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women's boat, are used by Eskimo off the coasts of Greenland for fishing,
fowling, sealing, whaling and walrus-hunting.

It is constructed of light, bent-wood frames, irregularly spaced and
lashed to longitudinal laths or battens ; local and structural strength is also
given by broad wooden beams or stretchers fitted on each side of the round
hatchway amidships. The whole framework is finally covered with tanned
seal-skins sewn together with sinew, while, for protection against injury by
grounding or collision, external strips of bone are atttached to the raking
bow and stern. The completed structure weighs about 40 Ib., and is
therefore easily transported overland. This extreme lightness, however,
accompanied by a narrow beam, shallow draught, and lack of ballast or
projecting keel, renders it liable to capsize, and long practice is required to
manage it successfully in a heavy sea. The boatman sits in the hatchway
with his outer skin coat secured to the coaming so as to prevent the entry of
water ; his double-bladed paddle is about 7 ft. long, made of red pine tipped
with bone, and with this he balances and propels his craft. Leather straps,
secured athwart the deck, provide for the stowage of provisions, harpoon-
thongs and lines, and the various weapons used in the chase.

Length of the canoe, over all, 16 -5 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 1 75 ft. ;
depth of side, amidships, 6 ft. ; weight, with implements, 50 Ib.

Examples are shown of the following weapons :

(1) HARPOON DART. This is about 7 ft. long, and is used for big game.
It is thrown, by means of " hand boards " as shown, a distance of 8 to 12
yards, and is fitted with detachable barbed head carrying a line with a
bladder or an inflated sealskin; after striking its object, this outer barb
with its line is automatically released from the harpoon- shaft, and the bladder
at the same time is thrown overboard, where it marks the course of the
wounded animal, and is finally used to buoy it on the surface when dead.

(2) MISSILE DART. About 5 ft. long, with a detachable barbed iron
point and a bladder fixed to the shaft ; used when hunting in company.

(3) GREAT LANCE. About 6 ft. long, with a detachable bone head and
iron blade without barbs; it readily disengages itself, and is thrown
frequently at the wounded animal as it rises to take breath.

(4) LITTLE LANCE. About 4 ft. long ; has a sword point and is used to
dispatch the animal outright.

(5) FOWLING DART. About 5 ft. long, with a fixed iron point at the
head, and three projecting bone points about the middle of the shaft, these
latter giving increased chances of striking a moving bird.

530. Whole model of Accra canoe. (Scale about 1 : 8.) Lent
by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2462.

This native-made model represents a type of surf boat used at Accra,
the capital of the Gold Coast Colony, "West Africa.

It is of dug-out construction, having its sides tied together with
groups of short transverse poles lashed at intervals to the gunwales. It
has a relatively large beam and a "rockered" bottom or convex keel line
features which adapt it for use on a shelving, surf -beaten coast; two
navigating paddles of special form are shown. The outside of the canoe
is decorated by native characters and drawings.

Approximate dimensions : Length, 22 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft,



156

531. Whole model of Kroo canoe (Liberia). (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2496'.

This shows a typical native canoe as used for general purposes by the
Kroo tribes along the Liberian coast.

These craft are of simple dug-out character and vary in length from
18 ft. to 30 ft. They are propelled by two to four men, by means of a form
of pronged paddle, peculiar to Kroomen, and may be successfully navigated
in heavy sea or surf.

The example shown was made from particulars obtained at Monrovia,
Liberia, and represents a canoe of the following overall dimensions : Length,
28 ft. ; breadth, 2 -5 ft. ; depth, amidships, 1'75 ft.

532. Whole model of Southern Nigeria river canoe. (Scale
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2497.

This shows a canoe of medium size as used for trading purposes on the
Oils (Niger) and Cross Rivers in Southern Nigeria.

It is of dug-out character, but has a framework amidships which, when
covered with matting or palm thatch, forms a shelter for women and children.
It is propelled by paddles or a pole, and is chiefly employed in the transport
of fruit and vegetables to market or of palm oil and kernels from the interior
to the factories.

Its principal dimensions, obtained at Old Calabar, are : Length, extreme,
33 ft. ; breadth, 4 ft. ; depth, amidships, 2 ft.

533. Whole model of Lagos fishing canoe. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1907. N. 2438.

This native-made model represents a typical fishing canoe as used upon
the large lagoons and inland waters of Lagos, West Africa.

These craft are simple dug-outs made from trunks of the fig or the
silk-cotton tree ; the hollowing-out is performed by burning and by cutting
with an adze. The thwarts, platforms, mast-steps and other details are added
as required. The ribs of palm-leaves are used for fishing rods and the fibre
of the pine-apple for nets and lines.

The canoes are made of sizes to suit the requirements of from one
to five persons; they are propelled by sails or paddles and steered by
a paddle from, the stern.

The dimensions of the boat represented are : Length, overall, 28 ft. ;
breadth, 3 -5 ft.

534. Whole model of Lagos market boat. (Scale 1 : 18.)
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1907. N. 2439^

This native-made model represents one of the larger types of boats
as used for ferry and general transport purposes upon the lagoons and
coastal waters of Lagos, "West Africa.

It is an interesting example of the combination of " dug-out " with
" built-up " boat construction. The lower part of the hull is of a hollowed
tree trunk, while the topsides are raised by strakes of planking ; timber
knees and floors, about 2 ft. apart, give trans verse strength to the structure.

These boats are propelled by sails or paddles a larger steering paddle
being worked from a platform at the stem.

The carrying capabilities of these craft vary from one to four tons (weight)
and the dimensions are : Length, overall, 48 ft. ; breadth, 7 5 ft.

535. Rigged model of Nile cargo and ferry boat. (Scale
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1910. N. 2545.

This shows a vessel of somewhat primitive construction used in Upper
Egypt and the Sudan, and but seldom found below the first cataract.
Particulars for the model were obtained at Korosko, some 100 miles above
Assuan.

The boat has a large relative beam and a full midship body tapering
gradually to the stern. It is decked over the greater portion of its length



157

and has a special beam amidships to give support to a single mast and
lateen yard. The most noteworthy feature of the boat is the entire absence
of internal ribs or frames. Some structural compensation for them is obtained
by the method of forming the shell : fairly thick and roughly-hewn planking
is used, and the butts of each piece are scarfed to those of adjacent pieces
so as to form a continuous strake. Each strake is fastened to that imme-
diately below by nails driven at a slight inclination ; their heads are housed
in small external notches. Some degree of watertightness is obtained by
caulking the seams with grass or moss ; no paint is used upon these craft.
A large built-up rudder with a tiller is used.

It is interesting to note that Herodotus, writing about 250 B.C., describes
the Nile cargo boats of his day as being built without ribs and with the
planking worked in short thick pieces held together by long bolts.

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 9 5 ft.

536. Rigged model of Nile fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent
by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1910. N. 2561.

This type of boat is used for fishing on the Lower Nile, below the first
cataract ; particulars for the model were obtained at Luxor.

In general form it resembles the cargo and ferry boat (No. 535) but
differs from it structurally in being strongly framed and planked ; it is also
smaller, has greater relative beam, and is painted. A large single lateen
sail is carried and the vessel is decked, with the exception of a portion
amidships ; within this open space a heavy beam or thwart is fitted, a square
mast is stepped, and two oars are worked.

Dimensions : Length, 16 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft.

537. Rigged model of Nile cargo boat (gyassa). (Scale
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1909. N. 2529.

This represents the native type of cargo vessel used on the waters of the
Lower Nile and occasionally in Upper Egypt.

The vessel has full lines with a peculiar upturned and decorated bow
and bowsprit. It is framed and decked and has a large central hatchway.
No external keel is fitted, thus reducing the draught. There is a large
built-up rudder worked by a tiller. The bulwarks are set back all round
the vessel, so as to admit of a narrow platform, which is used when poling
is necessary. The lightest breeze is taken advantage of by two lofty lateen
sails : the foremast is stepped well forward and carries a lateen yard at an angle
of about 45 deg., while the mizenmast is right aft, with its yard nearly vertical
and a boom lashed to the port quarter for extending the base of the sail.
The number and arrangement of masts, spars, and sails is not uniform
in boats of the same general type. The small canvas bag, shown suspended
aft, is used for the stowage of provisions.

Length, 42 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft.

538. Whole models of Lower Egypt fishing boats. (Scale
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2498-9.

These two boats represent examples of native fishing craft as used on the
shallow waters of Lower Egypt.

They are of built-up construction, somewhat roughly put together, and
watertightness is obtained by a thick coating of pitch on the underwater
parts. They are propelled by paddles or a pole, and, being flat-bottomed,
are able to float in a, veiy few inches of water.

Their overall dimensions, obtained on Lake Mareotis, are as follows :
Lengths, 9 ft. and 11 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft. ; depth, at sides, 2 ft.

539. Rigged model of Nile sailing boat. (Scale 1 : 48.) Made
and lent by the Rev. A. J. Foster, 1873. N. 1341.

This represents the typical Nile passenger vessel. It is usually built of
wood, although recently larger examples have been constructed in steel.
The accommodation consists of three single bed cabins, a centre saloon or



158

dining-room, and astern cabin used as a bed or sitting-room; there are also
a bathroom, pantry, etc. The boat has two lateen sails, while oars and poles
are also used as occasion may require. The crew consists of a captain, a
mate, and from six to eight men.

Length, 96 ft. ; breadth, 16 ft. ; depth, 4 ft.

540. Rigged model of Egyptian yacht. (Scale 1 : 48.) Pre-
sented by the Egyptian Commissioner for the Paris
Exhibition of 1867. Plate VI., No. 6. N. 1200.

This is a " dahabeeyah," constructed for the Khedive of Egypt, for use
on the Nile. She is fitted with a large lateen sail forward, the yard of
which rests on a saddle formed at the masthead, and there is a smaller
lateen sail aft. In calms she is propelled by 14 oars, or in shallow water
by poles.

Her approximate dimensions were : Length, 152 ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. ;
depth, 6 ft.

541. Rigged model of Arab dhow or baggala. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by J. Zohrab, Esq., 1881. N. 1550.

This is a model made by native craftsmen of the North- East African
coast, and although not strictly accurate in some proportions and details,
shows many characteristics of this type of vessel.

There are two masts with lateen sails, and the sheet of the large mainsail
passes through the stem ports ; two stout thwarts secured by horizontal
wood knees give the necessary support to the mainmast.

The vessel is grab-built, i.e., it has a long projecting cutwater, or prow
head, and possesses considerable beam and a rise of floor which, with a
raking bow and stern, combined with great sail area, afford good turning
facilities and speed. The shell planking, which is secured to wooden frames,
is generally worked in two thicknesses, with a layer of composition between
to ensure watertightness and durability.

There is a square or transom stem, with heavy quarter chocks to form
an attachment for the upper stem planking ; these also form rubbing pieces
to protect the overlapping plank-ends. Dunnage, or cargo battens, to keep
heavy merchandise clear of the bottom of the ship, are shown nailed to the
inside of the frames. There is a poop and forecastle deck, but with no
enclosing bulkheads, as in the Bombay " pattamar " (see No. 553), a vessel of
similar construction.

These dhows are chiefly used for trading purposes between the Red Sea
ports and India, making annual voyages with the monsoons, and exchanging
native produce for manufactured goods.

The usual dimensions are : Register, 200 tons ; length, 85 ft. ; breadth,
21 ft. ; depth, 12 ft.

542. Rigged model of Arab trading vessel. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1530.

This decked -boat is known as a " batello " ; it has two masts, one raking
forward, and both carrying large lateen sails ; the tack of the mainsail is
secured to a bowsprit. Steering is performed by a peculiar arrangement of
yoke-lines to an overhanging rudder.

Register, 29 tons ; length, 51-3 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 4'6 ft.

543. Whole model of Red Sea dhow canoe. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2500.

This represents a form of canoe used as a tender to native dhows in the
Red Sea.

These craft have considerable sheer and are of dug-out character, some-
times strengthened by the addition of internal libs ; they usually carry
two men and are propelled by paddles.

Their maximum length is about 18 ft. The overall dimensions of the
example shown, taken at Port Sudan, are : Length, 15 ft. ; breadth, 2 ft. ;
depth, amidships, 1 5 ft.



159

544. Whole model of Madras surf boat (masoolah). (Scale
1 : 12.) Presented by Lieut.-Col. John Hoyes, R.A., 1878.

N. 1507.

This is a type used on the Madras coast for conveying passengers and
cargo between the shore and the ships in the roads. The surf is frequently
from 6 ft. to 10 ft. in height, but owing to the flexibility of these boats
they are seldom damaged.

In their construction no frames or thwarts are introduced, but the planks
are sewn together over withes of straw ; the leakage and the entering surf
are kept under by two men who are constantly bailing. The boat is propelled
by 12 men using paddles with blades 14 in. long by 10 in. wide, and is
steered by one or two men at the stern.

The approximate dimensions are : Length, 20 ft. to 32 ft. ; breadth,
6 ft. to 10 ft. ; depth, 4 ft. to 8 ft.

An adjacent sketch shows a similar type of boat in use in Somalilaiid
(East Africa).

545. Rigged model of Maldive outrigger boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by Count Wat son-Ho wen, 1881. N. 1547.

This represents a decked vessel of the outrigger type as used for trading
purposes by natives of the Maldive Islands ; similar craft are also used at
Mauritius.

It has considerable breadth and depth in proportion to length, and is of
built-up construction, timber of the cocoanut palm being chiefly used. The
keel, planking, and decks are held together by an elaborate system of sewing
or lashing, while cross-spalls and pillars under the decks add rigidity to the
structure. The outrigger poles and cross-spalls pass through the sides of
the vessel.

The sail plan is peculiar. On the single mast amidships is carried the
usual large fore-and-aft mainsail, but abaft of this is hoisted a small mizen
sail at the end of a boom set at about an angle of 40 deg. to the mast. A
jib foresail is sometimes added.

Dimensions : Length, 32 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 8 ft.

546. Rigged model of Cingalese outrigger canoe. (Scale 1:8.)
Presented by T. D. E. Gibson, Esq., 1865. N. 1047.

This type of vessel is largely used in the neighbourhood of Ceylon for
fishing, cruising, and similar purposes.

The main hull is of a hollowed tree-trunk, shaped externally to canoe
form ; above this are lashed washboards or side-planking to give additional
freeboard and deck accommodation. The characteristic feature of these
craft, however, is an outrigged log of solid timber carried parallel to the
hull upon two projecting transverse poles from one side ; this adds con-
siderably to the " stiffness " of the vessel under sail, and its effect is often
increased by one or more of the crew sitting to the windward side upon the
outrigger. The single mast, lashed to one of the outrigger poles, carries an
unusually large fore-and-aft sail, and this, with the small hull resistance,
makes very high speeds possible in a fresh breeze. The lengths of these
craft vary from 20 ft. to 40 ft.

Two other models (scale 1 : 16) of similar vessels are shown :

(1) Lent by T. F. Dodd, Esq., 1868. (N. 1299.)

(2) Presented by Count Watson-Howen, 1881. (N. 1546.)

547. Rigged model of Fijian double canoe . (Scale 1:8.)
Presented by Sir D. Cooper, F.R.G.S., 1872. N. 1335.

This model was made by natives of the Fiji Islands, and it represents
their usual form of canoe. There are two narrow hulls, connected together
by beams and a deck, on which a hut cabin is frequently erected. A single
mast, raking well forward, is provided ; through a crutch at the masthead
halyards are led, by which a matting sail, fitted with upper and lower yards,
is carried. In calms the craft is propelled by paddles.



160

548. Whole models of Malay vessels. (Scale 1 : 36.) Pre-
sented by J. Pybus, Esq., 1868. N. 1197.

These five models represent craft used generally for cargo and ferry
purposes in the Malay Archipelago.

The largest example is rigged with two masts and sails, and probably
represents a vessel of about 50 ft. in length ; she has fine lines with light
overhanging platforms at both bow and stern. The provision for carrying
two large guns forward suggest that this particular vessel may have been
used for piratical purposes.

549. Rigged model of armed Malayan proa. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Lent by R, Walters, Esq., 1902. * N. 2286.

This represents a swift armed sailing vessel, of a type very generally
employed by the pirates of the Malacca Straits and Chinese waters. The
model, which shows a combination of Chinese and Malayan design and
construction, was made at Hong Kong in 1840, when piracy was very
prevalent in the seas and rivers of the district. The vessel has a fine
entrance, a sharp run, and shallow floors which, together with a large
rudder and the absence of deadwood, suggest speed and handiness combined
with but small draught.

A deck with covered hatchways is fitted throughout the length of the
vessel ; a raised poop provides cabin accommodation, and at the same
time makes a working platform for the rudder and after guns. Projecting
platforms or galleries at the bow and stern afford additional deck area for
the large crew, and also give facilities for boarding operations. Strong
stanchions and bulwark rails, covered with canvas, form a wash-strake to the
vessel through a greater part of the length, while, outside these, special
provision is made for the stowage of shields, pikes, and lances.

There are two pole masts without shrouds or stays, fitted in the model
with sails of cotton, but strips of palm leaves sewn together formed the
material more generally used. A number of oars or paddles are also
provided for propelling the vessel during calms or light winds. The rudder
is of the Chinese type, suspended from a windlass so as to be readily lifted
when the vessel is beached or in shallow water ; it is pierced by several
diamond- shaped holes, which are believed to reduce the effort required at
the tiller without affecting the steering efficiency.

The armament consists of a heavy stern-chaser with two smooth-bore
cannon and six gingals or heavy muskets carried on swivels.

Length, over all, 72 ft. ; length of hull, 64 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; draught,
4-5 ft.

550. Rigged model of Bengalese river boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1532.

This represents a " pulwar " used for the conveyance of valuable cargo
in inland navigation. It is flat-bottomed, and decked over; oars are
carried, and also a mast which spreads a square sail.

Register, 20 tons ; length, 56 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 6 ft.

551. Rigged model of Bengalese produce boat, (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1533.

This is a " malar paiishi "; it is carvel-built, with the planks fastened
together by iron clamps, and is covered in with matting amidships to protect
the cargo. There is a single mast, with square sail and topsail, carried in
an elevated tabernacle. The rudder is suspended from ropes stretched
between two stanchions, and oars are also carried. The usual dimensions
are : Length, 42 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth, 4- 5 ft.



161

552. Rigged model of Bengalese produce boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1531.

This is a broad clincher-built boat, called a " ulak " ; the stern is decked
over, and the centre covered by mat awnings to protect the cargo. It is
fitted with one mast carrying a square sail, also with oars. She has a side
rudder of balanced type, suspended by ropes.

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth, 4 ft.

553. Rigged model of " pattamar." (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented
by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1529.

This form of cargo vessel is chiefly engaged in the coasting trade of
Bombay. They have one or two masts and lateen sails ; the foremost rakes
forward so as to keep the yard clear when it is being hoisted. They are
grab-built, and are planked with teak upon jungle-wood frames. Their
bottoms are sheathed with 1 in. boards, first covered with a resinous com-
pound as a preservative; some of the smaller vessels of about 60 tons
burden are sewed together with coir fibre.

The approximate dimensions of the large class are : Burden, 200 tons ;
length, 76 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; depth, 12 ft.

554. Rigged model of Bombay pleasure boat. (Scale 1 : 12.)
Presented by H.R.H. the Duke of Coburg-Gotha, KG., 1869.
Plate VI, No. 7. N. 1315.

This yacht is built on similar lines to those of the Bombay fishing boats,
which are the swiftest vessels of that coast, and are said to be able to
compete with English yachts. It is clincher-built, decked over, and has a
sharp bow with hollow lines ; the stem is full and round, and the keel
arched in the middle. It has two masts, raking forward and carrying large
lateen sails.

Register, 8 '8 tons ; length, 41 ft. ; breadth, 7 -25 ft. ; depth, 7 ft.

555. Rigged model of Burmese oil-boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent
by The Royal United Service Institution, 1903. N. 2322.

This represents a type of river boat peculiar to the Irawadi, upon which
it is used principally for the transport in jars of the crude petroleum from
Upper Burma.

The vessel is flat-bottomed with full lines throughout, and has the stem
and stem posts rising considerably above the main structure. Projecting
from the gunwale on each side of the boat is a long platform, about 4 ft .
wide, which provides additional stowage for cargo, and also forms a con-
venient " poling " position for the boatmen who plant their bamboo poles
into the river banks and then run the full length of the platforms.
Thatched roofs are fitted over the greater portion of the cargo spaces to
protect the contents. The rigging and steering arrangements are similar
to those described with the adjacent model (No. 556).

Length, extreme, 50 ft. ; breadth, without galleries, 7 25 ft. ; depth,
amidships, 4 ft.

556. Rigged model of Burmese junk. (Scale 1 : 24.) Received
1894. N. 2031.

This construction of vessel is used for carrying passengers and mer-
chandise on the Irawadi river.

The lower portion of the hull is a single hollowed trunk, and from it the
frames and planking are carried up. There is a fine entrance and run ; the
stern rises high above the water and is provided with an elaborately carved
bench, from which the steersman controls a large paddle lashed to the port
quarter and fitted with a short tiller.

The mast consists of two spars, which run together above the main yard
and then form the topmast. The lower ends of these spars are bolted to
u 6773. T



162

two posts rising out of the keel piece so as to facilitate unshipping -
wooden rungs from one spar of the mast to the other form a ladder for going



Online LibraryScience Museum (Great Britain)Catalogue of the naval and marine engineering collection in the ... museum .. → online text (page 22 of 58)