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between it and the earlier boat of 1861 (see No. 496).

A disc suspended on one of the stays of the main carriage is used as a
turntable, while on the opposite side is a roller skid. The life-boat is
hauled out of the water on roller skids, but when it is required to change
the direction in which the boat is being hauled she is put on the turntable.

Length, extreme, 33 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth amidships, 3 3 ft.

499. Whole model of a whaler gig as a life-boat. (Scale
1 : 16.) Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1347.

This boat was constructed for H.M.S. " Sylvia." She has movable air
chambers in the bow and stern, and air cases along the sides under the
thwarts ; she pulls five oars and has the usual fittings for sailing.

Length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 5-6 ft. ; depth, 2-5 ft.

500. Whole model of life-boat cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1348.

This represents an ordinary man-of-war's cutter fitted as a life-boat by
the addition of air cases along the side under the thwarts and movable air
cases at the bow and stern. She would pull ten oars double-banked, and
have the usual sailing appliances.

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 7 -25 ft. ; depth, 2-83 ft.

K 2



148

501. Whole model of: life-boat cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1350.

This represents a life-boat built for the SS. " Yestal " of the Corporation
of the Trinity House. There are movable air cases in the bow and stem,
and along the sides under the thwarts. She has two bollards forward and
one aft ; she pulls five oars and is also fitted for sailing.

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. ; depth, 2 3 ft.

502. Whole model of self-righting cutter life-boat. (Scale
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1349.

This boat is built with bow and stern alike, air cases under the thwarts
and close to the side, movable air cases in the bow and stern, and delivery
valves to readily discharge any water shipped.

Length.. 28 ft. ; breadth, 7'5 ft. ; depth, 3 -16 ft.

503. Whole model of steam cutter with air chambers.
(Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873.

N. 1352.

This represents a steam launch for the use of ships and yachts ; it is
fitted with air cases in the bow and stern and under the thwarts close to the
side, so as to make it unsinkable by swamping.

Length, 26 ft. ; breadth, 6 5 ft. ; depth, 3 25 ft.

504. Whole model of a jet-propelled steam life-boat. (Scale
1 : 12.) Lent by Messrs. R. and H. Green, 1894. N. 2034.

This represents a life-boat designed and built by Mr. J. F. Green in
1893. The boat is fitted with engines which, on land, drive two travelling
wheels placed about amidships and, at sea, work a centrifugal pump, which
drives a stream of water through certain pipes placed below the water-line,
the reaction of the issuing jet propelling the boat. When the boat is
travelling on shore it rests upon three wheels, the one at the bow being
spherical and carried freely upon a swivel axis. The boat enters the water
stem first, and when afloat the two midship wheels are raised into their
chambers by letting go the after tackles, and are retained there by the
forward tackles, the engines then propelling the boat by the centrifugal
pump.

There are four outlet pipes, two turned forward and two aft. When
required to move ahead the two forward ones are closed by suitable valves
and the two aft pipes are opened. The boat's speed is stated to be 8 knots.
To turn the vessel to port, the forward port and the after starboard pipes
are opened, and the others closed ; she will then turn in her own length.
She can be quickly stopped in a very short distance by closing the stern
pipes and opening the forward ones. Other boats of this kind are provided
with pipes at the sides leading off perpendicularly to the length of the boat ;
these are used for putting off, broadside-on, from a wreck.

By using water-tube boilers steam is got up in 15 minutes. The boat
will travel at full speed for 30 hours, with an expenditure of 3 tons
of coal.

The crew numbers 9 men, and there is room for 30 passengers in
addition.

Length, 50 ft. ; beam, moulded, 12 ft. ; draught, loaded, 3 '25 ft.

505. Rigged model of non-self-righting sailing life-boat.
(Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by the Royal National Life-Boat
Institution, 1903. Plate VI., No. 5. N. 2301.

Until 1882 nearly all of the life-boats in the service of the Institution
were of the " self-righting " type, illustrated by the models No. 496 and
No. 498. Since then, in deference to the wishes of local crews, a number
of " non- self -lighting " boats have been constructed, for use principally on



149

the coasts of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cheshire, and Lancashire, with the
result that at the close of 1901 about one-fifth of the total number of the
Institution's life-boats were of this type.

The model represents one of the non- self -righting boats, built in 1902,
to the designs of Mr. G. L. Watson, and differs from the self-righting con-
struction in having less sheer and lower air- casings at the extremities, while
the beam is increased. Air compartments are fitted at each end of the
boat, as well as above and below the thwarts on each side. Believing tubes
and valves, 12 in number, provide for the automatic discharge of water from
the deck, while a weather-board or " breakwater " across the foremost casing
affords some protection from head seas.

A steel casting, weighing 3 * 5 tons, forms part of the main keel of the
boat and gives the necessary stability, but water tanks are frequently added
to carry additional ballast when required. Two bilge-keels on each side
minimise rolling and at the same time strengthen and protect the structure.

For sailing purposes two lug-sails and a fore-sail are used, carried on
masts whose heels are fitted in tabernacles for convenience in raising and
lowering. Two drop-keels are provided for use in reducing leeway when
sailing, and oars are carried for a crew of 12 men ; there are, moreover,
three large steering sweeps in addition to a rudder.

The boat is kept in a boat-house and launched by means of a slipway.

Length, over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 11 ft. ; depth, amidships, 4 '25 ft.



STEAM TUG BOATS.

506. Half block model of triple-screw tug boat. (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by George Scott, Esq., 1877. N. 1484.

This iron-built tug, for river use, is fitted with twin screws at the stem
and one screw at the bow in her fore-foot ; each screw is driven by a separate
and independent engine.

Length, over all, 80 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; mean draught, 2 75 ft.

507. Whole model of paddle tug "Albatross." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Messrs. Hepple & Co., 1882. N. 1583.

This iron paddle-wheel tug-boat was built at South Shields in 1878.
Her engine is of the side-lever type, with one cylinder 40 25 in. diam. by
54-in. stroke, and her speed is 13 knots.

Gross register, 139 tons ; length, 140 ft. ; breadth, 19 ft. ; depth, 8 '25 ft.

508. Whole model of screw tug " Victor." (Scale 1 : 24.)
Lent by Messrs. Duncan Bros., 1885. N. 1690.

This tug was built of steel at Glasgow in 1884 by Mr. W. S. Gumming.
She has three bulkheads and a teak deck.

The engines are two- stage expansion and surface-condensing ; the slide
valves are driven by Bremme's valve gear (see No. 867). The boiler is of
the single furnace, return multi-tubular type, constructed for a working
pressure of 80 Ib. The propeller 'is a three-bladed Duncan's (see No. 1005).

Length, 45 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 6 '5 ft,

509. Photographs of salvage and towing steamers " Kathleen "
and " Narciso Deulofeu." Presented by Messrs. Cox & Co.,
1890. N. 1836-7.

These small steel screw tugs, for coast and harbour service, were built
and engined at Falmouth in 1888-9 by Messrs. Cox & Co.

They are fitted with three-stage expansion engines, which indicate 600
and 460 h.p. respectively, and give a speed of 12 knots.

The " Kathleen " belongs to the Rangoon Port Commissioners, and has
the following particulars : Gross register, 190 tons ; length, 121 ft. ;
breadth, 19-5 ft.



150

510. Whole model of steam tug and despatch boat. (Scale
1 : 24.) Lent by Edward Hayes, Esq., 1890. N. 1840.

This twin-screw river steamer was built of steel at Stony Stratford in
1889, to the order of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, for use as a steam tug
and despatch boat. Her speed is 14 knots.

Length, 66 ft. ; breadth, 11 ft. ; draught, 4 ft.

511. Print of the salvage S.S. "Novorossisk." (Scale 1 : 32.)
Lent by Messrs. R. S. Newall & Co., 1892. N. 2002.

The " Novorossisk " was built of steel and engined by Messrs. Newall &
Co. in 1890, for use as a tug and salvage steamer in the Black Sea.

The screw propeller is driven by a two- stage expansion engine of 300
indicated h.p., with cylinders 16-25 and 32 '5 in. diam., by 22 -in. stroke.
Steam at 100 Ib. pressure is supplied by a single-ended boiler, 11 ft. diarn.
by 9 5 ft. long. On trial her speed was 9 5 knots.

The pumping machinery consists of a 15 -in. centrifugal pumping engine,
capable of throwing 4,100 gals, of water per rnin., and provided with five
8-in. suction branches ; also a Worthington duplex fire pump, which will
discharge 750 gals, of water per min. through four 3 5-in. fire hoses.

Length, between perps., 80 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 17 ft. ; depth, 10 ft. ;
gross register, 85 tons.



BOATS' FITTINGS.

512. Model of Clifford's boat-lowering apparatus. (Scale 1 : 10.)
Lent by A. Batten, Esq., 1868. N. 1202.

This arrangement was patented by Mr. Charles Clifford in 1853, and
improved in 1856 and 1858. The boat is hung from hooks on the davits
by tapered ropes, which, after passing through friction blocks that prevent
side rolling, are wound on a roller secured under a thwart ; the ends of the
ropes are, however, free. The boat is lowered by its own weight, controlled
by a rope -brake on the roller.

This apparatus was extensively adopted in H.M. Navy and mercantile
marine.

513. Model of boat-lowering apparatus. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Presented by F. J. Sweeting, Esq., 1874. N. 1391.

This arrangement was patented by Mr. Sweeting in 1872. In order that
the lowering should be under the control of one man, the ropes are attached
to a winch barrel inside the ship. For raising, the barrel is rotated by a
ratchet wheel and pawl, while for lowering there is a strap brake. The boat
can also be lowered independently of this, as the davits are hinged so that
they can swing downwards when released by a block and tackle attached to the
mast. The disengaging gear consists of a curved bar at each end of the boat ;
these bars act as hooks for retaining the supporting ropes, and are locked
down by two bolts, which are simultaneously withdrawn by a lever fitted
amidships.

514. Iron blocks for boat disengaging gear. Presented by G.
Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1080.

These special forms of snatch block were introduced by Mr. Fawcus.

The first has an open jaw closed by a hook, which can be turned on its
pivots by pulling a lanyard ; a retaining safety-pawl is also added.

In the second the .jaw is closed by a pin which is released by turning a
slotted socket.



151

515. Boat disengaging gear. Presented by the Rev. J. M.
Kilner, 1878. ' N. 1506.

This gear was patented by Mr. Kilner in 1867 and 1870. At each end
of the boat a special shackle is fixed, which nips the lifting chains ; each
shackle can be released by lanyards.

516. Model of boat chocks. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by G.
Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1082.

This shows an arrangement for stowing boats inboard; the upper
portions of each set of chocks, instead of being fixed or hinged, are capable
of transverse adjustment by means of metal slides.

517. Iron fittings for securing boats' thwarts. Presented by
G. Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1080c.

These show a complete set of full-size straps and pins used for con-
necting the portable thwarts of nesting boats with the sides. (See No 413.)
A ring-bolt secured through the upper part of each vertical strap provides
an attachment for the boat's lifting and disengaging gear.

518. Model of boat davits. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by G.
Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1081.

The davits are tied back to fixed posts, round which they can slew ; the
davits of adjacent boats can be attached to a single post, thus permitting
the boats to be closer together than usual.

519. Boat-detaching apparatus. Lent by Messrs. Hill and
Clark, 1874. N. 1384.

This apparatus for automatically releasing a ship's boat when it reaches
the water was patented in 1870-2 by Mr. E. J. Hill.

The boat is suspended from the lowering tackle by two rings, engaging
with trip hooks secured in its bow and stern. These hooks are double-
pointed, and the rings after being passed over the outer points, are hooked
to the inner in the ordinary manner. When the boat becomes water-borne
the rings fall loosely, and the outer points acting as guides so control their
movements that they cannot re-engage with the inner hooks. The rings
are connected by a horizontal rope which pulls them towards each other,
and, by transmitting a portion of the pull on each ring to the other, ensures
that neither is detached until both ends of the boat are water-borne. The
hooks are provided with hinged claws for use when about to lift a boat, but
these are to be turned back before lowering.

520. Model of boat disengaging gear. (Scale 1 : 32.) Lent
by J. A. R. Clark, Esq., 1902. N. 2294.

This gear, for rapidly and simultaneously releasing the two ends of a
lowered boat, was patented in 1898 by Lieut.-Col. G-. S. A. Ranking, and
subsequently improved by Mr. Clark,

The boat is supported at both ends by chains, from a pair of levers
suspended from the davits and having their free ends brought together
over the middle of the boat, and there retained by a slip chain secured to
the keel. When the central chain is released the two levers are free to turn
and tlms liberate the end chain, so that the boat is cast off. To give more
rigidity to the arrangement and also to prevent the released levers from
causing injury they are connected where they meet by a strong knuckle-joint
which prevents any downward or sideway movement.

521. Model of quadrant boat davits. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent
by A. Welin, Esq., 1905. N. 2361.

This shows a device for rapidly lowering a boat, patented by Mr. A,
WeJin in 1900-1,



152

The lower portion of each davit consists of a toothed quadrant rolling on
a fixed horizontal rack, while a block pivoted to the davit at the centre of
the quadrant slides on a horizontal guide bar and carries a nut through
which a running screw actuating the davit passes. Owing to the screws for
each pair of davits being threaded right and left handed, the men at the
driving handles face each other and can see the progress of both davits as
they roll outboard until the boat is sufficiently clear of the ship's side to be
lowered by the falls. The rolling of the quadrants on the racks gives the
davits a horizontal motion outboard, and also makes the load leverage less
than it would be if davits turning on fixed centres were used.

By passing the falls over fixed pulleys before attaching them to the
belaying pins on the davits, a differential motion is introduced which reduces
the work required to return the boat inboard by causing it to drop relatively
to the upper ends of the davits during that operation.

The inner portions of the boat's chocks are fixed to the deck, but the
outer portions consist of pieces which are supported by links hinged to the
deck, and are held in position by rods engaging with catches secured to
the inner chocks. "When the boat is fully prepared for lowering these rods
are rapidly released and the driving screws started. The passing of the falls
over the fixed pulleys, previously referred to, causes the boat to be eased off
the inside chocks and the outside ones are pushed away by the boat itself
as it moves outboard.

522. Bilge-plugs for a boat. Contributed by E. P. H.
Vaughan, Esq., 1861. N. 699.

These drainage plugs, of which there are two forms, fit a seating in the
bottom of the boat, and are secured in position by a bayonet joint.

523. Bilge-valve for a boat. Lent by H. Emamiel, Esq..
1885. N. 1693'.

This is a rubber-faced valve, which is screwed against a grid fixed in the
bottom.



SHIPS AND BOATS CHIEFLY OF ORIENTAL DESIGN.

Tliese present many interesting peculiarities, arising from
the state of the arts, the variations of climate, and the necessities
or customs of the inhabitants.

The most general rig embodies the use of one or more lateen
sails, but in many localities little or no standing rigging is
employed, the requisite strength being given by the use of
exceptionally stout masts.

The simplest craft are of the raft type, constructed of logs
or bamboos lashed together, as seen in the " catamaran " of
India or China, and the " jangada" of Brazil.

Dug-out canoes are met with in all parts of the world : in
some localities, as in Ceylon, their depth is increased by the
addition of wash-boards, while in Burmah and West Africa ribs
and side planking are added in a way that suggests an origin
for our present system of shipbuilding. In the Ceylon boat,
however, in addition to the increased capacity and stability due
to the elevated sides, the beam is virtually increased to a much
greater extent by the addition of a ship-shaped log secured to
the extremities of two outrigged bamboos ; by this means it is
rendered possible to carry a considerable area of sail, so that



153

these boats obtain a speed of as much as 9 knots. The out-
rigger construction has reached its highest development in
the "flying-proa" of the Ladrone Islands, in which the canoe
is ship-shaped 011 one side and has a vertical plane for the
other, so as to increase the leeway resistance ; it is stated that
these proas have obtained a speed of 17 knots. Outrigger
canoes are found wherever the Malay race has penetrated, while
the double canoes of the South Sea Islanders may perhaps be
considered a modification of the same type.

Of boats wholly built up of weak material, easily obtained
and worked, the birch-bark canoes of North America and those
of gum-tree bark in Australia are typical examples : the sewn
" masoolah " boats of India, which on account of their flexibility
will stand being roughly beached by the incoming breakers, are
also interesting illustrations of this system of construction.

Flat-bottomed boats constructed of planks include the
"sampans" used in India and China for fishing, ferrying, etc.,
the house and flower boats of the Canton River, the latter being
large examples of a form that with us is chiefly used for river
punts. On the Irawadi and the Ganges such boats are also
used, fitted with sails for use when going before the wind, but
rowing and poling are also provided for by the addition of
overhanging sponsoris.

The Arab " dhow," used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean,
is an earl}- type of vessel which is considered to have remained
almost unchanged since the days of Alexander the Great. With
one, two, or three masts and lateen sails, the type under various
names is found also along the coast of the Mediterranean, so
that there is considerable probability that the design was
derived from the vessels of the early Phoenicians, while the
construction is the probable forerunner of our own system of
wooden shipbuilding.

524. Rigged models of Brazilian jangadas. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by W. R. Birnie, Esq., 1893, and Count Watson-
Howen, 1897. N. 2017.

These represent a species of raft, or catamaran, used in many parts of
the world. It is constructed of several logs of light wood, or bamboo,
pinned together, and is provided with seats and a mat-covered shelter
amidship for protecting goods from the sun or spray. A single mast is
fitted, and it carries a triangular sail secured to a light yard. These rafts
are steered by an oar at the after end, and are used for fishing even at a
considerable distance from land.

An adjacent illustration shows similar vessels at work on the Madras
coast.

525. Rigged model of Chinese surf raft. (Scale 1 : 32.)
Received 1896. N. 2089.

This model represents a form of surf raft or catamaran in general use on
the coasts of China, Formosa, and Japan.

The body of the raft is formed of bamboos lashed together and to
hardwood crosspieces, and is given considerable sheer and taper. Instead of
a keel, three lee-boards are provided which can be drawn upwards when



154

reaching the shore. The deck is wet, but passengers or goods to be kept
dry are placed in a central tank and a light screen is employed to stop some
of the spray. A single mat sail is used, or oars when necessary, while
steering is done by an oar from the stern.

The dimensions are : Length, 30 ft. to 35 ft, ; width, 7 ft. to 10 ft. :
crew, 3 men.

526. Dug-out canoe. (British Columbia.) Presented by the
Canadian Commissioners to the Fisheries Exhibition, 1883.

N. 1612.

This is a small example of a type of canoe used by the native Indians on
the western coast of Canada : it differs fundamentally from the native
birch-bark type (see No. 527) used in the eastern provinces of the Dominion.
Owing to local decay, a portion of the after end of the boat has been
removed, but the outlines of the complete canoe are shown upon the
accompanying scale drawing.

The canoe consists of a single hollowed tree-trunk, usually of Canadian
red cedar or other light wood, shaped externally to boat form. The lines
show, (1) a short sharp entrance with the position of maximum breadth only
3 ft. from the bow, (2) a parallel fore-body to mid-length, (3) a long gradual
run, terminated by a square-cut stern above the water-line. Considerable
sheer is given to the top -sides and a covering board is fitted to the
fore end.

The approximate weight of the complete canoe was 250 Ib. ; length,
extreme, 29-25 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 22*5 in. ; depth, amidships, 10 '75 in.

527. Built model of birch-bark canoe. (Scale 1 : 8.) Re-
ceived 1899. N. 2193.

This represents in general form and construction the canoes used by
native Indians upon the lakes and rivers of the eastern provinces of Canada.
The chief characteristic of the type are : shallow draught, considerable sheer
and taper, similarity of bow and stern, absence of keel, and extremely light
build.

The canoe is constructed of white birch-bark laid upon frames or ribs of
white cedar. The latter are first placed in position and held together by
flexible wooden bands, then the outer shell, which has been carefully stripped
in one piece from a suitable tree, is wrapped around them and secured by
means of tarred thongs made from the roots of the cedar tree.

The boat is propelled by paddles, one of which is held by each rower who
kneels or crouches upon the bottom of the boat while using it. A small
sail is occasionally used.

The ordinary two-paddle canoe is from 16 to 18 ft. long, and can be
carried many miles by one man without great exertion ; such canoes are also
made large enough to carry as many as twelve men,

528. Built model of Greenland canoe. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent
by The Royal United Service Institution, 1903. N. 2324.

This represents the one-man " kayak " used by native Eskimo for
hunting and fishing.

It consists of a light framework of wood or whalebone covered above and
below with tanned seal-skins, sewn together with sinew-thread, and made
thoroughly tight. The only opening is a central circular hatchway,
admitting the boatman to his hips, and into which he is secured by lacing
the lower edge of his watertight jacket to the wooden coaming. External
protective bands of whalebone are added at the stem and stern, to prevent
injury when grounding.

A double-bladed paddle is used for propulsion, and all apparatus and
provisions are carried on deck, in racks or straps. A harpoon and lance for
seal-hunting are shown ; attached to the former is a skin bag or buoy,
which, when inflated, prevents the stricken seal from sinking.



155

As these boats are very shallow and without ballast or external keels,
they are easily capsized, so that long practice is necessary to successfully
manage them in a heavy sea or surf : their extreme lightness, however,
permits of their being easily carried, inverted, on the bearer's head.

The usual dimensions are : Length, 16 to 20 ft. ; breadth, 1 5 to 2 ft. ;
depth. 75 to 1 ft. ; weight, 50 to 60 Ib.

529. Greenland canoe and accessories. Presented by Mrs.
Bompas, 1906. N. 2427.

This is an actual " kayak," or man's boat which, with the " umiak," or



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