen-
sions, which was built of steel in 1907 at Dumbarton by Messrs. A. McMillan
and Son.

The external characteristics of this class of vessel are : A high
forecastle and navigation platform at the extreme forward end and the
propelling machinery at the extreme after end, leaving the whole intermediate
portion of the hull for cargo. Closely spaced hatchways and vertical mast
derricks provide for the rapid handling of the bulk cargo, generally ore, coal,
or grain.

The " E/egina " is propelled by three- stage expansion engines made by
Messrs. Muir and Houston, Ltd., Glasgow ; they have cylinders of 17 in.,
"28 in., and 46 in. diam. by 33 in. stroke. With steam at 180 Ib. per sq. in.
they develop 950 indicated h.p.

Length, 249 -7 ft.; breadth, 42 '6 ft.; depth of hold, 20'5 ft.; gross
register, 1,957 tons.



104

Vessels of this class, when British built, besides fulfilling the requirements
as to moderate draught necessitated by the passage of the connecting locks
and rivers of the Canadian Lake system, must also be capable of successfully
crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

322. Rigged model of S.S. " Sardinian Prince." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent "by the Prince Line, Ltd., 1908. N. 2491.

This design for a twin-screw cargo and passenger vessel was proposed
for the Prince Line in 1908.

Large cabin and saloon spaces, with shade, promenade and boat decks,
are provided amidships, while at each end are the main holds with machinery
for the rapid handling of cargo. On the shade, or lower boat deck, are
shown the electric fans and steam tube-heaters used in connection with the
" thermo-tank " system of heating and ventilating the living- spaces on the
vessel.

Displacement, 16,000 tons ; gross register, 10,000 tons ; length, 520 ft. ;,
breadth, 60 ft. ; depth, moulded, 40 ft.

323. Whole model of ferry steamer " Finnieston No 1.'*
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Ferguson Bros., 1909.

N. 2528.

This vessel for ferry purposes across the Clyde was built and engined by
Messrs. Ferguson Bros, at Port Glasgow in 1908, for the Trustees of the
Clyde Navigation.

A special feature is a movable deck or platform which provides for
embarking and discharging vehicular traffic at any state of the tide ; the
deck has a rise and fall of 17 ft. and is capable of accommodating 16 loaded
lorries or a total live load of about 105 tons ; it is worked by eight elevating-
screws, and the weight is carried upon four arched girders each extending
continuously from one side of the hull to the other.

The ferry boat is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines-
each having cylinders 12 in., 18 '5 in., and 29 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke.

The principal dimensions of the vessel are : Gross register, 379 tons j
length, 105 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. ; depth (moulded), 11 75 ft.



YACHTS.

The word yacht, derived from the Dutch " jacht," was
introduced into England probably in the seventeenth century ;
it is applied to decked vessels used for pleasure or racing
purposes, and includes widely-differing types, due to the degree
to which the considerations of speed or of accommodation have
predominated in influencing the design.

Royal barges and similar pleasure ships are of the greatest
antiquity, while in later times it is recorded that Queen
Elizabeth had a pleasure vessel built at Cowes in 1588, and that
Sir Phineas Pett designed and constructed racing yachts at
Deptford for Charles II.

The first recorded yacht club was the Cork Harbour Water
Club, now the Royal Cork Yacht Club, established in 1720 ; the
Royal Yacht Squadron was established at Cowes in 1812. The
number of such clubs in the kingdom is now over sixty, while
there are over four thousand five hundred registered yachts,
nearly one third of which are fitted with some form of propelling
machinery.



105

The early yachts were small and heavily built, but as racing
became more general, weight was saved by reducing the
scantlings, and as there was no time allowance it was soon
discovered that size was of the greatest importance in securing
success. Accordingly, from the early matches at Cowes in
1780, where the vessels were of less than thirty-five tons, the
dimensions increased steadily, so that in. 1830 Mr. Joseph Weld's
famous cutter " Alarm " (see No. 329) was of 193 tons, with
80 ft. on the water line and 24 ft. beam.

At first, the ballast used was in the form of stone or cast-iron
blocks, with bags of shot for shifting, but in 1846 lead pigs
were substituted, and in 1856 the massive external keel of lead
now universal was adopted. The early form of hull was
described as " cod's head and mackerel's tail," but in 1848
the iron cutter "Mosquito " (see No. 333), of 70 tons displace-
ment, built by C. J. Mare on the Thames, to the design of
T. \Vaterman, departed from these features by possessing a
long, hollow bow and a short after body of considerable beam,
conforming to a great extent to the lines advocated by Scott
Russell. This innovation was much criticised, but in 1851,
when the " America " (see No. 335), which had similar lines, had
beaten the swiftest British yachts, opinion quickly changed.

The " America " was a schooner of 208 tons (b.o.m.), and in
addition to new lines and rig, differed from the British yachts
which were all cutters in having her sails as tight and flat as
possible, instead of in the baggy form then in vogue. Her schooner
rig soon became popular, together with the fine entrance lines and
the flat cotton sails. In 1864 the yawl rig became the fashion,
but after a few years the cutter again returned to favour, and
it now remains the usual rig for both cruising and racing
yachts, partly owing to the less labour involved in working it.

In 1875 a great change in yacht design was introduced, by
Mr. E. H. Bentall of Maldon, in the " Jullanar " (see No. 345), a
yawl of 126 tons which proved exceedingly successful, while
another improvement of the period was introduced in the
"Florinda."

The American yachtsmen had for many years most success-
fully developed the dropping-keel or centre-board system of
construction, but the arrangement was never popular in this
country. The modern racing yacht is, however, a combination
of the two forms, the present deep keel and external ballast,
possessing the advantages of both systems, except in very
shallow waters.

The rules, by which the time allowances made to the smaller
yachts are determined, are fixed by the Yacht Racing Associa-
tion, established in 1875. At first it adopted the Thames rule,
in which length and breadth were the factors, but owing to the
deep and narrow hulls thus evolved the factors in 1886 were
changed to length on water line and sail area, so as to favour
beamy vessels which would form comfortable cruisers. The
"Britannia" cutter, built in 1893 for the then Prince of Wales,



106

was the most successful vessel designed under the 1886 rating,
and she won 141 prizes in 209 starts. In 1896, however, a new
formula, with length, breadth, girth, and sail area as factors,
was introduced ; this changed the rating basis from a " tonnage "
to a "linear" measurement and encouraged a greater depth of
under- water body, and hence a more commodious vessel.
Changes of rating formula in 1901 and 1906 further emphasized
the feature of habitability the later rule giving a premium on
freeboard.

Although at one time strongly objected to, a large number of
the modern cruising yachts are now fitted with auxiliary steam
or petrol-motor power, by which they are rendered far less
dependent upon the state of the weather.

The earliest successful internal combustion motor launch
appears to have been built in 1888, and was fitted with a
Priestman oil engine. In 1902 the first serious attempt to
produce a high-speed motor boat was made, and a speed of
19 knots was obtained with an engine of 66 h.p. by a boat
designed by Mr. Linton Hope for Mr. S. F. Edge. The
development of this class of vessel has been continuous and
rapid, and has been due in a great measure to the application of
the internal combustion engine.

NOTE. In the collect ion there are several models of Eastern
yachts, but they have not been included in this section, as they
are placed with the other examples of Oriental types.

RACING YACHTS.

324. Rigged model of Dutch yacht. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by
S. T. G. Evans, Esq., 1900. N. 2211.

This model represents, in general appearance, a Dutch " jacht " or
sailing pleasure-boat of about 1600-50, but it is evidently not accurately to
scale.

It is bluff bowed and has heavy quarters, but is provided with an
exceptionally large rudder and two lee-boards. The sails consist of a
foresail, jib, and mainsail, the latter being carried by a gaff instead of a
sprit an innovation that Pepys mentions as the " Bezan " rig.

The dimensions, as determined from the model, would be : Tonnage
(b.o.m.), 10 tons; length, 21 ft. ; breadth, 10'5 ft. ; depth, 8' 5 ft.

325. Rigged model of Dutch yacht. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Received 1910. N. 2546.

In 1660 the Dutch East India Company presented Charles II. with a
pleasure boat or yacht known as the " Mary." This appears to have been
the first vessel of the type owned in England, and its chief characteristics
were embodied in most of the yachts constructed in this country during the
17th and 18th centuries.

The model here shown is said to have belonged to "W. Vaiidevelde, junior
(1633-1707), and represents a vessel similar to, but probably smaller than,
the " Mary." It is of the single -masted schuyt-rig, carries lee-boards and
is clincher built, with a heavy chafing or rubbing piece worked above the
water-line. It has a full, round bow with prominent stem piece, a high
decorated poop with lantern, and good cabin accommodation amidships.

Approximate dimensions : Length, water-line, 27 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft.



107

326. Rigged model of Dutch sloop and row-boat. (About
1800.) (Scale 1 : 24.) Received 1907. N. 2435.

This model probably represents a small racing or pleasure sloop as used
on the canals and shallow waters of Friesland, North Holland. A sprit or
single diagonal yard is sometimes adopted-_for the mainsail of this class of
vessel instead of the long lower boom and short gaff as here shown.

Dimensions (approx.) : Length (overall), 25 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ;
draught, 1-6 ft. .

The six- oared row-boat is a type used for ferry purposes and is often
carried or taken in tow by the larger craft.

Dimensions (approx.) :- Length, 15 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; draught, 1 * 25 ft.

In general features both models are representative of craft common in
Dutch waters from the 17th to the 19th century.

327. Half block model of Yt. " Leopard." (Scale 1 : 24.)
Received 1897. N. 2123.

This yacht was built by Mr. Linn Ratsey at Cowes, in 1807.
Length, extreme, 64 ft. ; breadth, 17 '5 ft. ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 70 tons.

328. Half block model of Yt. "Pearl." (Scale 1:48.)
Received 1899. N. 2189.

This cutter yacht was designed and built in 1820 by Sainty, of
Colchester, for the Marquis of Anglesea, to the lines of a smuggler's clipper
which the Marquis had noticed as possessing exceptional speed. In 1873
she was rebuilt by Nicholson, of Gosport, and altered to the yawl rig.

Displacement, 127*5 tons; length on water line, 65*3 ft.; breadth,
extreme, 19'54 ft. ; draught, forward, 6'8 ft. ; aft, 11 '3 ft.

329. Lithograph of Yt. "Alarm." Received 1905. N. 2407.

This successful cutter yacht was built of wood at Cowes, in 1830, from
the designs of her owner, Mr. J. R. Weld. For many years in succession
the " Alarm " won valuable prizes in the Solent, including the first Cup
presented by Queen Victoria to the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1838. She
took part in the International race won by the " America " in 1851.
Shortly afterwards she was lengthened 20 ft., and converted into a fast
schooner of 248 tons, beating the " America " in a match in 1861.

Original dimensions : Tonnage (b.o.m.), 193 tons ; length on water line,
80 ft. ; breadth, 24 ft.

330. Half block model of Yt. " Corsair." (Scale 1 : 24.)
Received 1897. N. 2122.

This yacht was built by Mr. Michael Ratsey at Cowes, in 1832. She
was a good sea boat and a successful ocean racer.

Length, extreme, 74ft.; length on keel, 57 '75 ft.; breadth, 18 -5ft.;
tonnage (b.o.m.), 84 9 tons.

331. Half block model of Yt. " Mystery." (1841). (Scale
1 : 48.) Received 1907. N. 2444.

This famous cutter yacht was built of iron in 1841 for Lord Alfred Paget
by Messrs. Ditchburn and Mare, Blackwall, from the designs of Mr. T. J.
Ditchburn.

She was the first racing yacht constructed of iron and during several
seasons proved herself superior in speed, both in light and heavy weather,
to all wooden yachts of similar tonnage. Her success, however, was more
largely due to the adoption of finer lines, than to the new material of
construction. To obtain advantages in tonnage measurement, the designer
gave an unusual amount of rake to her stern-post ; this feature was



108

considered by many to have materially improved her sailing qualities and
was therefore widely copied in succeeding yacht designs.

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 25 tons ; length of keel, 39 9 ft. ; breadth, extreme,
11 -9 ft.

332. Half block model of Yt. " Fay." (Scale 1 : 24.) Re-
ceived 1899. N. 2191.

This iron yacht was designed and built by the late Mr. T. J. Ditchburn,
about 1845, on lines somewhat similar to those of the " Mystery "
(see No. 331).

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 12 tons ; length, extreme, 39 '25ft.; length of keel,
for tonnage, 29 5 ft. ; breadth, 9 7 ft.

333. Lithograph of Yt. " Mosquito." Received 1905. N. 2409.

This famous cutter yacht was built of iron at Blackwall by Messrs.
Ditchburn, Mare & Co., in 1848, for Lord A. Paget, from the designs of
Mr. T. "Waterman ; she was afterwards owned by Lord Londesborough.

In addition to the use of iron in her construction the " Mosquito "
possessed the unusual features of hollow water-lines and a deep raking
stern-post. A list of her successes during the period 1850-2 is given on the
lithograph, and includes a victoiy over the " America " in the Royal Victoria
Yacht Club race in 1852.

This yacht appears to have been employed as a pilot boat at Barrow-in-
Furness as late as 1895.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 59 tons; length, 63 '5 ft.; breadth,
15 -2 ft.; depth, 10ft.

334. Half model of pilot boat " Mary Taylor." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Henry Liggins, Esq., 1876. N. 1464.

This schooner-rigged New York pilot boat was designed and built
about 1850 by Mr. George Steers, who subsequently introduced many of
her features into the famous racing yacht " America," which he also designed
(see No 335).

The novelties in the " Maiy Taylor " were her extreme shallowness of
floor, great depth of keel, small displacement, and the great distance at
which her widest section was placed abaft the middle.

For her service she was required to be able to sail rapidly and well on
all points, and yet be able to lay- to easily in all weathers, which requirements
led to the design adopted.

Load displacement, 62 3 tons ; length on load water-line, 61 ft. ; breadth
at load water-line, 17" 6ft.; mean draught, 5'2 ft.; greatest transverse
section, 58 37 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 451 sq. ft. ; area of load
water-line, 751 8 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 2,382 sq. ft.

335. Whole model of Yt. "America." (Scale 1 : 32.) Con-
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1232.

This schooner yacht was built by Mr. Wilkes at New York, in 1851, for
Mr. J. C. Stevens, Commodore of the New York Yacht Club. She was
designed by Mr. Gr. Steers, who extended and developed in her the form he
introduced in the pilot boat "Mary Taylor" (see No. 334).

Both vessels were remarkable for extreme shallowness of floor and great
depth of keel, as well as small displacement, and the great distance at which
the widest section was placed abaft the middle. Mr. Scott Russell con-
sidered, however, that their lines, as well as those of other American yachts
and clippers, followed his wave-line principle.

In the year in which she was built she crossed the Atlantic and showed
her superiority to English racing yachts. In August, 1851, at Cowes, she
won the cup since known as the " America's cup," and a week later beat the
"Titania" (see No. 337).



109

Load displacement, 146 6 tons ; length on load water-line, 87 25 ft. ;
breadth at load water-line, 22 -2 ft. ; mean draught, 8 2 f t. ; greatest
transverse section, 102 * 74 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 860 sq. ft. ;
area of load water-line, 1,253-2 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 5,263 sq. ft.

336. Lithograph of Yt. "America:' Received 1904.

N. 2358.

This contemporary print by T. G-. Button, 1851, represents the yacht
" America " in Cowes Roads with mainsail, foresail, and fore staysail set ;
under full sail, a jib and gaff topsail were also carried.

In addition to the "America" are shown: "Capricorn," schooner,
313 tons ; " Gipsey Queen," schooner, 160 tons, which took part with the
" America " in the historic international race ; " Surprise," topsail schooner,
150 tons ; " Xarifa," topsail schooner, 175 tons.

337. Whole model of Yt. "Titania" (I), afterwards named
"Themis." (Scale 1 : 32.) Contributed by John Scott
Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1233.

This schooner yacht was built of iron, for Mr. Robert Stephenson, by
Messrs. Robinson and Russell, at Millwall, in 1851, and is the yacht that
competed with the famous " America " (see No. 335).

She was designed by Mr. Scott Russell on his wave-line system, but
after being drafted with round water and body lines she was modified
to meet the rules of measurement then in force and the theories which
prevailed.

This system of measurement employed the keel length as a tonnage
factor, therefore the builder reduced the keel of the vessel by giving the
stem-post excessive rake. To correct this he added depth to the keel, and
thus gave excessive draught. He was also compelled to narrow the beam
of the yacht, as if this were not done a yacht of a given displacement instead
of being put down at her real tonnage of, say, 100 tons, would have to be
called 200 tons, and be compelled to allow time to yachts nearly double her
size. The builder of the " Titania," therefore, cut off two large slices from
her sides at the load water-line, making them flat and straight where they
should have had a gentle swell.

Although there was little difference in length or displacement between the
two vessels, the " America " was left with broad shoulders, enabling her to
stand up under press of sail, and she also retained her full length and depth of
longitudinal section, enabling her to lie close on a wind. In a 20-mile run
before the wind there was scarcely any difference in their speeds, the
" America " beating the "Titania" by 4 min. 45 sees., which could be
accounted for by the larger sail area on the " America." But when returning
on the wind the "America" stood up better, and weathered the " Titania "
on every tack, ultimately beating her by 45 mins.

Load displacement, 123 1 tons ; length on load water-line, 81 ft. ; breadth
at load water-line, 18' 1ft.; mean draught, 10-16 ft.; greatest transverse
section, 87 8 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 766 5 sq. ft. ; area at load
water-line, 1,096 -8 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 6,174-5 sq. ft.

338. Whole model of Yt. "Titania II." (Scale 1: 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1234.

Soon after the alteration of the law of tonnage brought about by the
race between the "America" and the "Titania" in 1851 (see No. 337),
Mr. Stephenson decided that he would have a new yacht built on the lines
which the " Titania " should have had but for the interference of the
abolished law of tonnage. He determined also to increase the length of the
vessel so as to secure more accommodation.

This new " Titania " was in every point more stable and more
" wind war dly " than the old one, and approximated more to the " America."



110

Load displacement, 163-63 tons ; length on load water-line, 93 ft. ;
breadth at load water-line, 21 -5 ft.; mean draught, 10 '91 ft.; greatest
transverse section, 92 '38 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 917 '4 sq. ft. ;
area of load water-line, 1,300 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 7,537 25 sq. ft.

339. Half block model of Yt. "Aline." (Scale 1:32.) Lent
by Messrs. Camper and Nicholsons, Ltd., 1897. N. 2139.

This schooner yacht was designed by Mr. B. Nicholson, and built by
Messrs. Camper and Nicholson at Gosport in 1860, for Mr. C. S. Thelusson.
She won the Queen's Cup at Cowes in her first essay, and again in 1867, and
the Royal Yacht Squadron prize in 1868.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 216 tons; length, 107 '4 ft. ; breadth,
31 "8 ft. ; depth, 11 -3 ft.

340. Half block model of Yt. "Terne." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent
by Messrs. Summers and Payne, Ltd., 1908. N. 2480.

This yacht, probably cutter or sloop rigged, was built of wood at South-
ampton by Messrs. A. Payne and Son in 1860. She has very full lines and
shows a half-deck and a transom stern ; details of the external planking are
also clearly indicated.

Dimensions, approximate : Length, 20 5 f t. ; breadth, 7 75 ft. ; Thames
measurement, 4 tons.

341. Half block model of Yt. " Egeria." (Scale 1 : 24.) Pre-
sented by Lady Dunleath, 1897. N. 2120.

This schooner yacht was built at Poole in 1865 by Mr. T. Wanhill for
Mr. Mulholland. In her brilliant career she won six Queen's Cups, viz.,
1865 (her first season), 1869, 1872, 1874, 1879, and 1881 ; in 1874 the Prince
of Wales's Challenge Cup also passed into her possession.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 157 tons; length, 98 '4 ft.; breadth,
19 -2ft.; depth, 10 -1ft.

342. Half block model of Yt. " Guinevere." (Scale 1 : 32.)
Lent by Messrs. Camper and Nicholsons, Ltd., 1897.

N. 2140.

This schooner yacht was built at Gosport in 1868 by Mr. Nicholson, and
at the time was very successful.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 301 tons ; length, 125 2 ft. ; breadth,
23 -6 ft.; depth, 13 -3 ft.

343. Lithograph of Yt. " Cambria." Received 1905. N. 2410.

This schooner yacht was built of wood at West Cowes by Michael Batsey,
in 1868, for Mr. J. Ashbury. She was an excellent sea-boat with good speed
in heavy weather, and was the first English yacht to attempt to regain the
"America" cup (1870). Previous to this she had beaten the American
yacht " Sappho " at Byde, and the " Dauntless," owned by Mr. Gordon
Bennett, in a transatlantic race.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 193 tons ; length, 102 6 ft. ; breadth,
21 -lft. ; depth, 11 -6 ft.

344. Half block model of Yt. " Muriel." (Scale 1 : 24.) Pre-
sented by A. H. Bridson, Esq., 1897. N. 2115.

This cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1869 by Mr. Hatcher
She was a famous vessel and the winner of many prizes.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 41 tons ; length, 60 ft. ; breadth,
12 -7ft. ; depth, 10 -3 ft.



Ill

345. Rigged model of Yt. " Jullanar," lent by Sir Geo. A.
Pilkington, and half block model lent by R. T. Pritchett,
Esq., 1897. (Scales 1 : 24.) Plate VI., No. 1.

N. 2128 and 2121,

This yawl-rigged yacht was designed and built by Mr. E. H. Bentall, an
agricultural implement maker, at Maldon, in 1875. Although yacht
designing had been steadily progressing, no great departure had been made



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