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aloft. The yard is a bamboo, or a line of spliced bamboos, of great length
and suspended from the masthead by numerous guys ; a rope runs along it,
from which the mainsail is suspended by rings like a curtain and is spread
both ways from the mast. There is a small topsail similarly arranged.
The sails are of common light calico, and the area of the mainsail of a
vessel with a yard 65 ft. long was found to be 4,000 sq. ft. From their rig
these boats can only sail before the wind, which is, however, generally
favourable in ascending the Irawadi ; they return with the current.

The capacity of the junks is from 90 to 130 tons burden, and the
dimensions of the one represented are : Length, 66 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ;
depth, 9 ft.

557. Whole models of Siamese river craft. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent
by L. H. Pritchard, Esq., 1908. N. 2457-61.

These five native-made models illustrate present-day types of water craft
used on the River Menam and its tributaries.

N, 2457 is a house-boat used for pleasure, travelling or trading. There-
is a cabin or deck-house aft, and also a covered structure amidships under
which food, merchandise, etc., are carried. The boat is rowed by four men
at the bow, and is steered, by means of a long paddle, from the deck-house.
The peculiar tail- shaped post at the stern is shown only when the owner of
the craft is on board.

Length, extreme, 30 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft.

N. 2458 is a sampan used for ferrying and passenger service generally
over the many canals and waterways of Bangkok. It is of " built up " con-
struction, in teak, having an overhanging bow and stern and a flat bottom.
It is steered and propelled similarly to a Yenetian gondola by means of a
single oar lashed to a post near the stern ; the passengers usually sit upon
the bottom of the boat.

Length, extreme, 18 ft.; breadth, 3-5 ft.

N. 2459 is a travelling shop or market-boat with portable boards or plat-
forms fitted throughout upon which the produce is piled for display. It is.
propelled gondola fashion, from either end.

Length, extreme, 21 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft.

N. 2460 is a type used in the fishing industry and contains a large central
well for carrying live fish. It is propelled gondola fashion from either end.
Three native implements used for spearing fish are shown.

Length, extreme, 24 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft.

N. 2461 is a rice-carrying boat of small dimensions with a semicircular
thatched covering amidships. It is propelled gondola fashion from either
end, and is typical of the boats used for practically the whole of the rice
(paddy) transport of the country.

Length, extreme, 11 ft. ; breadth. 3 ft.

558. Water-colour drawings of Chinese river boats. Received
1896. N. 2090.

These fourteen paintings, by native artists, show the different forms of
craft in use. The smaller vessels are house boats, and are only occasionally
moved, while the larger ones are cargo and passenger vessels, generally
propelled by sails.

559. Rigged model of Chinese boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented
by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries Exhibition,
1883. N. 1642.

Boats of this kind are in general use in Swatow, for the conveyance of
passengers or for fishing. They have one mast carrying a mat sail, and are
steered by an oar at the stern, which is used for propulsion when there is no
wind.

Length, 27 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft.



163

560. Whole model of Chinese fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1633.

This flat-bottoined boat of nearly rectangular form is used in dip-net
fishing. It is decked at each end, while the open waist is divided into three
compartments.

The large net is suspended from a pair of sheer-legs pivoted in side-cleats
at the stern and the whole is raised and lowered manually by a long lever
arm.

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft.

561. Whole model of Chinese twin boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries

Exhibition, 1883. N. 1634.

This arrangement consists of two light boats, each 36 ft. long and 4 ft.
beam, secured together. To the outer sides of each are attached boards
painted white, which form a shelf 2*5 ft. wide, sloping towards the water.
The boats are propelled by a man in the stern of each ; on moonlight nights
fish leap over the board and fall into the boat.

562. Rigged model of Chinese cargo boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1667.

The decks of these boats are left open, mats being spread across to
protect the cargo in wet weather ; the stern space is reserved for the crew,
and when no cargo offers these boats carry passengers. The boats are of
light draught, and carry a single mast with a rectangular mat sail.

Length, 40 feet; breadth, 15 ft.

563. Rigged model of Chinese boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1659,

This barge-like boat is used for carrying cargo to and from foreign
vessels. It is divided into watertight compartments, which are, however,
left open above, but are covered with mats during bad weather to protect
the merchandise. It is provided with a mast carrying a mat sail, and has
also oars. A wooden anchor with single arm is shown in the stern.

Length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft.

564. Whole model of Chinese cargo boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1658.

These river passenger boats are called " paper " boats on account of the
very thin planking with which they are sheathed. The bow rises high out
of the water, and amidships is a large bamboo-mat house, over which is a
wooden frame for stowing the oars when not in use. The steering-oar is
carried in a revolving wooden spindle supported upon special framing at the
stern.

The approximate dimensions are : Length, 60 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft.

565. Rigged model of Chinese junk. (Scale about 1 : 72.)
Presented by J. Pybus, Esq., 1868. N. 1196.

This example has three masts, with rectangular mat sails ; the masts are
made of comparatively large diameter owing to the absence of rigging. The
large rudder is suspended by ropes from a windlass under the poop, and
further secured by two ropes extending from the lower part of the rudder,
under the bottom of the ship, and over the bows to another windlass. The
burden of these vessels varies from 1,000 tons downwards.

L 2



164

566. Rigged model of Chinese junk. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented
by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries Exhibition,
1883. N. 1646.

This model represents a passenger and cargo vessel from the province of
Swatow.

It closely resembles the " Keying " which arrived in the Thames in 1848
after a passage of 477 days from Canton, via St. Helena and New York, and
was the first junk that reached this country. Her dimensions were as
follows :

Register - ... 800 tons.

Length - 160 ft.

Breadth - - 33ft.

Depth of hold - 16 ft.

She was built of teak and her planks were pinned together with large
nails before the ribs were introduced. She had three masts ; the mainmast
was formed of one pole 90 ft. long and 3 3 ft. diameter at the deck level,
but there were no square yards or standing rigging. Each sail consisted
of stout matting, ribbed at intervals of 3 ft. by strong bamboo, and was
hoisted by a single heavy rope ; it is stated that the mainsail weighed nearly
9 tons, and took the crew two hours to hoist.

The rudder, which was estimated to have weighed nearly 8 tons, was
hung by two ropes, while two others passed from its lower end under the
bottom of the ship to either bow. In deep water it was 12 ft. below the
bottom of the vessel ; in shallow water it was lifted by means of windlasses
and the vessel was steered by a short tiller. When the rudder was down it
often required 15 men to work the large tiller.

The junk carried three anchors, made of iron- wood and metal; each
weighed about 1 34 tons.

567. Rigged model of Chinese life-boat (Upper Yangtze-
Chiang). (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by Lieut. E. Spicer Sinison,
R.N., 1909.' N. 2508.

This represents a typical " red boat " as stationed at all the more
dangerous rapids on the Upper Yangtze. They are under the control of the
governments of the adjacent provinces of Hupeh and Szechuan and are used
as water-police boats and life-boats.

These craft are stoutly built and are easily manoeuvred by a large sweep
aft. Their crews are also the best of the well- trained, resourceful men who
navigate the dangerous portions of this river. The boats are supposed to be
always in readiness to assist distressed vessels in the rapids and are instru-
mental in saving many lives each year. They are " tracked " up-stream by
their crews, some local assistance being obtained at difficult rapids; the
tracking hawser is secured to a small bollard at the fore end of the boat.
There is usually a crew of five men, who live in the boat.

Length, 34 ft. ; breadth, 7'5 ft. ; depth, 3 -5 ft.

568. Rigged model of Chinese cargo junk (Upper Yangtze-
Chiang). (Scale 1 : 57.) Lent by Lieut. E. Spicer Sinison,
R.N., 1909. . N. 2507.

This represents the usual type of house-boat or cargo- junk employed on
the Yangtze rapids above Ichang.

The hull is sub- divided by watertight bulkheads, and an elastic cement
is used for caulking the external planking so as to ensure a high degree of
water- tightness under the severe stresses to which the structure is subjected.
Some longitudinal stiffness is provided by three stout rubbing-pieces worked
round the vessel just above the water-line.

Owing to dangerous rapids and currents, the progress of these craft
up-stream is largely effected by means of gangs of "trackers," ortowmen, on
the banks. (See accompanying photograph.) The large sculls are used for
crossing the river, and, to some extent, for coming down stream, 10 to 15



165

men handling each scull; a long oar at the bow assists the rudder in
controlling the vessel in cross-currents. A sail is only used when running
before the wind. The towing hawser is of plaited bamboo, and is ordinarily
attached to t*he mast-head, so as to clear rocks or other obstructions ; in
navigating a rapid, however, it is lowered to the foot of the mast or fastened
to one of the cross- timbers on the deck. A junk of the larger size, as shown,
is usually accompanied by 30 to 50 trackers, but at the rapids from 100 to
150 additional men are required. The drums, shown on each side of the
mast are used for signalling to the trackers when the voice of the pilot
cannot be heard ; the graduated pole, on the port bow, is used by the pilot
for sounding and for fending off the bow where necessary.

The approximate dimensions of the vessel shown are : Length, 145 ft. ;
breadth, 30 ft. An average junk carries about 76 tons on a draught of
2-75 ft.

569. Whole model of Chinese oblique-ended junk (Chien-
Chiang). (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by Lieut. E. Spicer Simson,
R.N., 1909. N. 2509.

This represents a type of junk specially constructed to navigate one of
the rapids of the Chien- Chiang, a tributary of the Yangtze- Chiang.

The flat bow and stern, instead of being built in exact athwartship
planes, are set obliquely, the port, or left-hand side, being slightly in
advance of the starboard, or right-hand side. This peculiarity is considered
advantageous in taking an exceedingly sharp turn, between steep rocky
banks, in the rapids. When the vessel enters this portion of the river it
is controlled by three large sweeps, one forward and two aft, the ordinary
oars being inboard, with the exception of the after one on the port side.
Reaching a position where the fast current turns almost at right angles,
the boats meet a mass of dead water which, acting against her inclined bow,
turns it to port ; at the same time the speed of the boat is somewhat
checked, thus permitting the on-coming water against the stern to assist
in a turning movement which is further augmented by the use of the
sweeps. A high bridge is provided to enable the pilot to see above the
heavy spray which here rises to a height of from 8 to 10 ft. above the water.

The approximate dimensions of the vessel shown are : Length, 48 ft. ;
breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 6 ft. The largest vessels of this type are 80 ft. long
and carry about 35 tons.

570. Whole model of Shogvm's yacht (17th to 19th century).
(Scale 1 : 10.) Presented by The Bureau of Mercantile
Marine, Department of Communications, Japan, 1910.

N. 2564.

This elaborately fitted and decorated model represents the " Tenchi
maru," an armed yacht or state vessel originally built for the Shogun
lyemitsu Tokugawa in 1630, but rebuilt to smaller dimensions in 1831. A
similar model is preserved in the Imperial Museum, Tokio.

The main hull shows a flat keel with angular bilges secured together by
copper nails or similar fastenings. The long tapering bow terminates in
a deep heavily plated ram or stem-piece, while the square, flattened stern
shows the usual projecting end-boards and the characteristic opening used
for gangway purposes and for housing and working the rudder. Another
noteworthy feature of the construction is the protrusion of the tie-beams or
horizontal timbers beyond the skin planking.

A single mast with square sail was hoisted when necessary, but the
common method of propulsion was by means of a large number of closely-
spaced sculls or sweeps each used in a nearly vertical position. To
accommodate the scullers the upper deck was extended transversely so as to
form an overhanging superstructure, which likewise provided for a com-
modious state-deck and awnings at a higher level.



166

Most of the woodwork is coloured with red lacquer. Metal plates,
probably representing copper- gilt, are largely used for protective and
decorative purposes on the external framing and planking ; gojd lacquer is
used for special decoration. The circular badge of the Tokugawa family is
reproduced on most of the hangings and ornamental work.

Iron anchors of the four-armed, grapnel type are carried, and examples
are also shown of the primitive armament of bows, spears and matchlocks.

Dimensions (original) : Length, 165 ft. ; breadth^ 54 ft. ; depth, 11 ft. ;
number of sculls, 100.

Dimensions (as shown) : Length, 90 ft. ; breadth, 18 5 ft. ; depth, 6 25 ft. ;
number of sculls, 76.

571. Rigged model of Japanese trading junk (about 1850).
(Scale 1 : 20.) Presented by The Bureau of Mercantile
Marine, Department of Communications, Japan, 1910.

N. 2565-6.

Prior to 1635 the Japanese appear to have had a number of sea-going
merchant vessels, but about this date the Administration prohibited the
construction of large ships and limited the merchant marine to small
coasting vessels chiefly of the single-masted classes.

This model gives a general representation of a type of cargo and
passenger junk common about 1850 ; its merchant character is indicated by
the closed or bound-up tassel hanging from the stem ; state or war junks
carried an open or spreading tassel (see No. 570). There is a heavy mainmast
of rectangular section carrying a large square sail with bonnet and open-
laced seams ; in addition to this there are two square head-sails carried on
separate masts right forward. An upturned, open stem shows the usual
arrangements for lifting the large built-up rudder. A long central cargo
hatchway, with portable covers, extends from mainmast to stern and
provides facilities for housing the rudder-head when necessary. The
ordinary bulwark framing ends at the small entrance-port abaft the main-
mast, and the remainder of the topsides are formed of bamboo matting and
framing, which latter also protects a portion of the lower side-planking ; the
entrance doors slide in vertical grooves. A pitched roof of bamboo con-
struction covers the crew space amidships ; abreast of this are large side-
ports for stowing the ship's sailing boat or tender, an example of which is
shown herewith.

The vessel represented has a capacity of 1,400 koku or about 140 register
tons ; length, overall, 90 ft. ; breadth, 26 ft. ; depth, 8 7 ft. ; after 1885 110
vessels were built of this type exceeding 50 register tons. Junks have now
been largely superseded in the coasting trade by schooner-rigged vessels of
ordinary construction.

572. Whole models of Japanese fishing craft. Presented by
The Bureau of Fisheries, Department of Agriculture and
Commerce, Tokio, 1910. N. 2570-84.

These thirteen small models originally formed portion of an exhibit, at
the Japan-British Exhibition, illustrating the development of Japanese
fishing craft. Each model represents a type of vessel in use for coast fishing
at the close of the 19th century. Since 1896, however, the Government has
encouraged the adoption of Western methods of shipbuilding and deep-sea
fishing. Large fore-and-aft schooners are now engaged in the bonito and
cod fisheries while carriers, trawlers and whalers propelled by steam or
internal combustion engines are largely used.

The collection may be structurally subdivided into four groups:
(1) Rafts; (2) Bug-outs; (3) Partially built-up vessels; (4) Wholly built-
up vessels. The dimensions given are those of an average example.



167

Rafts. Of this primitive construction there is one example :
Catamaran or surf -raft (N. 2570), Tai-wan district. Used for net-fishing
an shallow waters. Bamboo poles are bent, fitted and lashed together, so as
to form a raft with tapered sides, upturned ends, and rounded bilges ; cross-
poles help to preserve the transverse curvature. For propulsion a large
.square-sail of matting is hoisted ; its surface and edges are stiffened by
bamboo rods. A rail lashed along each side of the raft, provides facilities
for working oars and sail.
Length, 21 ft.

Dug-outs. Of this class, usually formed of a single tree-trunk, three
rigged examples are shown :

Soriko (N. 2573), Simane district. This is a sailing canoe with a
peculiar broad, upturned bow and a square covered stern.
Length, 28 ft.

Sailing canoe (N. 2574), Okinawa or Liu-kiu Islands. It has a lofty
mast with long narrow sail. stretched upon five separate yards or cross-spars.
Length, 28 ft.

Outrigger canoe (N. 2575), Ogasawara or Bonin Islands. It is a double-
nded boat with an outrigged log at about 8 ft. from one side (see No. 546).
There is a single mast with sprit-sail ; weatherly qualities are given by short
curved decks at each end.

Length, 30 ft.

Partially built-up vessels. The lower part of the hull is formed of one
or more dug-out logs, and the topsides of strakes of thick planking. There
are two examples of these :

Mochippu (N. 2577), Hokkaido district. Used in the herring fisheries.
This is an open sculling boat of light draught. It has large relative beam,
flaring sides and high ends ; there is a single stretcher amidships, and no
ribs.

Length, 25 ft.

Katzko (N. 2578). A two-masted vessel carrying standing-lug sails, and
also propelled by oars and sculls. It has a closed stern, rounded bilges,
raised middle-hatch, and a rubbing -piece worked at the junction of topsides
with the dug-out floor ; a few ribs and stretchers are fitted.

Length, 30 ft.

Wholly built-up vessels. The seven examples show most of the charac-
teristic features of Japanese shipbuilding, i.e., long fine entrance and broad
open stern ; angular bilges ; portable decks or hatches ; long sculls, made in
two loosely-connected parts, which are worked from overhanging stretchers
or beams. The overlapping strakes of plank are secured by large iron nails ;
these nails are indicated by a line of rectangular heads. The unusually wide
strakes are formed by nailing together at their edges two or more narrow
boards : -

Choro (N. 2576). This is an open sculling boat with fine lines, high bow
.and square stern ; it is fitted with internal ribs and stretchers.
Length, 20 ft.

Trawler (N. 2579), Ise-wan district. This is an improved type of vessel
rigged as a two-masted schooner ; she has an upright stem and a fixed deck
throughout with a raised portion aft carrying high bulwarks ; it shows hand
winches for working the nets.

Length, 40 ft.

Whaler (N. 2580). This is a fast, easily- manoeuvred, strongly-built
culling boat with long projecting stem and decorated sides ; it has a fixed
deck throughout.

Length, 25 ft.



168

Drifter (N. 2581). This is a three-masted vessel of full body carrying a
large dipping-lug sail aft and two small lug sails right forward ; it has a
fixed deck forward and a closed bulwark aft ; it shows arrangements for
working the rudder and has provision for using sculls.

Length, 35 ft.

Cod-fishing boat (N. 2582). This is a two-masted vessel with dipping-
lug sails and arrangements for working the rudder.
Length, 25 ft.

Oshi-okuri (N. 2583). Fish carrier of Tokio Bay. It is a single-masted
vessel with large square-sail and provision for using sculls.
Length, 30 ft.

Bonito-fishing boat (N. 2584), Kishu district. This is a two-masted
vessel carrying square-sails which are subdivided by open, vertical lacings ;
live fish for bait are carried in central wells; the model is externally
decorated in colours.

Length, 30 ft.



MASTS, YARDS, RIGGING AND SAILS.

Masts and Yards. As early as B.C. 6000 Egyptian river-
boats are represented with, a single mast and square sail. At
about the commencement of the Christian era vessels with two
and three masts appear, while in the 16th century the largest-
vessels carried four masts. At the present day the most
popular types of sailing merchant ships are barque or schooner-
rigged with from four to seven masts. In modern merchant
steamers, the masts, when retained, are used for signalling or
cargo-working purposes, while in warships they are also used as
supports for elevated firing or observation platforms.

When ships were small, masts were constructed in one
piece ; as dimensions increased, it was found impossible to
obtain trees large enough, hence recourse was had to masts
built up of pieces bound together with rope or iron, while the
height was most conveniently obtained by constructing them in
two or more lengths. Masts are now usually built of pine, with.
iron hoops driven on whilst hot or made with hinges and bolted
together. On the fore part these hoops are covered by a batten
called the rubbing paunch, which prevents spars from catching
against their edges.

Top-masts, top-gallant and royal masts are each formed out
of single sticks. Bowsprits are, when possible, made out of a
single stick or else four principal pieces, the upper and lower or
main pieces, and two side fishes, which are dowelled, bolted and
hooped together, in the same way as with a built mast. Yards
are made of fir ; the lower and topsail yards are formed either
of one stick or of two pieces joined by scarfing.

Since the general introduction of iron and steel in ship-
building all vessels constructed of these materials have their
lower masts and yards made from metal plate. The lower masts



169

are made of one, two or three plates, flush jointed ; being hollow
they form efficient ventilators for the hold of the ship ; in war
vessels the interior of the masts gives access to the military
tops, etc., by a series of foot and hand grips.

Sails. Sails have been made of materials such as skins and
membranes, while with nations that could weave, the fibres of
flax, cotton, papyrus, bamboo, and several kinds of grass, have
been worked into sheets or mats for such use. For strengthening
the edges, where the stresses are concentrated, a binding of
hide, rope, or steel wire, has usually been added. The early
sails were of the square type, in which a horizontal yard was
used to support the upper, and frequently also the lower, edge.
These were efficient only for propulsion ivith the wind ; to
make headway against the direction of prevailing winds, by
means of tacking, the " lateen," a triangular sail with inclined
yard, was introduced probably in the Mediterranean Sea just
prior to the Christian era. Large mediaeval vessels adopted the
lateen sail in combination with square sail and from this period
the sprit-sail, stay-sail and other elements of the modern " fore-
and-aft " rig were developed.

To reduce the extent of sail exposed when the wind is of
exceptional force the total area of canvas is divided into separate
sails, each of which can be separately handled, while to render
further adjustment possible many sails are provided with some
"reefing" arrangement by which portions may be furled.
Numerous methods of reefing have been tried in which the sail
was wound round the yard in the same way as a window blind



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