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addition of ballast these somewhat crank canoes are made capable of
standing bad weather, while the construction is so inexpensive that a boat
to carry one ton costs only about 51.



126

406. Royal state barge. Lent by H.M. Queen Victoria,
1883. N. 1602.

This barge was built for Frederick, Prince of Wales (1729-51). It has
taken part in several state processions and was last so used in 1849 to
convey Prince Albert from Whitehall Stairs to the City on the occasion of
the opening of the Coal Exchange.

In general design the forward portion shows the low freeboard and long
fine entrance of a wherry : amidships the sections are very full and the
maximum breadth is carried to the after end of the state room ; abreast of
this the topsides rise sharply to form an ornamental stern about 8 5 ft.
above the keel-line. The covered state-room is about 7 ft. square and
beyond it is an open steering platform.

The hull is clincher-built of oak with doubling-planks of fir worked
externally below the turn of bilge for half the vessel's length amidships.
There are 11 thwarts or rowing benches, and between each pair some
fore-and-aft planking is fitted to form a continuous central gangway. A
landing-stool is carried for use where no pier is available. Provision is made
for using 21 oars, and the crew consisted of " Royal watermen " wearing
scarlet uniforms with gold badges and black velvet caps. Elaborate
decorative work in red and gold is shown on bow, stern, state-room, and
topsides.

Length, overall, 63 -5 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. ; depth, amidships, 2 '25 ft.

407. Whole model of Venetian gondola. (Scale 1 : 20.)
Received 1900. N. 2210.

This is typical of the native passenger boats used on the canals of
Yenice.

It has flat floors amidships with sharp upturned extremities. The bow
is fitted with an ornamental iron plate that is supposed to be a survival of
a form of ram, but is now of use as a sighting point in determining the
clearance beneath the numerous low canal bridges. Midway in the length
is a closed saloon, the full width of the boat, but the earlier gondolas had
only a light arched frame carrying a gaudily- coloured covering open at each
end. In the 16th centuiy an edict was issued rendering the use of black
hangings and decorations compulsory.

In 1645 Evelyn wrote : " Taking a gondola, which is their water-coach
" (for land ones there are many old men in this city who never saw one, or
" rarely a horse), we rode up and down the channells, which answer to our
" streets. These vessels are built very long and narrow, having necks and
" tails of steele, somewhat spreading at the beake like fishe's taile, and kept
" so exceedingly polish' d as to give great lustre : some are adorned with
" carving, others lined with velvet (commonly black) with curtains and
tassells, and the seates like couches, to lie stretch'd on, while he who
rows stands upright on the very edge of the boate, and with one oar
bending forward as if he would fall into the sea, rows and turns with
incredible dexterity. The beakes of these vessels are like the ancient
Roman rostrums."

This description applies to the gondolas at the present time, except that
sometimes they are propelled by two men, one forward and one aft. Steam
launches, often worked on our omnibus system, are, however, superseding
these boats for general traffic in Yenice.

The usual dimensions of these vessels are : Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ;
draught, 75 ft.

408. Built models of Maltese boats. (Scales 1 : 24 and
1 : 32.) Received 1902. N. 2293.

These two examples have the high projecting stem and stern posts,
together with the bright colouring and ornamentation, so generally found
on Mediterranean craft. A wash-strake is fitted above the gunwale and,



127

internally along the sides, are special troughs or lockers for the stowage of
nets, fish and merchandise, but serving also as seats.

The smaller model (green) represents a waterman's boat, used principally
for the transport of passengers and native produce between ships and the
shore, within the large harbours at Yaletta. It is of light draught, with
fine lines and considerable sheer, and is propelled by one or two men who
stand at the forward end of the boat : a small sail is also sometimes used.
To give protection from the weather, a canvas awning is spread over a light
framework at the after end.

Length, 20 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; draught, 1 5 ft.

The larger model (red) represents a boat with fuller lines and of greater
breadth and draught, used for fishing or for general trading purposes
between Malta and the neighbouring islands of G-ozo and Comino. It is
usually propelled by means of a large lateen sail, the mast and yard for which
are shown in the model.

Length, 27 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; draught, 2-5 ft.

409. Drawings of pleasure and racing craft. Lent by
Messrs. Searle and. Sons, 1873. N. 1336.

The following classes of boats are here represented; the length and
breadth of each are given in feet :

Single sculling outrigged gig, 24 by 2 '66. Sailing gig, with centre-
board, 20 by 4'5. Four-oared gig, 35 by 3*4. Four-oared gig, 35 by 4*5.
Counter-stern canoe, 16. Single sculling gig, 18 by 3 '5. Eight-oared
outrigged racer, 57 by 2 '16. Four-oared outrigged racer, 42 by 1*75.
Pair-oared outrigger racer, 35 by 1'4. Single sculling skiff, 22 by 3 -5.
Randan skiff, 27 by 4 '5. Sailing canoe, 15 by 3 -16. Pair-oared skiff,
20 by 4 5. Double sculling gig, 28 by 2 5. Double sculling gig, 26 by 3 8.
Double sculling gig (two examples), 24 by 3 '66. Outrigged racer, with
sliding seat, 32 by 1. Bob Boy canoe, 14 by 2-16. Four-oared outrigged
gig, 38 by 2 -4. Four-oared gig, 24 by 3 '4. Lake boat, 20 by 4-75.
Dinghey, 12 by 4-5.

410. Built model of Thames pleasure skiff. (Scale 7:48.)
Lent by H. E. Finn, Esq., 1885. N. 1676.

This shows an accurately-fitted pair-oared pleasure skiff, for river use,
to accommodate four people. These boats are usually clincher-built with
ash timbers, cedar planking, and oak gunwales and thwarts ; the boat
represented is of the following dimensions :

Length, 24 ft. ; breadth, 3 75 ft. ; depth, 1 16 ft.

411. Whole model of man-of-war's whaler gig. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by Capt. H.S.H. Count Gleichen, R.N. 1883.

N. 1592.

This represents a boat formerly in general use in the Boyal Navy as the
captain's gig or galley. She was built by Mr. White at Cowes, I. of W., in
1857, for the captain of the " Bacoon." She is fitted as a lifeboat, with air
chambers at each end and along each side ; she pulls six oars, and would
have two dipping lug sails.

Length, 30 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2 '25 ft.

412. Whole model of gun launch. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented
by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., 1865. N. 1057.

This is a design by Mr. J. Tucker for a boat of shallow draught and
broad beam, probably intended to be carried on the paddle-boxes (see
Nos. 72 and 75).

The chief peculiarity is a slide from bow to stem in which a gun can
travel fore-and-aft. There are ammunition boxes and shot racks along the
side and under the seats ; she rows 14 oars.



128

413. Whole models of nested boats. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by
G. Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1083.

This construction of boat, patented by Mr. Fawcus in 1862, permits any
number of identical boats to be fitted one inside another.

When stacked together the fender strakes of the upper boat rest on the
gunwales of the one beneath it, and so on, each assisting in preserving the
shape of its neighbour.

These boats are clincher-built, but have the three top strakes notched
into the frames ; the thwarts rest upon chocks between the frames and are
secured by metal straps and pins. Further details of this system are shown
on adjacent engravings of lifeboats and pontoons.

414. Built models of row boats. (Scales 1 : 24 and 1 : 12.)
Received 1899. N. 2195.

These illustrate the general constructional features of small rowing boats
for coast or sea-service. The smaller model represents a 20 ft. clincher-
built gig of four oars, and the larger model a 15 ft. clincher-built dinghey
of one or two pairs of oars.

415. Rigged model of Douro wine boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Pre-
sented by Messrs. Martinez, Gassiot & Co., 1901. N. 2258.

This represents the class of boat used for the conveyance of wine in
barrels, and other produce, on the river Douro. The hull is spoon- shaped
and has a large amount of overhang at both bow and stem ; there is con-
siderable sheer and it is fitted with deep washboards amidships. A single
mast is provided, which carries a large square sail, for use when the wind is
perfectly fair ; at all other times progress against the stream is made by
towing, performed either by the crew or by two or three yoke of oxen. A large
block is carried in the bow for use when warping up stream through the
rapids, and poles are provided for propelling the boat in shallow water.
Steering is accomplished by a long and peculiarly shaped sweep, working
on a thole pin fitted in the stern post, and controlled by a man on a steering
platform, quick manoeuvring being essential on the rapid bends of the river ;
sleeping accommodation for the crew is provided in a covered space aft.

These boats vary considerably in size, the largest carrying about 80 pipes
of wine and the smallest 10 pipes ; their draught of water is from 5 ft. to 2 ft.
The model represents a boat with a carrying capacity of 15 pipes, equivalent
to a load of about 8 tons ; its dimensions would be approximately :

Length, 40 ft.; breadth, 11 ft.; depth, 3 -75 ft.; mast, 30 ft.; yard,
23ft.

416. Whole model of Portuguese fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 15.)
Presented by Walter Child, Esq., 1908. N. 2451.

This native-made model represents a class of boat, known as " saveiro,"
used for sardine fishing at Leixoes (Oporto).

They are of simple box-shaped cross-section, built of pine and fitted with
iron knees and rubbing pieces at the extremities and bilges. Considerable
sheer is given to the topsides and a somewhat similar longitudinal curvature
is repeated in the under- water portion, thus forming a peculiar " rockered "
bottom which gives rapid manoeuvring qualities to these craft. They are
propelled and steered by two long sweeps, each pivoted, when in use, upon
a fixed thole-pin amidships ; a simple sail is sometimes hoisted. Like most
native Portuguese boats, these are painted externally in bright colours.
" Seine " or floating nets are used as for pilchard fishing and are worked
by hand from the stern.

The boats vary in length from about 20 ft. to 33 ft., the example shown
being 25 ft. long and 10 ft. broad.



129

417. Drawings of Portuguese fishing boat. (Scales, profile
1 : 33, sheer plan 1 : 20.) Presented by G. C. Mackrow,

Esq., 1889. N. 1823.

This type of vessel, known as a " muleta," and which for several centuries
was the recognised fishing craft, has now disappeared ; it was to have been
seen off the mouth of the Tagus. It has a short mast, raking forward and
carrying a large lateen yard and sail, also a bowsprit and two booms on
which six sails are set ; at the stern there is an outrigged boom, spreading
two triangular sails. This peculiar arrangement of sails appears to have
been adopted to enable the vessel to remain broadside to the wind, and thus
slowly drift when the nets were down. The rudder reaches below the keel
level.

Length, between perps., 40 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 13 '3 ft. ; depth, 5'1 ft. ;
draught, 2 9 f t.

418. Rigged model of Portuguese fishing boat. (Scale
1 : 16.) Lent by H. C. Bucknall, Esq., 1905. N. 2391.

This vessel, known as a "muleta," was in use for centuries as a fishing
craft off the coast of Portugal, but has finally disappeared within the last
few years. It had a short mast, raking forward and carrying a large lateen
yard and sail, also a bowsprit and two booms on which six sails were set ; at
the stem there was an outrigged boom, spreading two triangular sails. This
peculiar arrangement of sails enabled the vessel to remain broadside to the
wind, and thus slowly drift when dragging the nets. The rudder is shown
considerably below the keel level.

Length, b.p., 45 -6 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 13 -3 ft. ; depth, 5 -2 ft.

419. Rigged model of Heligoland fishing sloop. (Scale 1 : 8.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1628.

This is an open clincher-built boat of oak, with covered spaces at stern
and between the thwarts ; it is flat-bottomed to enable it to be readily beached,
and is consequently sailed with lee-boards. There is a single mast, with a
sprit mainsail, fore-sail, and jib ; as it carries no bowsprit, a spar is tem-
porarily used for setting the jib, while when running free this spar is rigged
out on the beam, with the jib set as a spinnaker. If caught by bad weather
the anchor is dropped and the mast lowered, in which condition the boat
will ride out the heaviest gale with one man constantly bailing. Eight days'
provisions are carried, two anchors, a hemp cable, and about 900 Ib. of stone
ballast.

Length, 31 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; depth, 5 ft. ; draught, 2' 3 ft.

420. Rigged model of Faroese eight-man boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by J. R. Tudor, Esq., 1883. N. 1606.

This represents a boat fully equipped for the chase of the grindefish and
the bottle-nosed whale of the Orkneys.

The eight oars are each 11 75 ft. long, and are pulled double -banked.
There is a foremast, stepped either at the first or at the second thwart ; in
the former position, which is that most generally occupied, the boat is con-
sidered to sail very close to the wind. The mast is 16 ft. high, and carries
a dipping lug on a yard 10 ft. long ; the mizen mast is 13 5 ft. high, and has
a sprit sail.

The whaling instruments consist of : two lances, each 12 in. long and
4 in. broad, fixed on a wooden shaft 6 ft. long, to which a thin line is
attached ; two hooks with lines, for towing the whale when dead ; also a
fishing lead or stone, about 3 Ib. weight, slung on to a long line, and used
for anchoring or for diminishing the boat's way.

Length over all, 28 5 ft. ; length on keel, 16 5 ft, ; breadth, 6 5 ft, ;
depth at stem-head, 6 ft. ; depth at lowest part of gunwale, 3 ft. ; depth
at stern-post, 5 5 ft.

u 6773. I



130

421. Rigged model of North Isles yawl. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by J. Barnett, Esq., 1883. N. 1608.

These fishing boats are constructed of oak and white pine, with
galvanised iron fastenings. They have a pair of oars 14 ft. long, and
another pair 12 ft. ; there are two masts and a bowsprit. The foremast is
stepped 2* 3 ft. from the stem, and the mainmast 9 ft. from the stern-post ;
the bowsprit is 5 ft. outboard and its heel butts against the foremast. The
sails are : a jib, 13 ft. in the hoist, with its foot 6 5 ft. long ; a lug foresail,
12 ft. in the hoist, with its foot 10 ft. and its yard 12 ft, long ; also a boom
mainsail with a hoist of 12 ft., a foot 10 ft., a yard 8*5 ft,, and a boom
11 ft. in length. These boats are now nearly superseded by the " Firthy "
boats, of the east coast of Scotland.

Length over all, 19 -25 ft.; length on keel, 14 ft.; breadth, 7 -5 ft.;
depth at stem-head, 4-6 f t. ; depth at lowest part of gunwale, 3 5 ft. ;
depth at stern-post, 4 4 f t.

422. Rigged model of Shetland fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by J. R. Tudor, Esq., 1883. N. 1605.

These boats, or six-oared yawls, are clincher-built of pine and fastened
with iron; the oars, 16 ft. long, are pulled with one thole-pin and a
grummet. There is a mast 22 ft. high, carrying a yard 18 ft. long, which
spreads a lug sail 18 '5 ft. in the hoist, with reef points at the head and foot
of the sail.

Till about 1860 all the larger Shetland boat s were imported direct from
Norway in boards ready for putting together ; these boats rarely exceeded
18 ft. on the keel, and had a very flat midship section.

Length over all, 29 ft. ; length on keel, 20 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth
at stem-head, 5 ft.; depth amidships, 3*25 ft.; depth at stern-post,
4 -75 ft.

423. Rigged model of Shetland skiff. (Scale 1 : 12.) Pre-
sented by W. Lawrence, Esq., 1883. N. 1607.

These fishing boats are built of fir, with iron fastenings ; they carry
three pairs of oars, each 10 16 ft. long, and have a mast 14 * 5 ft. high,
stepped nearly amidships ; this carries a yard 11 ft. long, spreading a
square sail with a 14 ft. hoist. Three men constitute the crew, and when
rowing pull a short chopping stroke, sometimes at the rate of 45 to
the minute.

Length over all, 22 ft. ; length on keel, 15 5 ft. ; breadth, 5 6 ft. ; depth
at stem-head, 3 5 ft. ; depth at stern-post, 3 25 ft.

424. Built model of fish-carrying boat. (Scale 1 : 4.) Pre-
sented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1614.

This form of boat is used by the North Sea trawlers for conveying their
"takes " of fish to the steamers sent to carry them to the markets. It is
fitted with galvanised iron air tanks under the bow and stem sheets, of
sufficient capacity to ensure buoyancy even if swamped ; two small tanks of
oil are placed aft, for use in rough weather to calm the sea astern and pre-
vent it breaking into the boat, and a line is secured along the keel, to which
the crew can cling should the boat capsize. These boats carry about two
tons, and require two men to manage them.

Length, 17 ft. ; breadth, 6 5 ft. ; depth, 2 75 ft.

425. Built model of fish-carrying boat. (Scale 1 : 6.) Lent
by J. E. Teasdel, Esq., 1896. N. 2080.

This boat is another form of the preceding. It is clincher-built, and, to
prevent being swamped in heavy weather, is fitted with 84 cub. ft. of air



131

casing, arranged at the bow, stern, and under the midship thwart ; about
18 cub. ft. of cork is also placed between the knees of the thwarts and the
rising and gunwale strake. Should extra space be required the midship
tank is dispensed with.

Length, 18 ft. ; breadth, 6 5 f t. ; depth, 2 5 ft.

426. Rigged model of Cornish fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by Q. 0. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1620.

This model represents the form of boat in general use at Mevagissey
for drift fishing. It is lugger-rigged and carries a jib, a fore dipping lug-
sail and a mizen standing lug- sail.

When engaged in mackerel fishing or in the winter pilchard and herring
fishing, the crew consists of five hands, but for summer pilchard fishing
only three hands are necessary.

Register, 11 tons ; length, 38 ft. ; breadth, 11 12 ft. ; depth of hold
6 -16 ft.

427. Whole model of Cornish pilchard-fishing boats. (Scale
1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883.

N. 1616.

Two boats are shown, the larger or " seine " boat being used to carry
and work the large net by which the fish are first enclosed, the smaller
boat, called the " follyer," carrying a lesser net, by which the fish enclosed
by the " seine "are finally captured.

The boats are carvel-built, usually of English oak, fastened with galvanised
iron nails. There is an iron stem and keel band, to prevent damage on the
rocky shore, and a chain bridle for hauling the larger boats up the beach.
The boats are sharp at the bow, but have wide stems to accommodate the
nets, which are of remarkable size, the " seine " net being often 1,080 ft.
long, 72 ft. deep, and weighing 3 tons. The " seine " boat pulls six oars,
which work in circular holes through the top strake, no thole-pins or
rowlocks being used.

" Seine." " Follyer."

Length 38 ft. 20 6 ft.

Breadth 9 6

Depth 4 3

428. Whole model of East Coast coble. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent
by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1423.

These boats are used in the North Sea cod, ling, and haddock fisheries,
each five-man fishing boat carrying two of them. They are clincher-built,
of oak or larch, and are very sharp at the bow. The keel extends about
two-thirds of the boat's length from the bow, while the after part is flat,
with two side keels to facilitate beaching ; the stern is square, and is
provided with a rudder that projects 4 ft. below it. When under sail they
have one mast and a bowsprit, carrying a lugsail and jib. The line fishing
in which they are engaged is performed by three or four men, using six lines
representing a total length of about two miles.

Carrying capacity, 1 ton ; length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 5*5 ft. ; depth, 2 3 ft.

A half block model of a similar boat, lent by T. Turnbull, Esq., 1869, is
also shown (N. 1301).

429. Half block model of Yorkshire "mule." (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by T. Turnbull, Esq., 1869. N. 1302.

These boats are used in the herring fishery off the Yorkshire coast ; their
name is due to their being coble-form forward and yawl- shaped aft. They
carry about 30 nets, each 60 yds. in length and 3 ft. deep.

Carrying capacity, about 6 tons; length, 33 '75 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft.;
depth, 4 -75 ft.

i 2



132

430. Rigged model of Norwegian herring boat. (Scale
1 : 48.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1627.

This is a clincher-built boat of fir, with high stem and stern posts. There
are washboards amidships, and the central thwarts are boarded up under-
neath, so as to form compartments for receiving the fish. At the after end
is a covered space, over which a long tiller, with locking-pins, is worked. She
is fitted with a single mast, carrying a square sail, the yard of which is
secured by a parrel ; she pulls six oars. The drift nets used are shown,
together with their sinkers, floats, and lines attached.

Length, 33 -6 ft. ; breadth, 8-8 ft. ; depth, 2'8 ft. ; mast, 23 -3 ft. long ;
yard, 11 ft. long.

431. Rigged model of Norwegian fish-boat, (Scale 1 : 8.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1626.

These boats, known as " jaegts," are used for the transport of fish in the
Trondhjem district. They are clincher-built of fir, have one mast with a
square sail and topsail, pull ten short spade-shaped oars, and have the
rudder fitted with a short horizontal arm, to which a long tiller working on
a pivot is attached.

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth amidships, 2 ft.

432. Rigged model of Swedish net-fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 5.)
Presented by the Swedish Commissioners to the Fisheries
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1603.

This is a clincher-built boat with sharp floors, and considerable rake of
stern-post ; she is provided with oars, and carries a sprit sail.
Length, 26 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft.

433. Whole models of Swedish fishing boats. (Scale 1:12.)
Lent by Dr. Oscar Dickson, 1883. N. 1596.

These three clincher-built boats are used for net-fishing. They have
sharp floors with great proportional beam to length ; six to eight oars are
used, and also a mast and sprit -sail. Their lengths vary from 21 ft.
to 30 ft.

434. Rigged models of Russian fishing boats. (Scale 1 : 8.)
Presented by the Director of the Imperial Agricultural
Museum, St. Petersburg, 1883. N. 1598.

These represent two classes of boats, used for cod-fishing and walrus-
hunting off the coasts of Russian Lapland. They are clincher-built of fir
and each carries a mast and square sail ; their oars have heavy looms and
long blades.

The twelve-oared boat has fine lines and considerable sheer, and the
rudder is worked by a tiller and yoke-lines. The dimensions are : Length,
29ft. ; breadth, 5'5ft.

The six-oared boat has fuller lines and greater capacity ; it is subdivided
by partitions under the thwarts, and is fitted with a large pump for
discharging water ; the rudder is worked by a horizontal arm lashed to a
side tiller. The dimensions are : Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft.

435. Rigged model of boat for seal-hunting. (Scale 1 : 5.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1625.

This form is used on the Baltic coast. It is a light clincher-built boat
and has its keel shod with iron so that it may be readily drawn over the
ice. It is provided with a mast and square sail, but when proceeding under
sail on the ice, two men with their hands on the lee gunwale run alongside
to prevent capsizing, whilst the skipper steers and steadies the craft by a
projecting cross pole.

Each boat carries one or more double-ended punts, which are so light
that they can be carried by one or two men ; they are used amongst broken



133

ice. To lighten the boat, when ice sailing, a sledge is also carried, upon
which can be stowed the whole of the provisions for the crew of eight men
for several weeks ; the sledge is hauled by some of the hands.

The model is fitted with washboards, cooking apparatus, sealing
implements, etc.

Length, 33 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft.

436. Whole model of Tasmanian seine boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by the Tasmanian Commissioners to the Fisheries
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1612.

This represents a fishing boat used in Tasmania. It is double-ended,



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