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of the following dimensions: Tonnage (b.m.), 40 '4 tons; length, 60ft.;
breadth, 12 ft. ; depth of hold, 8 ft.

387. Whole block model of schooner yacht. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868.

N. 1255.

This shows a proposed fast schooner designed with " wave-lines." For
a speed of 12 knots the sail area was to be 12,600 sq. yds., or else a screw
was to be fitted, driven by engines of 500 indicated h.p.

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 512 tons ; length on load water-line, 150 ft. ; breadth
extreme, 27 ft. ; mean draught, 10 8 ft. ; immersed midship section, 175 sq. ft.



119

388. Whole model S.Yt. " Undine." (Scale 1 : 48.) Contri-
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1254.

This three-masted, schooner-rigged, auxiliary- screw yacht was constructed
of iron in 1856 to lines determined entirely by Mr. Scott Russell's wave
system.

Her keel was formed by turning down the adjacent skin plates and then
riveting them together through two intervening plates 75 in. thick, thus
forming a continuous keel which terminated in a horizontal plate on the top
of the floors.

The engines were of the angular direct-acting type, with two cylinders
24 in. diam. by 15 in. stroke, and indicated 160 h.p. at 100 revs, per
minute. Steam at 15 Ib. pressure was supplied by a tubular boiler, 8 ft.
long, 12 25 ft. wide, and 8 75 ft. high, having four furnaces and 1,026 sq. ft,
of heating surface. The consumption of coal per 24 hours was 6 tons, and
3'51b. per indicated h.p. per hour. She was fitted with a 2-bladed lifting
screw, 7 75 ft. diam. by 11 3 ft. pitch, weighing 6 ton. Her speed was
9-5 knots.

Tonnage (b.m.), 363 tons ; length on load water-line, 125 ft. ; breadth,
extreme, 25 ft. ; depth at the side, 11 5 ft. ; draught, 10 -5 ft. ; immersed
midship section, 159 sq. ft. ; area of load water-line, 1,997 sq. ft.

389. Half models of S.Yt. " Cleopatra." (Scale 1 : 48.) Con-
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1243.

This was a paddle vessel built on the longitudinal system for the
Egyptian Government in 1858. Her greatest breadth was on the water-line
amidships, " flare" being given to the extremities so as to ease the motion
at sea ; the whole of the machinery space was placed forward so as leave
ample accommodation aft. She carried two masts, and had a sail area of
490 sq. yds.

Her engines had three oscillating cylinders and weighed 103 tons ;
they are represented and described in No. 812 ; her average speed was
14 7 knots.

Steam at 25 Ib. pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers 15 ft. long,
9 ft. wide, and 8 5 high. The total grate area was 150 sq. ft., and the
heating surface 3,251 sq. ft. They weighed 17 tons and carried 20 tons of
water.

Load displacement, 435 tons ; tonnage (b.m), 453 tons ; gross register,
262 tons ; length on load water-line, 202 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 21 ft. ;
depth at side, 10 4 ft. ; draught of water, laden, 6*25 ft. ; immersed midship
section, 122 sq. ft.

390. Half block model of Austrian state Yt. " Miramar."
(Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1893. N. 2023.

This schooner-rigged paddle yacht was built by Messrs. Samuda Bros.
in 1872 for H.I.M. the Emperor of Austria.

The engines indicate 2,500 h.p., and give a speed of 17 '2 knots; the
coal capacity is 300 tons.

Length (b.p.), 269 ft. ; breadth, 32 -8 ft. ; draught, 14 ft. ; displacement,
1,810 tons.

391. Half block model of S.Yt. " Sunbeam." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Rt. Hon. Earl Brassey, K.C.B., 1897.

N. 2134,

This auxiliary- screw, three-masted, topsail schooner was designed by
Mr. St. Clare Byrne, and composite built by Messrs. Bowdler, Chaffer & Co.,
at Seacombe, on the Mersey, in 1874. She is a well-known cruising yacht,
having made several voyages round the world.

Her engines, by Messrs. Laird Bros., are of the two-stage expansion
inverted type, with cylinders 24 and 42 in. diam. by 21 in. stroke. Steam,
at 55 Ib. pressure, 13 supplied by a boiler with three plain furnaces having



120

54 sq. ft. of grate surface. The engines indicated 350 h.p. and developed
a speed of 10*13 knots on the measured mile. The cruising speed is
8 knots, with a daily consumption of 4 tons of coal, the endurance at this
rate being 20 days.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 532 tons; length, between perps.,
159 ft. ; breadth, 27 '6 ft.; depth, 13 -9ft.; area of midship section,
202 sq. ft.

392. Half block model of S.Yt. " Chazalie." (Scale 1 : 32.)
Lent by Messrs. Camper and Nicholsons, Ltd., 1897.

N. 2141.

This schooner-rigged screw steam yacht, designed by Mr. B. Nicholson,
was built at Gosport in 1875.

Her engines were inverted two-stage expansion, with cylinders 20 in. and
40 in. diam., by 24 in. stroke.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 514 tons ; length, 157 -1 ft. ; breadth,
27 -3 ft.; depth, 15 -4 ft.

393. Half block model of S.Yt. " Wanderer." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Mrs. S. Lambert, 1894. N. 2032.

This composite, three-masted, schooner- rigged, screw yacht was built at
Greenock in 1878 by Messrs. R. Steele & Co. She was then one of the
largest yachts afloat, and so elegantly fitted that it is said her total cost was
100,000?.

Her engines were originally three- stage expansion, with cylinders 17 in.,
34 in., and 48 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke, which at 92 revs, per min. indicated
200 h.p. Steam at 400 Ib. pressure was supplied by four boilers 9 6 ft.
long and 5 25 ft. broad, each with a grate surface of 19 sq. ft. and a heating
surface of 760 sq. ft. The engines and boilers were on the Perkins's system
and designed by Mr. J. F. Spencer. The exceptional pressure gave rise to
practical difficulties that ended in the engines being replaced by a two-stage
expansion set, with cylinders 25 in. and 50 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke,
supplied with steam at 80 Ib. pressure, and indicating 100 h.p.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 708 tons ; length, 185 '4 ft. ; breadth,
29 2 ft. ; depth, 16 1 ft. ; draught of water, 13 5 ft.

394. Whole model of the Russian Imperial S.Yt. " Livadia."
(Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1883. Plate VI. , No. 3. N. 1593.

This immense steam yacht was built of steel at Glasgow in 1880, by
Messrs. John Elder & Co., to designs prepared by the Russian Admiralty.

The lower part of the hull is of turbot shape, and contains the machinery,
coal, and stores. It is built with a double bottom 3 5 ft. deep in the centre,
and nearly flat, but is stiffened by webs that divide it into 40 watertight
compartments. The sides are strengthened by two continuous inner bulk-
heads, with cross webs, so that the intervening space is divided into 40 more
compartments ; these, with the rounded deck above and the bottom plates,
constitute a strong annular structure that is further stiffened by radial
girders.

Above this hull is a superstructure of more usual shape, which provides
accommodation for the crew forward and the officers aft; above it is the
upper deck, upon which are the quarters of the Emperor and his suite, while
above this is an awning deck provided with state saloons.

Her three main engines are two-stage expansion, each having three
cylinders, one of 60 in. and two of 78 in. diam., by 39 in. stroke ; each set
indicates 3,500 h.p,, and drives a four-bladed propeller 16 ft. diam., spaced
18-25 ft. apart. On her trial she attained a speed of 15-8 knots with
10,500 indicated h.p. The form of hull is not conducive to high speeds,
and while crossing the Bay of Biscay the flat bottom showed itself unsuitable
for rough water.

Tonnage (yacht measurement), 11,802 tons ; displacement, 3,900 tons ;
length, 235 ft. ; breadth, 153 ft. ; depth from awning deck, 36-6 ft. ; draught
of water, 6 6 ft.



121

395. Half block model of S.Yt. "Puck." (Scale 1 : 24.)
Lent by Messrs. Thomas Grendon & Co., 1888. N. 1801.

This steam yacht was built of steel at Drogheda in 1880. Steam at 75 Ib.
pressure was supplied by a steel boiler 8 25 ft. long and 5 5 ft. diam. Her
speed was 13 9 knots.

Register tonnage, 25 tons ; length, 61 25 ft. ; breadth, 9 5 ft.

396. Rigged model of S.Yt. " Lady Torfrida." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.,
1901. " N. 2270.

This schooner-rigged screw yacht was designed and built of steel in 1886
at Govan, by the Fairfield Company, for the late Sir William Pearce, Bart.,
chairman of the company.

The vessel has two decks and four bulkheads ; she is completely fitted as
a pleasure yacht, and is lighted throughout by electricity, which, when the
dynamo is not running, is supplied by accumulator cells.

The engines are a three-stage expansion surface-condensing set, with two
high-pressure cylinders, 14 '25 in. diam., one intermediate pressure, 30'5 in.
diam., and two low-pressure, 38 in. diam., all by 30 in. stroke. The high-
pressure cylinders are arranged tandem above the low pressures, on each side
of the intermediate-pressure cylinder, a three-throw crank shaft being used.
Piston-valves are fitted to the high-pressure cylinders and flat slide valves
to the others ; reversing is effected by Brown's steam and hydraulic gear.
(See No. 873.)

Steam at 150 Ib. pressure is supplied by a single-ended Scotch boiler,
15 75 ft. diam. by 9 4 ft. long, with four corrugated furnaces and a grate
surface of 81 sq. ft. ; the indicated h.p. is 1,400.

Thames measurement, 735 tons ; gross register, 546 tons ; length, 216 5 ft. ;
breadth, 27 ft. ; depth, 16-6 ft.

397. Drawing of S.Yt. "Grace Darling." (Scale 1:48.)
Lent by Messrs. Fleming and Ferguson, 1888. N. 1805.

This steel-built, schooner-rigged, screw yacht was built and engined at
Paisley, in 1887, from designs by Mr. J. Darling. She has two decks and
five bulkheads.

Her engines are two-stage expansion with four cylinders, two high-
pressure 10 in. and 14 in. diam., and two low-pressure, 14 in. and 28 in.
diam., all 20-in. stroke. The boiler pressure is 190 Ib. per sq. in.

Length, 143 ft.; breadth, 19 -5 ft.; depth, 10 '3 ft. ; gross register,
169-14 tons ; Thames measurement, 250 tons.

398. Rigged model of S.Yt. " Safa-el-bahr." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Messrs. A. and J. Inglis, 1897. N. 2127.

This schooner-rigged, steel-built yacht was designed and constructed by
Messrs. A. and J. Inglis at Glasgow in 1894, forH.H. the Khedive of Egypt.
She has two decks and five bulkheads.

Her engines are a three-stage expansion set, with cylinders 18 in., 29 in.,
and 48 in diam., by 36 in. stroke, indicating 1,200 h.p., and giving a speed
of 14-1 knots. Steam at 160 Ib. pressure is supplied by two boilers, having
2,300 sq. ft. of heating surface.

Thames measurement, 677 tons ; length, 221 ft. ; breadth, 27 '1 ft. ; depth
at the side, 17 -3ft.; draught of water, 12 ft.; area of greatest transverse
section, 248 sq. ft. ; area of load water-line, 3,590 sq. ft.

399. Rigged model of S.Yt. "Ivy." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by
H.M. Foreign Office, 1897. N. 2155.

This composite-built, schooner- rigged, twin- screw yacht was constructed
at Hull in 1895 by Messrs. Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., to
the design of Messrs. J. Thompson and Son, for H.B.M. Niger Coast Pro-
tectorate. She has two decks, a short forecastle, and an awning deck



122

extending over two- thirds of the vessel ; the after part is sheltered by double
canvas awnings. The hull is divided by bulkheads into six watertight
compartments, and she is armed with three guns.

She is propelled by two sets of three- stage expansion engines, with
cylinders 13*75 in., 22*75 in., and 35 in. diam. by 27 in. stroke, indicating
1,100 h.p., and giving a speed of 13*5 knots. Steam at 150 Ib. pressure is
supplied by two steel boilers with six ribbed furnaces ; the grate area is
117 sq. ft., and the heating surface, 3,608 sq. ft.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 1,131 tons ; register, 337 tons ; gross,
870 tons ; length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 33 8 ft. ; depth, 15 4 ft.

400. Rigged model of S.Yt. "Alberta." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co, Ltd, 1907. N. 2446.

This twin-screw schooner-yacht was built of steel by the Ailsa, Ship-
building Co. at Troon, and engined by Messrs. D. Rowan & Co. of
Glasgow in 1896. She was designed by Mr. G-. L. Watson for Mr. A. J.
Drexel, of Philadelphia, and was originally known as "Margarita"; her
name was changed in 1898, and she was afterwards fitted out for the use of
H.M. the King of the Belgians. She is constructed with two complete
decks and seven transverse watertight bulkheads; electric lighting is
adopted throughout.

The yacht is propelled by two sets of four- stage expansion engines, having
cylinders 15 5 in., 22 in., 31 in., and 44 in. diam. by 27 in. stroke. Steam is
supplied at 200 Ib. pressure by two boilers fitted with forced draught
arrangements ; with 3,000 indicated h.p. a speed of 17 knots was realised.

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 1,322 tons ; gross register, 1,143 tons ;
length, overall, 280 ft.; length on water-line, 240 ft.; breadth, 33*7 ft.;
depth (moulded), 20 ft.



MOTOR BOATS.

401. Whole model of motor boat " Brooke II." (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by Messrs. J. W. Brooke & Co, Ltd, 1908.

N. 2470.

This represents a vessel built in 1908 by Messrs. J. "W. Brooke & Co.,
and in general features shows a typical high-speed motor boat. The
flattening and widening of the afterbody sections, and the consequent cutting
away of all the deadwood aft, is common to all high-speed motor craft, and
is designed to prevent excessive change of trim of the vessel. This change
of shape is necessitated by the fact that the difference between the water-
pressures fore and aft causes such boats to trim so much by the stem that
the ordinary ship design is unsuitable and even dangerous. The high bow
and curved deck are common to most vessels of this type. "Wood is used
in the construction of the vessel represented on account of its lightness and
low cost ; moreover, with wood fair surfaces can be produced (see No. 636).

"Brooke II." is built of planking '25 in. thick, and has engine -bearers
2 in. thick running from the stern of the boat to the transom. Weight has
been kept at a minimum, the vessel without machinery weighing under
610 Ib., and with the machinery, only about 1,100 Ib.

The vessel is propelled by a Brooke petrol motor having six cylinders,
each 6 5 in. diam. by 6 in. stroke. The crank-shaft is of nickel steel, and is
drilled for lubrication purposes, the oil draining into a sump at the bottom
of the crank-chamber. A gear pump, driven by skew wheels from the cam
shaft, draws the oil from the sump and forces it through an oil- cooler, from
which it is re-distributed to the main bearings. Both the valve covers and
the cylinders are water- jacketed to avoid pre-ignition. The engine is started
by a quadrant engaging with a spur-wheel cut at the back of the fly-wheel.
On trial, fitted with a 20-in. three-bladed propeller, the vessel attained a
speed of 24 6 knots with 960 revs, per min.

Displacement, 1 ton ; length overall, 25 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; brake
h.p., 100.



123

402. Built model of seagoing motor launch. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by Messrs. J. King & Co., 1909. N. 2512.

This represents a class of unballasted, light draught motor-boat, designed
by Mr. T. I). Sandars, for cruising in the open sea ; it was built by Messrs.
J. King & Co. As the design provides for either single or twin-screw
propulsion, no details of the machinery are shown on the model.

The vessel is carvel-built, of pitch pine, with a deck of kauri pine ; the
frames are of steamed American elm and spaced 6 in. apart. Most of the
internal fittings are of teak, and their general character may be seen by
raising the deck of the model. There is accommodation for three deck
hands, one engineer, and seven passengers.

The propelling equipment may be either a single or a double set of
King-Lamb marine motors, each of 24 h.p., and using petrol or gasoline.
Sufficient fuel is carried to maintain 30 hours' continuous running at
11 knots (twin-screw), or 60 hours at 8 knots (single- screw). The engines
and rudder are controlled from the pilot house, but arrangements can be
made for steering from the cock-pit.

Length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; draught, 3 ft. ; displacement, 13 tons.

403. Whole model of "hydroplane" motor boat. (Scale
1 : 6.) Lent by Messrs. John Wilesmith & Co., 1909.

N. 2514.

This represents a type of motor craft in which, at high or moderate
speeds, a " gliding " or " skimming " action takes the place of the
" ploughing " action in boats of ordinary form ; this considerably reduces
the resistance at high speed, by diminishing the displacement. The example
shown was built of wood at Worcester, in 1909, from the designs of
Mr. E. P. M. Robinson.

The most noticeable features of these boats are : Great beam to length,
flat floors, inclined bow, and abrupt transom stern. In early experiments,
with a single, unbroken, underwater plane, such boats were found to
oscillate considerably, and became almost unmanageable ; by stepping the
lower hull, or forming it in two or more successive surfaces, greater stability
and efficiency were obtained. In some successful hydroplanes a number of
separate inclined plates or planes are attached to the submerged hull. As
shown by the model, the foremost plane extends over one-third of the boat's
length and carries the rudder at its after termination ; beyond the " step "
the hull is of decreased depth and offers a broad flat gliding surface, to
which is attached an inclined shaft and deeply immersed propeller. A light
hood or weather screen, with wash-strakes and coamings, protects the
habitable portion of the flat deck, and a long continuous rod provides for
working the tiller at various positions.

The boat has an overall length of 13 ft. and breadth of 5 ft.

In boats of the "Fauber" class (attached planes) having engines of
60 h.p. and a length of 26 ft., speeds up to 32 knots have been realised.



BOATS, BARGES, LAUNCHES, TUGS, ETC.

Under this heading are included the small vessels, used as
adjuncts to ships, and also the varied craft used in fishing, or
for short journeys, on which extensive accommodation is not
required. Boats can most easily be divided into two classes :
those that are open and therefore unsuited for rough weather,
and those that are decked so as to have more protection against
swamping and also furnish some shelter to the occupants.



124

Pleasure boats of the open type are usually of light con-
struction and propelled by oars although auxiliary sail or motor
propulsion is sometimes adopted. Rowing boats for racing
purposes are built of cedar, with canvas deck-covering, at an
average weight of 1 Ib. per ft. run ; outriggers are used to
obtain suitable fulcrurns for the sculls, and sliding seats to give
increased length of stroke. Open fishing and ships' boats are
of much heavier build, broader in the beam, and bluff bowed ;
the former are usually lugger, ketch, or cutter rigged, and
sometimes half-decked.

Decked boats form a class that strictly includes a large
proportion of the finest pleasure craft, but these have been
classed together in the section devoted to yachts. The other
most important decked boats are engaged in the extensive
fishing industries, and, owing to the rough weather which they
have to encounter, such vessels have been developed to a high
degree of seaworthiness : the introduction of steam or other
motive power has greatly enlarged the capabilities of these craft.
Decked launches, with steam, petrol or electricity for propulsion,
are also widely used for commercial and pleasure purposes.

Steam tug-boats are of the utmost value to disabled vessels
generally, to large sailing vessels when nearing land and to
steamships when passing through narrow or tortuous channels.
Owing to their stiff build and great engine power, steam tugs
are capable of encountering almost any weather, and they are
the recognised means for taking out a lifeboat during a storm.

Lifeboats were introduced practically by Greathead in 1789 ;
his boats rendered good service, but had no means of freeing
themselves from water, and were not self-righting. In 1850, a
prize of 100 guineas was offered by the Duke of Northumber-
land for a new design ; out of 280 models and plans sent in,
that of James Beeching of Yarmouth was considered the best,
and his was the first self-righting boat. Subsequently a boat
embodying features of several of the designs was adopted,
and this became the standard of the National Lifeboat
Institution, but it has since been somewhat modified.

The construction of a boat resembles that of a larger vessel,
but is usually determined entirely in the workshop. The stem and
stern posts, with the keel, are first set up, and then equi-distant
moulds, to which the planking is clamped, are set transversely
on the keel ; the ribs, thwarts, knees, etc., are inserted after-
wards. If clincher-built, the planks, about 5 inches wide and
tapering in thickness, overlap the lower ones ' 75 in. If carvel-
built, the planks are flush-jointed, and oakum or cotton caulked,
being afterwards payed with pitch or marine glue. Where the
plank is too thin for this, as in racing craft, "ribbon-carvel,"
i.e., thin cover strips of wood over the joints inside are used.
Diagonal carvel planking is used in lifeboats, and generally
where great strength is required, but the construction is
expensive. In boatbuilding, the fastenings are generally copper
nails or rivets, clinched over washers.



125

Till early in the 19tli century, no means of launching a boat
clear of the vessel, except perhaps by one of the yards, had been
devised, but as the size of vessels increased, and passenger traffic
developed, the provision of convenient lowering appliances
became a necessity. Straight spar davits, resembling crane
jibs overhanging the side, were in use in 1808 ; later they were
pivoted at the foot (see the boats on No. 62) and finally the
present curved iron form, turning on its own axis, was adopted,
the boat being hung from them by rope tackle with hook and
ring connections. Owing to the possibility of unequal lowering,
and the uncertainty in disengaging, this arrangement is very
dangerous, and many attempts have been made to improve it
since about 1830. Clifford's arrangement, patented in 1853,
was the first improved form that was extensively adopted, but
many other schemes are also shown in the collection.



OPEN BOATS.

404. Welsh coracle. Presented by J. W. Willis Bund, Esq.,
1883. N. 1611.

This form of boat was in use in this country at the time of Caesar's
invasion B.C. 55. They were made of wicker work, covered with skins, but
had keels and gunwales of light timber. These boats were propelled by
paddles, while, owing to their light construction, they could also be easily-
carried by one man ; such boats are still used for fishing purposes in Ireland
and Wales.

The modern example shown is constructed of laths of ash, placed close
together and secured by similar strips that are bent to form ribs. A
strengthening gunwale or rail runs round the edge, while the exterior of the
boat is covered with canvas that is afterwards coated with pitch. A seat is
arranged near the middle, and a leather shoulder-strap is added for carrying
the boat. The coracle is propelled by a short paddle, and is of the following
dimensions : Length, 4 6 ft. ; breadth, 3 7 ft. ; depth, 1 2 ft.

405. Built model of Irish curragh. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by
S. T. G. Evans, Esq., 1889. N. 2208.

This represents one of the small canvas canoes used for fishing and
general purposes off the coast of Connemara and the Aran Islands. The
structure is very light and simple, consisting of a wooden frame for the top
sides, into which the upper ends of the bent- wood ribs are inserted. Upon
these transverse ribs longitudinal battens are lashed, to serve as flooring,
while the outer watertight covering is formed of well- stretched tarred
canvas; the thwarts and seats, afterwards inserted, add somewhat to the
strength. There is no keel, and this peculiarity, combined with the great
rise given to the bow, requires the exercise of considerable skill to keep the
craft in its course if there is a head wind. The canoe represented is
propelled by two pairs of narrow-bladed oars, each oar working on a single
*thole pin, which passes through a wooden block secured to the oar. The
approximate dimensions are : Length, 14 5 ft. ; breadth, 4 ft. ; depth, 2 ft.

The curraghs generally used have three thwarts, and are propelled by
three men and three pairs of oars ; when the wind is favourable a tanned
lug sail is hoisted and the steering is done by the after oars. By the



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