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lever on the right hand of the aviator elevates or depresses the tail, while
the steering wheel moves it sideways, both the motions being controlled by
steel wires kept taut by springs. The lever at the back of the aviator
controls the warping or flexing of the wings ; it is attached at its upper end
to his coat, so that by leaning over sideways in either direction the wings
are warped as required. The aviator sits beneath the engine, on a strip of
canvas stretched between the two lower bamboos of the main frame.

The engine represented is a twin-cylinder Darracq motor of 25-30 h.p.
The cylinders are placed horizontally on opposite sides of the crank-case
and are 130 mm. (5 '12 in.) diam. by 120 mm (4 '72 in.) stroke. The
engine is coupled directly to the propeller, which acts as a flywheel. Water
cooling is employed, and the radiator, consisting of numerous small copper
pipes, is placed beneath the main plane on each side. The water enters the
tubes from the cylinders at the top, and after traversing them is pumped
back again. The weight of the engine is taken at the centre by the central
bamboo, and at the cylinder ends by the transverse spars of the main
planes, which are themselves supported at these points by oval steel struts
connected with the chassis. In addition, two tie rods connect the engine at
the rear with the top bamboo of the main frame. The petrol tank is
placed above the motor and is shown on the model, but the water tank,
which is also placed above the motor, is not represented. The propeller,
6-66 ft. diam., is of the Chauviere type built up in walnut, and makes
1,500 revs, per min.

Length over main planes, 18 ft. ; breadth of planes, 6 4 ft. ; total
length of machine, 20 ft. ; main supporting surface, 115 sq. ft. ; aspect
ratio, 2 8 ; total weight of machine without pilot, 242 Ib.

1136. Model of Bleriot monoplane (cross-Channel type).
(Scale 1 : 10.) Made by Messrs. T. W. K. Clarke & Co.,
1910. Plate XII., No. 6. N. 2541.

The earliest experiments of Mons. L. Bleriot were made in 1901 with
a flapping- wing machine which failed. His first successful flight was
accomplished in July 1907, when the monoplane principle was adopted, and
the steady development of this type of machine has resulted in the
successful form shown by the model, the most notable achievements of
which were a cross-country flight of 25 miles, and the crossing of the
English Channel from Calais to Dover on July 25th, 1909. The model
shown represents the machine known as No. XI. with which the Channel
crossing was made. It is of the single-passenger type, and, with the
exception of the monoplane of M. Santos Dumont (see ~No. 1135), is the
smallest which has met with any success.

The main frame or chassis of the machine is of rectangular section, and
consists of four main members of poplar or ash supported at intervals by
vertical struts ; the whole is trussed by diagonal wires, all of which contain
strainers. In plan the frame tapers to an edge at the rear, and there is a
slight taper from front to rear when viewed sideways.

The main wings, which are removable, are attached to the sides of the
frame at the forward end. The framework of each wing consists of two
stout wooden spars placed athwartships, crossed by a large number of
curved ribs, the construction of which can be seen in the model. The front
edges of the wings are rigidly stayed by flat steel tapes to the chassis. The


wings are double-surfaced, and have a camber of about 3 5 in. in a fore-and-
aft direction, while their extremities are rounded off. In order that the
wings shall be easily removable, the inner ends of the spars extend some
inches beyond the wings and are bolted into sockets fixed to the chassis.

The auxiliary vertical steadying plane which was originally placed above
the wings has been dispensed with. The steel frame of this auxiliary plane,
however, is retained, and to it are fastened the stays which support the
main wings from the upper side.

The auxiliary surfaces consist of a tail having separate tips pivoted about
a horizontal axis, and a vertical rudder. The tail is built up in a similar
manner to the wings, but its main transverse member is a steel tube which
is carried by the lower members of the main frame and is supported in
bearings formed by aluminium clips. The tips can be inclined at will by
the aviator, but the central portion of the tail remains fixed in the position
in which it was placed at starting. Its angle of incidence can be adjusted
before leaving the ground by means of a drilled metal quadrant and a bolt.
The vertical rudder is controlled by a pedal in front of the aviator's seat
whilst the tips of the tail are operated by a vertical lever terminating in an
inverted cup- shaped fitting a method of control patented by Mons. Bleriot
in 1908. The cup is free to rock about its centre, and wires may be attached
to points on its circumference. Any two such wires diametrically opposite
to one another will form one control. The warping of the wings is effected
by this means, as is also the control of the tail.

The starting and alighting arrangement consists of a pair of bicycle
wheels at the front of the machine and a single wheel at the rear. The
wheel forks are provided with springs, and also with leather straps which
act as stops. In passing over uneven ground the wheels rise and fall and
can also incline sideways, but have springs in their connections tending to
restore them to their normal positions.

The Channel flight was accomplished with a three-cylinder Anzani motor
of the semi-radial air-cooled type, developing 24 h.p. It had a bore of
100 mm. (3 "94 in.), and a stroke of 150 mm. (5 '9 in.). The propeller,
6 66 ft. diam., was by Chauviere, built up in walnut, and made 1,400 revs,
per min.

Length over main planes, 28 ft. ; breadth of planes, 6 ft. ; total length
of machine, 25 ft. ; main supporting surface, 150 sq. ft. ; aspect ratio, 4 65 ;
total weight of machine without pilot, 462 Ib.

1137. Model of Wright biplane. (Scale 1 : 10.) Made by
Messrs. T. W. K. Clarke & Co, 1910. Plate XII, No. 7.

N. 2563.

The early experiments of Messrs. Orville and Wilbur Wright, of Dayton,
Ohio, were made with soaring machines, which were abandoned, however,
in 1903 in favour of power-driven aeroplanes. In 1906 the brothers took
out a U.S.A. patent, claiming the essential features of their improved

The model represents the biplane used by Mr. W. Wright on the race-
course of Hunaudieres, near Le Mans, in the autumn of 1908. It consists
of two horizontal superposed planes, nearly rectangular in plan, the greater
length being in a direction at right angles to the line of flight. At the rear
is a double vertical rudder for steering in a lateral direction, and in front
of the main planes two smaller superposed horizontal planes serve to control
the vertical flight path of the machine. These front and rear rudders are
nearly balanced, so that they can be easily moved by the control levers.
The small semi-circular plane between the elevators is connected with the
rear rudders and is designed to act exclusively as a tell-tale.

The aeroplane is mounted upon two wooden runners or skids, which
extend forward and form supports for the front rudder. The whole struc-
ture is braced with wooden struts and wire ropes, the vertical wooden struts
between the main planes being spaced at about 5 ft. intervals. The planes
are constructed of cotton fabric stretched over ribbed frames ; in the model

B B 2


the port side of the planes and the port rudder are uncovered in order to
show the construction of the framing. Two seats are shown, that on the
left is for the aviator, the other one being for a passenger or pupil. Only
two levers are used by Mr. Wilbur Wright, one on either side, the one on
his left being duplicated on the right-hand side of the passenger. The
left-hand lever controls the front rudder only, whilst the other one has
two controls. A fore-and-aft motion operates the rear rudder, and a motion
sideways operates the plane-warping mechanism of the machine. Side
balance is maintained through the warping of the wings ; moreover, it is
stated that the vertical rudder is never used alone in changing the direction
of the machine.

The motor, which was designed by Messrs. W. and O. Wright, is
mounted on the lower main plane, and is of the 4-cylinder vertical type, using
petrol as fuel. It weighs about 200 lb., and develops about 24 brake h.p.
at 1,200 revs, per min. It is water-cooled, the radiator consisting of flat
vertical piping stowed between the main planes. Two wooden propellers
are employed, about 8'5 ft. diam., and are mounted on parallel shafts
11 * 5 ft. apart. These propellers are driven in opposite directions at about
400 revs, per min., by chains direct from the motor shaft, one chain being
crossed. For the greater part of their length these chains are protected by
steel tubes packed with thick grease. The propeller shafts are slightly
above the middle line between the main planes, in order to prevent any risk
of the blades striking the ground. The aviator, pupil, and motor form a
load symmetrically disposed about the centre line of the machine.

The starting apparatus consists of a derrick, and a wooden rail 75 ft.
long with a flat bar of iron on the top. A starting beam, just long enough
to reach from one runner of the aeroplane to the other, is attached at its
centre by a swivel joint to a frame containing two ball-bearing wheels placed
one in front of the other. These wheels are placed on the starting rail,
small flanges keeping them in position. This arrangement allows the
aeroplane to be easily turned on the starting rail. When about to start,
the weight is drawn up to the top of the derrick, and the rope is attached
to a release catch at the front of the machine. With its own motive power,
and the impetus obtained from the falling weight, a high speed on the rail
is produced. Immediately the aeroplane rises from the rail, the starting
beam drops off.

The chief dimensions of the machine are : Length of each main plane,
40 ft. ; width, 6-5 ft. ; space between them, 6 ft. ; total supporting surface,
about 500 sq. ft. ; front auxiliary planes, 16 ft. long ; width, 2 5 ft. ; total
surface, about 75 sq. ft. ; weight of machine, about 800 lb. ; total weight
with two persons and supplies, about 1,150 lb.



The following objects were included after this volume was in
the press. Their numbers, however, indicate their serial posi-
tions in the catalogue.

53a. Rigged model of 40-gun frigate (about 1800). (Scale
1 : 120.) Lent by tlie Executrices of the late Mrs. B. J.
Colvin, 1911. N. 2592.

This represents the French frigate " Armide," which was captured,
with three similar vessels, off Rochefort in 1806 and added to the British
Navy, without changing her name.

In the above action she carried 44 guns: long 18-pr. guns on the
main deck and long 8-pr. with 36-pr. carronades, on the quarter deck and

Her burden was 1,104 tons practically the same as British 50-gun
frigates and her approximate dimensions were : Length, 154 ft. ; breadth,

249a. Rigged model of S.S. " Glenartney " (1873). (Scale
1 : 48.) Presented by Allan McGregor, Esq., 1911.

N. 2591.

This schooner-rigged vessel was one of the earliest successful steamships
regularly employed in the London and China tea trade via the Suez Canal.
She was built of iron at Glasgow in 1873 by the London and Glasgow
Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding Co., and is typical of a number of the
Glen Line steamers owned by Messrs. McGregor, Gow & Co., and employed
on similar service.

In the years 1874 to 1876 the " Glenartney " was the earliest vessel to
arrive in London with the new season's teas ; her first homeward passage
was accomplished in 44 days.

Her engines, made by the builders, were of the two-stage inverted type,
using steam at 70 Ib. per sq. in. in cylinders 44 in. and 79 in. diam. by 45 in.

Gross register. 2,100 tons; length, 330 ft.; breadth, 35 35 ft. ; depth,
24- 7 ft.

320a. Rigged model of turbine S.S. " Londonderry." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by the Midland Railway Company, 1911.

N. 2590.

This Channel steamer was built at Dumbarton in 1904 by Messrs. "W.
Denny and Bros., from designs of Messrs. Biles, Gray & Co. ; she is chiefly
employed in the Midland Railway Co.'s service between Heysham and

The hull is subdivided by eight transverse watertight bulkheads, and
there are three complete decks, in addition to a shade deck 216 ft. long
amidships. A total of 1,600 passengers may be carried, and cabin accom-
modation is provided for about 250 of these ; for heating and ventilating
the living apartments the " thermo-tank " system of humid air is fitted.
The anchor cables are worked by Baxter's capstan windlass.

In 1903 the Midland Railway Co., when approving designs for four
new steamers, decided that two of these, " Antrim " and " Donegal," should
be fitted with reciprocating engines, and two, " Londonderry " and
" Manxman," with turbines. The dimensions and general structural fea-


tures of the four vessels were to be similar, so that direct comparisons could
be made as to the merits of the two systems of propulsion. A special
feature of the " Manxman " was, however, the use of steam at 200 Ib. per
sq. in., whereas the " Londonderry " used steam at 150 Ib. with smaller
turbines. In initial cost and weight the turbine engines gave some advan-
tages, while the official trials showed a further superiority in speed, coal
consumption, and general economy ; these advantages were also emphasised
by the first year's record of actual service. The " Manxman" proved 1 knot
faster than either the " Antrim " or " Donegal," and about 75 knot faster
than the " Londonderry." The turbines are of the Parsons type, arranged
for driving three separate shafts (see No. 866) ; the high-pressure turbine
drives the central shaft, and the two low-pressure the wing shafts, to which
are also attached the two " astern " turbines. Cylindrical boilers are used,
with a total of 15 furnaces and a heating surface of 12,461 sq. ft. On
measured mile trials the speed of the " Londonderry " was 22*3 knots,
while on a six-hours' trial a speed of 21 6 knots was maintained.

Gross register, 2,100 tons ; length on water-line, 330 ft. ; breadth,
moulded, 42 ft. ; depth to promenade deck, 25 ' 5 ft.

673a. Sectional model of cantilever-framed vessel. (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., Ltd.,
1910. N. 2557.

This shows the fore-body of a modern cargo steamer of about 4,000
tons, framed on the " cantilever " system, the principal features of which
were patented by Mr. W. Dixon and Mr. Gr. M. Harroway, in 1905; the
model is sectioned through one of the main holds, so as to illustrate struc-
tural details of the system as well as its adaptation to the stowage of coal

When at sea in light condition the full-bodied type of cargo vessel is
liable to roll violently if ballasted only in the double bottom spaces. One
successful means of moderating this defect is by using side or wing water-
ballast tanks placed well above the centre of gravity of the unloaded vessel ;
to provide an efficient method of incorporating these side tanks into the hull
structure is one of the important objects of the cantilever system of framing.
Each cantilever frame-bar, instead of conforming to the ship's side from
bilge to bulwarks, is bent sharply inboard at the lower edge of the side tank
position and is ended at a continuous longitudinal deck girder in line with
the hatchway coamings. A broad diagonal plate is then worked all fore-
and-aft upon the inclined portions of the frames and thus forms, with the
ordinary side and deck plating, a water-ballast compartment of nearly
triangular section along each side of the ship ; the deck edge is supported
by the addition of short bars and bracket plates. Externally, therefore,
the cantilever-framed vessel presents no striking departure from ordinary
form ; wide hatchways are possible and the full breadth of ship is preserved
for deck cargoes. Internally, however, the hold spaces provide similar self-
trimming facilities for bulk cargoes as in the Priestrnan designs. Further,
owing to the deck support and general increase of longitudinal strength
given by the continuous tank structure, no hold pillars or stanchions are
necessary, and the side stringers and deck beams are of relatively small
scantlings. ^

The model also shows details of the deck erections and fittings usually
adopted in this class of vessel. A vertical mast or derrick post is placed
between the two foremost holds and is used in conjunction with the four
steam winches for working the cargo ; the derrick booms are heeled upon a
special steel-built platform, instead of upon the mast itself.

A considerable number of vessels of this character have been built ; they
are particularly suitable for carrying cargoes in bulk, but, with the addition
of a shelter deck, they are used also for passenger or cattle traffic.


825a. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Arrogant" (working).
(Scale 1 : 12.) Received 1909. N. 2504.

This represents generally the engines and adjacent ship -structure of
H.M.S. " Arrogant," a wooden-built auxiliary screw frigate of 47 guns,
completed about 1849.

Her dimensions were : Displacement, 2,615 tons : length (b.p.), 200 ft. ;
breadth, 45 7 ft. ; draught, 20 ft.

The " Arrogant," together with her sister ship " Encounter," was fitted
by Messrs. John Penn and Son with horizontal trunk engines, and was one
of the earliest vessels so fitted. A later example of Penn's trunk engine
having the same general arrangement is shown in No. 845.

The engines represented had two simple cylinders, equivalent in area to
55 in. diam. by 36 in. stroke, and drove a propeller 15 '5 ft. diam. by 15 ft.
pitch. The cranks were forged in one piece with the shaft, and the model
shows balance weights. The air-pumps were double-acting and were
situated within the condenser.

On trial in 1853, H.M.S. " Arrogant," with 61 revs, per min. of the
engines, developed 774 indicated h.p., which gave the vessel a speed of 8-6





Queen Victoria, H.M.


Admiralty, The 172, 180, 181, 194, 1!).-),

197-201, 203-209, 213, 215, 216, 219,

220, 227, 299, 306-310, 330, 336, 348,

349, 351, 352, 360, 365, 367.

Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., The 93, 122,


Airtight Smoke Box Door Syndi-
cate 311

Alderson, C. H. M. A., Esq. - 383, 384
Alexander, P. Y., Esq. - - 383, 384
Amazon Steam Navigation Co.,

The 101

Amory, Sir John H. Heathcoat,

Bart, 384

Anderson, J. G. S., Esq. - - 276
Anderson, J. S., Esq. - - 116

Andrews, W., Esq. - - - 338
Armstrong, Sir W. G., Mitchell

& Co., Messrs. - - 40, 42, 89, 95
Arts, The Society of - - - 332
Aspiriall's Patent Governor Co. - 288
Aylen, J., Capt., R.N. - - 361

Babbage, H. P., Maj.-Gen. - 235
Babcock and Wilcox. Ltd..

Messrs. - - - 302
Baird. G., Esq. - - - - 135, 248
Barclay, Curie & Co., Messrs. 45, 59. 77. 79
Barnett, J., Esq. - - 1 30

Barrow Shipbuilding & Engi-
neering Co., The - - 82, 86, 87
Bates. Austin & Co., Messrs. - 348
Batten. A., Esq. - - - 150
Batten, W., Esq. - - - 367
Baxter, H. C., Esq. - - - 357. 363
Belcher, Adm. Sir E., K.C.B. - 360
Bertbon, Rev. E. L. - - 134, 372, 373
Bigger, C. J., Esq. - - - 59
Birnie. W. R., Esq. - - - 153
Blyth Shipbuilding Co.. The - 93
Bodmer. R., Esq. - 263

Bompas, G. C., Esq. - 129-132. 138-140
Bom pas, Mrs. - - - 155

Bonney, F. A. B., Esq. - - 18
Bow, M-Lachlan & Co., Messrs. 354
Boyle, R. & Son, Messrs. - - 214
Bracey, J., Esq. - - 138

Brassey, The Rt. Hon. Earl,

K.C.B. - - - 49,119
Bridson, A. H., Esq. - - - 110
Brooke, J W. & Co., Ltd..

Messrs. - - - 122
Brown Bros., & Co.. Messrs. - 287
Brown, Sir C. Gage, K.C.B. - 305
Brown, John & Co., Ltd., Messrs. 311
Brown, Lenox & Co., Messrs. ' - 364, 366
Brunet, J. J., Esq. - - - 319, 321
Bucknall, H. C., Esq. - - 129, 141
Bullivant & Co.. Messrs. 249, 251 , 252, 291 ,
319-322. 329. 332. 339, 356, 358
Bullock, Adm. F., R.N.' - - 371

12. 13, 15, 16, 126


Bund, J. Willis, Esq. - 125

Burgess, W. S., Esq. - - - 115,116

Burgoyiie, H. T., Capt., R.N. - 77. 170
Burke, H., Esq. 20

Burns, G. & J., Messrs. - - 98

Burrell, H., Esq. - - - 218

Buss, T. 0., Esq. - - - 313

Byers, W. L., & Co., Messrs. - 364

Cam I & Ray ner. Messrs.
Cammell, Laird & Co.,

Messrs. ...
Campbell. A. J., Esq.
Campbell, J., Esq.

- 314


- 380

- 223,225

55, 58

Camper & Nicholsons, Messrs. 110, 111.

115, 12o
Canadian Commissioners to the

Fisheries Exhibition - - 154
Can-on Co.. The - - 214,215,218
Caudwell, H., Esq. - - - 196
Cayzer, Irvine. & Co., Messrs. - 88,100
Chance Bros. & Co.. Messrs. - 236
Chaplin, A., Esq. - - - ?,46
Child, Walter, Esq. - - - 128, 333
Chinese Commissioners to the

Fisheries Exhibition - - 162, 103
Christy. Thos., & Co., Messrs. - 226
City of Cork Steam Packet Co. - 61
Civil Engineers. Institution of - 250,251,
280,281, 340

Clark. J. A. R., Esq. - - - 151
Clark & Staiidneld. Messrs. - 224
Clarke, Hyde, Esq. - - - 18
Clarke. F. C. Pickering Capt..

R.N. - - 232

Clarke, T. W. K. & Co., Messrs. 165. 166
Claxton, C., Capt.. R.N. - - 64
Clough. Miss - -. 372
Coates, T. & C. J.. Messrs. - - 30<>
Cochran & Co., Messrs. - 51, 142, 297
Cochrane, Cooper & Schofield,

Messrs. 142

Colvin. Mrs. B. J. - - - 389
Commerell, Lady - - - 346
Commissioners of the 1851 Exhi-
bition, The - - - 240. 343. 361
Congalton, W., Lieut., R.N.R. - 171
Conservators of the River

Thames 227

Cooper, Sir D. - - - - 159
Cory. Wm.. & Son, Ltd., Messrs. 101, 228
Cory ton. J.. Esq. - - - 146. 362
Cox & Co., Messrs. - - - 149
Craggs, R,, & Sons. Ltd.. Messrs 202
Creswell & Co., Messrs. - 229

Crispin. W. H., Esq. - - 334,340

Crosbley, C. W., Esq. - - 334

Galley.' W. R.. Esq. - - 87

Cunard Steamship Co., Ltd..

The - - - - 61, 62, 86, 79
Cunningham. H. D. P.. Esq. - 171


Carrie. Donald, & Co., Messrs.
Dafforne, J. J., Esq. -
Daft, T. B., Esq.
Darlington Forge Co., The
Davis. Elisha, Esq. -
Davis, H., Esq. -
Denny & Co., Messrs.
Denny. W.. & Bros., Messrs.


- 56, 80


- 197

- 208-212


- 261
77, 80, 81,

102, 272

- 216

- 263

- 314

- 296

- 132,140

- 7, 8, 143

- 390

- 312

Denton, W., Esq.

Des Vignes, G. F. G., Esq. -

Dewrance & Co., Messrs. -

Dickinson, J., Esq. -

Dickson. Dr. Oscar -

Dixon, J., Esq. -

Dixon, Sir Raylton, & Co. -

Dodd, T. F., Esq.

Downie, T. ....

Doxford, William, & Sons, Messrs. 99, 202

Duncan, Bros., Messrs. - - 149

Duncan, Robert, & Co., Messrs'. - 82, 194

Dimdonald, Earl of - - - 295

Dunleath, Lady - - - 110

Dunraven, Earl of - - -113,114

Dunstan Engine Works Co., The 350

Edenborough, H., Esq. - - 21
Edwardes, T. Dyer, Esq. - - 9,11
Egyptian Commissioner to the

"Paris Exhibition of 1867 - 158
Emanuel, H., Esq. - 152, 292,345, 348
" Engineer, The " - - 249

Ericsson, J., Esq. - - - 30, 268
Evans, S. T. G., Esq. 13, 14, 106, 125

Fail-bridge. K. T.. Esq. - - 239
Fail-field Shipbuilding &; Engi-
neering Co., The 44, 47, 48, 60, 83, 94,
96, 100, 121

Farnley Iron Co.. The - - 310
Fawcus, G., Esq. - 128, 150, 151

Fay, J. G., & Co., Messrs. - - 113, 114
Ferguson Bros., Messrs. - - 104
Fife, Wm., & Son, Messrs. - 111, 113, 115
Finn, H. E.. Esq. - - - 127
Fitzmaurice. Hon. J. T., Capt.,

R.N. 347

Flannery & Fawcus, Messrs. - 88
Fleming & Ferguson, Ltd.,

Messrs. - 121,378,379

Foreign Office, H.M. - - 121

Forrester, G., & Co., Messrs. - 255

Forrestt & Son, Messrs.

Foster. Rev. A. J.
Fothergill, Rev. P. A.
Fox. Samson, Esq.
Froude, W., F.R.S. -

113, 118,133,
134, 147, 148

- 157

- 337

- 297

- 179

Gaines Reversible Propeller Co.,

Ltd.. The .... 338

Gibbs, Bright & Co., Messrs. - 261, 292

Gibbs, Mrs. .... 13

Gibson, T. D. E., Esq. - - 159

Gifford, A. G.. & Co. - - - 142

Gillfc Sons, Messrs. - - - 137
Gleichen. H.S.H., Count. Capt.,

R.N. - ... - 127

Godlee, Arthur, Esq. - - - 326

Gorman, W. A., Esq. - - - 228

Gray, W., Esq. .... 295


Gray, Dawes & Co., Messrs.
Great Eastern Railway Co., The
Great Western Railway Co., The
Green, R. & H., Messrs.
Green, W. S. Clayton, Esq.

Online LibraryScience Museum (Great Britain)Catalogue of the naval and marine engineering collection in the ... museum .. → online text (page 55 of 58)