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has fine lines, and pulls five oars ; the seine net is carried on a platform
across the stern, and a fair-lead is provided at the bow to facilitate the
handling of the lines.

Length, extreme, 26 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2 ft.

437. Rigged model of Australian fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 3.)
Presented by the New South Wales Commissioners to the
Fisheries Exhibition, 1883. N. 1609.

This represents an open boat, clincher-built of cedar ; it is fitted with
a centre-board, and one mast carrying a sprit mainsail and foresail ; there
are also two oars and two sculls. These boats are much used in Sydney
harbour.

Length, 15 -75 ft. ; breadth, 5-9 ft. ; depth, 2-5 ft.

438. Whole model of a whaling boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) Received
1898. N. 2169.

Although not absolutely to scale, this built model shows in considerable
detail the construction and equipment of the earlier boats used in the whale
fisheries. As the boat must be rapidly moved astern after the whale has
been struck, it is built double-ended, and is steered by a sweep. The
clincher construction represented has, however, now been abandoned, as it
was found that the smooth surface of the carvel build makes less noise and
so reduces the chance of alarming the whale when approaching ; for the
same reason the boat is equipped with paddles as well as oars.

The boat has five thwarts, and in that at the bow are two recesses by
which the harpooner steadies himself as he stands upon a raised floor while
throwing the harpoon. Having planted the weapon, the harpooner takes
charge of the line ; this is composed of soft Manila hemp, well greased, and
is carried in two tubs containing altogether about 1,800 ft. From a tub
the line passes round a bollard or " logger-head " at the stern, then forward
to a fairlead at the bow, and thence to the harpoon. There are notches in
the gunwale near the bow to catch the line should it leave the fairlead, also
for use in straightening a bent harpoon.

After the whale has been exhausted by the exertion of continuously
towing the boat, it is killed by means of a long lance. The boat is equipped
with two harpoons, two lances, and a small drogue or sea anchor ; also some
flags for marking whales or for signalling purposes, and two watertight
receptacles for stores and provisions. A mast and sail are carried, and
frequently a rudder, while in the inner skin, between the thwarts, holes are
provided in which the handles of the oars can be inserted while resting or
being towed by a whale.

Total displacement, 1 ton ; length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 6 8 f t. ; depth,
2 8 ft. ; weight of boat, 1,200 Ib. ; weight of equipment, 300 Ib.

439. Whole model of a whaling boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1355.

This represents a later type of boat than the preceding, and, to reduce
the noise made by the water against its sides, is carvel-built. It has greater
sheer and finer lines than the earlier type, but would be similarly equipped.



134

In still later boats the introduction of a harpoon gun has led to the provision
of a second bollard, upon which the gun is mounted in a swivel.
Length, 30'5 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2 ft.

440. Built model of American whaling boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by the Royal United Service Institution, 1903.

N. 2321.

This model accurately represents the type of boat used by American
whalers in the North Pacific Ocean about 1860.

The upper portion of the boat is constructed on the clincher or lapped-
strake system, while the under- water portion is on the carvel or flush- strake
principle, with an inside covering-strip to each seam. Additional strength
is given by a stout " ceiling," or strakes of planking on the inside of the
frames below the thwarts. Oak is chiefly used for the framing, cedar for
the planking, and galvanised iron for the fastenings.

There is a single mast with a dipping lug-sail. Oars are provided for a
crew of five men, and there is a large steering- sweep for which a projecting
rowlock is fitted at the stern-post. Harpoons and a hand-lance are shown
as the equipment, but bomb-lances, propelled by shoulder guns, are now
very generally used ; " toggle-irons " or harpoons with hinged barbs are
also substituted for the simple harpoons, as they take a firmer hold of the
whale.

The usual dimensions of these boats are : Length, 27 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. ;
depth, amidships, 2 5 ft.

441. Whole model of surf canoe. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by
Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1351.

This boat was constructed for landing through the surf on the West
Coast of Africa. She is carvel-built of whaler type with considerable
sheer ; air cases are formed around the sides under the thwarts, and movable
air cases are provided in the bow and stern. She pulls six oars, and her
dimensions are : Length, 31 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. ; depth, 2 3 f t. ,

442. Whole model of ambulance surf boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1353.

This represents one of the smaller boats built for the War Department
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son for conveying the sick and wounded from the
shore to the hospital ship off Cape Coast Castle, during the Ashanti
campaign of 18734.

These boats were built sharp at both ends, with great sheer ; the keel,
stem, and stern-post were formed of one length, bent by steam, so as to
avoid the weakness due to joints ; foi* the same reason other parts, such as
gunwales, stringers, frames, and sheer mouldings were in single pieces.
The boats were copper fastened, and constructed with an inner lining
forming a second skin. There were platforms forward and amidships, with
fittings for ambulance stretchers, and a waterproof awning to protect the
patients from the sun and spray.

The boat represented carried twenty-four passengers, and was propelled
by twelve natives sitting close to the gunwales and working paddles, the
coxswain steering with a sweep.

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2-25 ft.

443. Whole models of Berthon's collapsible boats. (Scale
1 : 12 and 1 : 16.) Lent by the Rev. E. L. Berthon, M.A.,
1867. N. 1163.

This construction of boat was patented in 1851 by the contributor, who
in 1879 and 1886 also introduced further modifications in the arrangements.
Owing to the small space they occupy when not in use and their extreme
portability, they have been very extensively adopted. The frames of these
boats are constructed of wood or iron, and are arranged longitudinally in



135

segments which are strongly hinged together at the ends ; these frames support
a flexible double covering, arranged as an outer and an inner skin, formed of
tarred canvas. The space between the double skins is divided by the frames
into from six to ten watertight compartments ; the bottom-boards, thwarts,
and seats are similar to those in an ordinary boat, and when in position give
considerable rigidity to the whole construction. Oars or sails may be used,
and the boats may be fitted with rudders. The two models, one of which is
shown closed for stowing, represent twelve-oared boats, each capable of
carrying 200 troops and having the following dimensions : Weight, about
70 cwt. ; length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth, 6-25 ft.

444. Whole model of steam pinnace'. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1184.

This boat was designed for the ships of war proposed by the late Yice-
Admiral E. P. Halsted. It was to be constructed of steel, to pull twenty
oars, and to have two masts, carrying foresail, mainsail and jib ; first-rates
(see No. 98) were to have two of these pinnaces.

The engines were to indicate 40 h.p., and give a speed of 8 knots. One
ton of fuel was to be carried, and the armament was to consist of two 10-pr.
Whitworth guns, protected by a shield and mounted on a turntable.

Load displacement, 17 tons ; length, 45 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth,
4-5 ft.; draught, 2 -8 ft.

445. Whole model of steam cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1184.

This boat was designed for the type of warship proposed by the late
Yice- Admiral E. P. Halsted. It was to be constructed of steel, to pull ten
oars, and under sail was to have two masts, carrying a foresail, main-sail,
and jib ; his first-rates were to have four of these cutters.

The engines were to indicate 25 h.p., drive a single screw, and give a
speed of 7 ' 5 knots. Steam was to be supplied by a return tube cylindrical
boiler, to the end of which the vertical engine was secured. The whole of
this machinery could be lifted out and be replaced by seats and thwarts for
rowers. These cutters were to carry 75 ton of fuel, and to be armed with
two 2-pr. Whitworth guns, protected with an iron shield and mounted on a
turntable.

Load displacement, 8 tons ; length, 35 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth, 23 5 ft. ;
draught, 2 ft.

446. Whole model of steam cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1184.

This boat resembles No. 445, but was intended for Admiral Halsted's
sixth-rate vessels, each of which was to carry four of them.

The engines and armament were to be identical with those of No. 445.

Load displacement, 7 tons ; length, 30 ft. ; breadth, 7 5 ft. ; depth,
3-25 ft.; draught, 2ft.

447. Half block model of S.S. " Mab." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent
by Geo. Baird, Esq., 1876. N. 1462.

This screw steamer was built of brass at St. Petersburg in 1874 by
Mr. Baird, and at the time was the fastest boat on the Neva. The screw is
far aft, and extends considerably below the keel level.

She was propelled by a two-stage expansion engine with cylinders 7 in.
and 11 in. diam., by 8 in. stroke, which with a steam pressure of 120 Ib.
drove the single screw at 600 revs, per min., and gave a speed of 16*5
knots.

Length, 48 ft. ; breadth, 6 5 ft. ; depth at side, 3 5 ft. ; draught, 1 ' 6 ft. ;
draught over screw, 2 75 ft.



136



DECKED CRAFT.

448. Rigged model of 18th. century Dutch schuyt, " Four
Brothers." (Scale 1 : 24.) Received 1871. N. 1329.

Although not modelled absolutely to scale, this represents a vessel built
about 1778 for the Dutch eel fisheries ; it is also typical of craft used for a
similar purpose at the present day.

These vessels are strongly built, usually of oak, with flat floors and full
bow and stern ; they are fitted with a central well in communication with
the sea for transporting live cargo. This vessel is shown sloop-rigged with
single mast and bowsprit; it carries a sprit mainsail and topsail, also a
square topsail, fore staysail and jib. Lee-boards are provided and the vessel
is steered by a large rudder. The topsides and deck-fittings are ornamented
with wood carving. A master and two men constitute the crew.

Burden, about 50 tons ; length, 70 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; depth, 7 ft.

The Dutch have the right of mooring three of these vessels off Billings-
gate Market, a privilege granted in the reign of Charles I. in recognition
" of their straightforward dealings with us."

449. Rigged model of Dutch galliot (1800-50). (Scale 1 : 48.)
Received 1910. N. 2549.

This represents an early 19th century galliot of the Dutch or Flemish
type, used both for trading and fishing purposes.

It is two-masted, and rigged somewhat similarly to an old-fashioned
ketch or modern topsail schooner ; on the single-pole foremast is carried a
trysail, a square topsail, top -gallant sail, and usually a flying square sail
on the lower yard ; there is a fore stay-sail and jib, and also a mizen trysail.

Length, 65 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft.

450. Rigged model of Dutch " better." (Scale 1:24.)
Received 1910. N. 2551.

This represents a vessel of the schuyt type used for dip-net fishing in
the Zuyder Zee and adjacent inshore waters.

It is strongly built, of carvel construction, with half-deck forward.
A stout all-round rubbing- strake is fitted, and above this the topsides are
given considerable tumble-home. Stem and stem posts are raked, and the
broad, full bow is of the " swim " or overhang form. There is a single-
pole mast with gaff mainsail and stay foresail.

A davit is fitted to the stern for working the nets, and a tank is provided
for carrying live fish.

Length, over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft.

451. Rigged model of Dutch "pinken." (Scale 1:24.)
Received 1910. N. 2550.

This model of a pink or pinken was originally the property of Edwin
Hayes, R.H.A., B.I., and represents a class of boat belonging to the port
of Scheveningen, and used for drift-net fishing in the North Sea.

It is of the decked barge type, clincher built, with large relative beam,
and a peculiar bulging of the water-line sections on each side of the stem
and stern posts ; capacious holds are provided for carrying fish and tackle.

The single-pole mast carries a boom mainsail, and also a flying square-
sail for running ; a stay foresail and flying jib are also used. A number of
large wooden crutches provide for the stowage of spars, etc., above the deck
level.

Portable wooden fenders and fixed guards amidships protect the hull
against damage in narrow, crowded waterways or at the wharfside.

Dimensions : Length, over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft.



137

452. Rigged model of Thames sailing barge (1800-50).
(Scale 1 : 32.) Received 1910. N. 2547.

This shows an early form of topsail barge as used on the lower reaches
of the Thames for general cargo work.

It differs from No. 455 in having a flat, overhanging bow instead of an
upright stem ; a raised after deck ; a single central hatch ; and a small
mizen-mast, with sprit- sail, carried upon the rudder head instead of a fixed
mizen carried farther forward. The usual lowering mainmast, large sprit
mainsail and topsail, stay foresail and jib, are shown.

Length, 48 ft. ; breadth, 13 ft.

453. Built model of Thames lighter (1850). (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by Messrs. Searle and Sons, 1877. N. 1470.

This shows the details of construction and the fittings of the lighters
used for the conveyance of grain, coal, and other merchandise, on the rivers
in the London district. A portion of the internal planking has been omitted
so as to show the frames.

The vessels are flat-bottomed and have a carrying capacity of from 60 to
80 tons ; they are usually towed, but are provided with two long oars, by
which they can be propelled and steered.

454. Built model of sailing barge. (Scale 1 : 24.) Received
1893. N. 2022.

The model represents what is known as a Harwich barge, a type that
is in general use sailing coastwise between London and Harwich or Sitting-
bourne. A portion of the external planking has been removed from the
port side to show the framing.

The floors are flat amidships, with fine entrance and run. There is a
large hold with two hatchways, and a small forecastle for the two hands,
while aft is a separate cabin for the captain. At the bow is a winch which
is used both for weighing anchor and also for hauling the rigging, and a
large rudder is provided which is steered by a wheel and bevel gear ; lee-
boards are carried, but these are only used when the barge is sailing light.

The usual rig is a sprit mainsail and foresail, and a small mizen or
jigger ; but some carry in addition a gaff topsail and jib. The masts are
made to lower ; in the case of the mainmast the heel is supported by a shore
from the keelson, and the lowering is done by the fore winch.

The usual dimensions of these barges are : Displacement, 150 tons ;
length, 84 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; depth, 6 ft.

455. Rigged model of sailing barge "Thelma." (Scale 1:48.)
Lent by Messrs. Gill and Sons, 1905. N. 2389.

This successful topsail barge was designed, built, and fitted out by
Messrs. Gill and Sons, Rochester, in 1901. She is flat-bottomed with full
water-lines throughout and in general features represents a modern cargo-
carrying barge as used on the Lower Thames.

In her first year she won both the Thames and the Medway Championship
races. The Championship course is usually from Chatham or Gravesend to
fche Mouse lightship and back. All competitors in these races are required
to be genuine freight barges engaged in trade, using no ballast or false
keels, and carrying the ordinary working sails and lee-boards.

Her register tonnage is 49 76 tons, and her approximate dimensions,
taken from the model, are : Length, 84 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. ; depth, 6 ft.

This type of boat forms an interesting link between the pleasure yacht
and the trading vessel, and, as speed and comfort are readily obtainable in
its design, it has served to some extent as a model for pleasure craft of the
" barge-yacht " and " Norfolk wherry " classes, used for cruising in tidal
rivers or shallow waters.



138



"



456. Rigged model of oyster-dredging boat " Secret.
(Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by F. Wiseman, Esq., 1883. N. 1600.

This represents a boat built at Wivenhoe, Essex, in 1856, for the fisheries
at the mouth of the Thames. She is fitted with a deep lead keel and is
cutter-rigged, with boom mainsail, gaff-topsail, foresail, and jib ; the crew
consists of three hands.

Register, 11 tons ; length over all, 33 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth,
4 5 ft. ; draught forward, 3 5 ft. ; draught aft, 5 75 ft.

457. Rigged model of a Yarmouth, fishing vessel, " Celt."
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883.

N. 1613.

This represents a ketch-rigged fishing boat, built, in 1883, for drift fishing
in the North Sea. The sails set are a foresail, jib, mainsail, and mizen ; the
mainmast is fitted in a tabernacle, so that when required it can be lowered
till the head rests in the crutch shown on deck. The lumber irons on each
side are for oars, spare spars, &c. ; a steam capstan is fitted to assist in
hauling in the nets, and on the deck are the sorting trays. The number of
the crew is six when trawling, and nine when herring fishing.

Register, 36 tons ; length, 59 -5 ft. ; breadth, 16 -8 ft. ; depth, 7-7 ft.

458. Half block model of trawler. (Scale 1 : 24.) Received
1882. N. 1579.

This represents a trawling ketch, built at Rye for the South Coast
fisheries. In the rail, at about mid-length, is a hole and roller to accom-
modate the trawl warp.

Register, 45 tons ; length, 68 ft. ; breadth, 16 ft. ; depth, 9 ft.

459. Whole model of a Yarmouth trawler. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by John Bracey, Esq., 1876. N. 1461.

This is a cutter-rigged vessel, carvel-built of oak, and carries a crew of
six men. The usual fishing grounds are the Clay Deeps, Doggerbank, and
the neighbourhood of Heligoland.

Register, 60 tons ; length, 65 ft. ; breadth, 18 5 ft. ; depth, 9 5 ft.

460. Rigged model of Cornish fishing boat " Emulator."
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883.

N. 1619.

This represents a Penzance drift-net boat which is used, according to
season, in the herring, mackerel, or pilchard fishery. She is carvel-built and
is lugger-rigged ; the foremast carries a dipping lug, and the mizen a standing
lug with topsail. She carries sweeps in the lumber irons, and would have a
crew of six men and a boy.

Some years ago one of these boats made the passage to Australia.

Register, 20 tons; length over all, 47 ft. ; breadth, 13 -5 ft. ; depth, 7 ft.

461. Rigged model of Guernsey fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1617.

This represents a boat used in the mackerel fishery ; it has three masts,
carrying mizen, mainsail, foresail, jib, and gaff topsail. This rig permits of
sail being easily and quickly shortened, while in light weather the spread of
canvas is considerable ; they are able to keep at sea in all weathers, and are
fast sailers. The crew consists of six hands.

Register, 12 tons ; length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 8 ft,



139

462. Half block model of Whitby fishing boat. (Scale 1: 24.)
Lent by T. Turnbull, Esq., 1869. N. 1300.

These vessels are used for herring and also line fishing ; they each cany
nine men, three for each of their two cobles, and three for the remaining
crew. At one time they had three masts ; the rig was afterwards altered to
two lugs, and now they are dandy-rigged.

Register, 45 tons ; length, 57 ft. ; breadth, 17 ft. ; depth, 8 '3 ft.

463. Rigged model of Lancashire shrimping boat. (Scale
1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883.

N. 1618.

This represents a Southport boat with its four shrimping nets. Whilst
over the fishing ground the boat is allowed to drift with the wind or tide,,
so dragging her nets along the bottom. She is rigged as a cutter, with
mainsail, foresail, jib, and gaff topsail.

Register, 10 tons ; length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 4 -5 ft.

464. Rigged model of North Sea trawler " Gratitude."
(Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by Edward Jex, Esq., 1882.

N. 1572.

This represents a Lowestoft trawler, manned by a crew of five. She is
ketch-rigged, with mizen, mizen gaff topsail, boom mainsail, gaff topsail,,
foresail, and jib. The deck fittings are all shown, as well as her small boat,
trawl-net and beam, etc.

Register, 89 tons ; length, 72 ft. ; breadth, 19 5 ft. ; depth, 12 ft.

465. Rigged model of Manx fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1615,

This is a built and completely fitted model of a Castletown lugger. She
has two masts, the foremast carrying a dipping lug and the mizen a standing
lug ; there is also a mizen gaff topsail and staysail. The crew consist of
five men, and her dimensions would be : Register, 34 tons ; length, 56 ft ;
breadth, 14 "75 ft. ; depth, 8 -25 feet.

466. Rigged model of Manx fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1622.

This represents a Peel boat, used in the herring and mackerel fisheries.
She is dandy-rigged, with mizen, boom mainsail, gaff topsail, foresail, and
jib.

Register, 50 tons ; length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 16 ft. ; depth, 10'75 ft.

467. Rigged model of Manx fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1621.

This shows the type of boat used in the herring fishery. She is lugger-
rigged, the foremast carrying a dipping lug and the mizen a standing lug ;
there is also a mizen gaff topsail and staysail. She is provided with sweeps,
which are shown in their lumber irons.

Register, 24 tons ; length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 12-25 ft. ; depth, 6-5 ft.

468. Rigged model of well vessel u City of London.""
(Scale 1 : 16.) Received 1883. N. 1595.

This ketch-rigged vessel was built at Rye in 1883 by Mr. J. C. Hoad^
for the North Sea and Iceland cod fisheries. The model shows on the
starboard side the construction and interior of the wells, and on the other
the plank fastenings and numerous circular holes for the free circula-
tion of water through the wells, in which the fish are kept alive for the
market.

A complete suit of sails for this model is also shown.

Register, 88 tons ; length, 77 -3 ft.; breadth, 20 "3 ft, ; depth, 12 -2 ft.



140

469. Rigged model of Scotch fishing boat " Duchess of
Edinburgh." (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas,
Esq., 1883. N. 1623.

The boats formerly used in herring fishing off the E. coast of Scotland
were from 60 ft. to 80 ft. long, 18 ft. to 20 ft. beam, with a register tonnage
of from 25 to 40 tons. They were rigged with a dipping lug and jib on
the foremast and a mizen or jigger on the mizen mast. The foresail
was large, containing from 300 to 350 sq. yds. of canvas, and in bad
weather when wet became almost unmanageable ; the boats had neither
bulwarks nor rails higher than 9 in., and many of the fishermen were lost
overboard.

The model shows an improved construction of boat which has been
extensively adopted. It has protective rails to enable the crew to work in
greater safety, and also a well for the helmsman. Instead of the lug, it has
the smack rig, which two hands can work in any weather. The mast turns
on a pivot about 3 ft. above deck, with stays on each side, which always
remain taut, even when the mast is lowered, as is necessary while the boat
is riding on the nets when fishing ; the mast is lowered by two men working
on a deck winch.

The crew consists of six or seven men, but these also attend to the nets
and fish.

Register, 25 tons ; length, 52 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; depth, 8 ft.

470. Rigged model of Scotch fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Received 1910. N. 2552.

This represents a small example of the " fife " or " fifie " type of fishing
craft belonging to the port of Leith ; it is generally used for haddock or
small line fishing in the Firth of Forth, and sometimes for winter herring
fishing.

It is double-ended, with fine entrance and run, and nearly vertical stem
and stern posts. Before 1850 most of these vessels were open and of light



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