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patented by Mr. J. I. Thornycroft in 1873 and 1879. In 1877, 1881, and
1883 a series of experiments were made on the " Lightning " with various
forms of guide-blade propellers {see No. 998).

Displacement, 30 tons; length, 84 feet; breadth, 10-9 feet: draught
(mean), 5 feet.

117. Whole model of second class torpedo boat. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Lent by Messrs. John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., 1909.

N. 2518.

This represents an early type of torpedo boat for carrying on shipboard.
It is similar in general design to No. 116, but of smaller dimensions, and
was built of steel at Chiswick in 1879 by Messrs. Thornycroft, who eventually
completed about 70 of these craft for Great Britain and the Colonies, as
well as a large number for France and Italy.



40

The average weight of these boats, with equipment, was about 10 5 tons,
and they were stowed on the upper decks of large warships ; special davits
were fitted for lifting and lowering them.

Locomotive boilers were used, and the initial steam could be raised
quickly by a steam heating apparatus fed from the ship's boilers. The
engines were of two-stage expansion type with surface condensers ; with
170 indicated h.p. a speed of 17 ' 75 knots was realised.

An armament of two 14-in. Whitehead torpedoes was carried amidships.
The method of discharge, patented by Mr. J. I. Thornycroft in 1877,
differed from that adopted on the larger boats, in that a light steel dis-
charging frame or cradle on each side, earned a torpedo in stowing position,
and by means of a rocking shaft, suspension levers, and tackles, the whole
could be rapidly lowered to a firing position below the water-line. Other
forms of dropping or discharging gear were also fitted on this type of
vessel.

Length, 60 -3 feet; breadth, 7-5 feet.

118. Photograph of Chilian cruiser " Esmeralda." Presented
by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 1884. N. 1672.

This twin-screw cruiser, built at Newcastle in 1884, was designed,
constructed, armed, and equipped by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell &
Co. for the Chilian Government. She was the first example of the modern
protected cruiser class.

The " Esmeralda " is framed on the ordinary transverse system, and has
three decks ; the upper or gun deck is 11 ft. above water, the main deck
about 5 ft., and the lower or arched protective deck, which is of 1-in. steel
and extends from stem to stern, is at the middle 1 ft. below water level,
and at the sides 5 ft. It forms a protection to the engines, boilers,
magazines, and all vital parts of the ship, while the main deck is occupied
by the quarters of the officers and crew. Minute sub- division of the hold
space below the protective deck and of the space between it and the main
deck is effected by means of transverse and longitudinal bulkheads and of
horizontal flats or platforms ; cork is also packed in cellular spaces, to ensure
sufficient buoyancy and trim in case the water-line region should be riddled.
The bow is provided with a ram.

She is propelled by two independent sets of two-stage expansion engines,
with cylinders 41 in. and 82 in. diameter by 36 in. stroke, driving twin
screws, which, with 120 to 130 revs, and 6,500 indicated h.p., gave a speed
of 18-25 knots.

Steam, at 90 Ib. pressure, is supplied by four double-ended boilers 13 ft.
diarn., and 18 '5 ft. long, each with six furnaces supplied with forced
draught. Her coal bunker capacity is 600 tons, or sufficient for 8,000 miles
at a speed of 8 knots, or 6,000 miles at 10 knots. Her armament is : Two
25-ton 10-in. B.L.B. guns, protected by steel screens, and having a training
arc of 120 deg. on either side of the keel ; six 4-ton 6-in. B.L.R. guns ; two
6-pr. Q.F., and a number of machine guns, as well as three torpedo tubes.
She is fitted with two military masts, with a Gardner gun in each.

Displacement, 3,000 tons ; length, 270 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; draught of
water, 18 '5 ft.

119, Masted whole model of Japanese cruisers "Naniwa"
and " Takachiho." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Sir W. G.
Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 1887. N. 1724.

These deck-protected cruisers, built of steel at Newcastle- on -Tyne in
1885 for the Japanese Government, played a prominent part in the war
between China and Japan. The " Naniwa," before the declaration of war
between the two countries, sank the " Kowshing," with 1,200 Chinese
soldiers on board ; both cruisers afterwards took part in the battle of Yalu
and the subsequent operations. They are each fitted with two military
masts, and to provide for ramming have their stems formed of solid steel
forgings, strongly supported by the protective decks.



41

They have two sets of horizontal two-stage expansion engines driving
twin screws, the engine-rooms being distinct. At the official trial of the
" Naniwa " a mean speed of 18 -7 knots was obtained with 7,235 indicated
h.p. at 125 revs, per min.

Steam is supplied by six steel boilers 19 ft. by 11 ft., with a collective
heating surface of 15,600 sq. ft. The total coal stowage is 800 tons, which
is capable of driving the ship 9,000 miles, at a speed of 13 knots.

Their armament is : At the bo^v and stern, two 10-in. guns, 35 calibres
in length, are mounted 011 revolving centre-pivot carriages, giving an unin-
terrupted arc of fire of 240 deg. Spaced along each broadside on sponsoiis
are six 6 -in. guns, 35 calibres in length, with a horizontal range of 130 deg.,
mounted on Yavasseur centre-pivot automatic carriages, and covered by
steel shields. Along the upper works, and in the tops, are a number of
machine guns, while at the ends of the bridge are placed two 6-pr. Q.F.
guns. The crew consists of 325 officers and men.

Displacement. 3,650 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; breadth, 46 ft. ; draught,
18 -5 ft.

120. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Alacrity" and "Surprise."
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron
Co., 1887. N. 1726.

These three-masted, schooner-rigged, despatch vessels were built of steel
in 1885 at Jarrow.

Each is propelled by two sets of horizontal two-stage expansion engines,
with cylinders 26 in. and 50 in. diarn., by 34 in. stroke. The engines are
protected by an inclined steel deck. The indicated h.p. with forced
draught was 3,180 at 135 revs, per min., giving a speed of 18 knots ; while
under natural draught the h.p. was 2,160, the revs. 124, and the speed
16-5 knots.

Steam at 100 Ib. pressure is supplied by two boilers 10 3 ft. diam. and
two 9-5 ft. diam., all 17 ft. long. The total heating surface is 7,032 sq. ft.,
and there are ten corrugated furnaces. The forward and after stokeholds
are distinct from one another.

The twin screws are of gun-metal, and three-bladed, 11 ft. diam., 14 7 ft.
pitch, and 13 5 ft. between centres.

The armaments are : " Alacrity," ten 6-pr. Q.F., and two machine guns.
" Surprise," four 5-in., four 6-pr. Q.F., and two machine guns.

Displacement, 1,400 tons ; length, 250 ft. ; breadth, 32 '5 ft. ; draught,
13ft.

121. Whole model of shallow-draught war steamer. (Scale
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd.,
1909. N. 2521.

This represents in general features the design of shallow-draught steamer
used by the Gordon Belief Expedition on the River Nile. Five of these
were constructed at Chiswick in 1885, and for convenience in transport each
vessel was made in eight separate sections.

The hull was of light steel framing and plating, with bullet-proof nickel
plates 25 in. thick around the machinery spaces, deck houses, and conning
tower. A longitudinal middle line bulkhead passed through the engine
and boiler rooms, and further sub -division was obtained before, and abaft
these, by transverse watertight bulkheads. There was a loopholed deck
house below and a conning tower above the superstructive deck. Steam
steering engines, as well as a hand tiller, were used for working the three
rudders. A steam capstan in the bow provided powerful haulage in case of
grounding or when navigating rapids.

There were two complete sets of propelling engines of two-stage
expansion type with surface condensers. Each line of shafting is shown
with two propellers, and, to increase the available depth of water, they are
arranged in tunnels or recesses formed under the bottom. A system of



42

propulsion with guide-blade screws was adopted on some of these vessels.
With 400 indicated h.p. a speed of 17 knots was attained.

Displacement, 73 tons ; length, 140 ft. ; breadth, 21 ft. ; draught (fully
laden), 2 ft.

122. Whole model of guard boat for mine-fields. (Scale 1 : 24.)
Lent by Messrs. John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., 1909.

N. 2520.

This represents a design, prepared by Messrs. Thornycroft about 1885,
for a guard boat for use in the vicinity of explosive mines.

Rapid manoeuvring power is provided by twin rudders of the fin-shaped
balanced form, which partially enclose a single propeller. Special side and
under guards are added to prevent the fouling of the propeller blades. Two
machine guns, behind a loop-holed shield aft, and a 3-pr. Q.F. gun forward,
specially mounted and screened, constituted the proposed armament.

The overall dimensions were to be : Length, 52 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft.

123. Whole model of torpedo gunboat. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Presented by Messrs. J. and G. Rennie, 1893. N. 2018.

This represents a torpedo boat destroyer of the "Sharpshooter" class,
designed in 1886.

The engines were intended to develop 4,500 indicated h.p., and, driving
twin screws, to give a speed of 21 knots, but difficulties were experienced
with the locomotive boilers, and it was not found possible to obtain more
than 3,700 indicated h.p., and a speed of 20 knots. The coal bunker
capacity was about 100 tons.

The armament shown in the model is one 4'7-in. Q.F. on the forecastle,
and four 3-pr. Q.F.'s, with bow and stern torpedo tubes and two launching
carriages.

Displacement, 735 tons ; length, 230 ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. ; depth, 11 ft. ;
draught, 8 -25 ft.

124. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Victoria." (Scale 1:48.)
Lent by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co, 1887.
Plate III, No. 5. N. 1723.

This single-turret, steel-armoured, first class battleship, built at New-
castle-on-Tyne in 1887, was sunk in a collision with H.M.S. " Camperdown,"
June 23rd, 1893, off the coast of Syria, with the loss of 339 officers and men.

The armour was compound, and from 16 to 18 in. thick, while there was
a protective deck 3 in. thick.

The engines were two three-stage expansion sets, with cylinders 43 in.,
62 in. and 96 in. diam., by 51 in. stroke. Steam at 135 Ib. pressure was
supplied by eight steel boilers, with four furnaces in each, the whole being
fired from four independent stokeholds. She stowed 1,200 tons of coal.

The collective indicated h.p. under natural draught was 8,038, which
gave a speed of 16 knots, while under forced draught it was 14,244 at
100*8 revs., which gave a speed of 17*25 knots. The twin propellers were
16 ft. diam.

The armament was two 16 '25 in. 111-ton B.L.R., one 29-ton B.L.R.,
twelve 6-in B.L.R., twelve 6-pr. Q.F., twelve 3-pr. Q.F., eight machine guns,
and several torpedo tubes.

Displacement, 10,470 tons; length, 340 ft.; breadth, 70 ft.; depth,
27 -25 ft.

125. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Benbow." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co, 1898.

N. 2109.

This first class battleship was built of steel at Blackwall in 1888, and
is one of the " Admiral " class.



43

The hull is divided into 190 compartments, and the double bottom is
carried beyond the citadel bulkheads in both directions ; further protection
against injury from below is afforded by a watertight platform over the hold
throughout the entire length of the ship. Between this platform and the
protective deck are the boilers, engines, and magazines ; from the hold up
to the main deck there are practically three skins.

Protection from shot and shell is afforded by a belt of steel-faced
armour 18 in. thick and about 150 ft. in length, covering the sides amid-
ships to a depth of 5 ft. below the load water-line, and to a height of
2 5 ft. above it. Over the part so covered is a 3-in. steel deck, built up
of two thicknesses of '5-in. plating and one 2 in. thick. Below this mid-
ship protective deck there is a splinter deck '375 in., to further protect
the machinery and forced draught arrangements. Across the ends of this
citadel are bulkheads of 18-in. armour.

The sides of the auxiliary battery, above the upper deck, are of steel
1 in. thick, but its sloping ends have 6-in. armour as a protection against
a raking fire. When the coal bunkers along the sides of the ship are full,
they oppose a thickness of 9 ft. of coal to the passage of shot. On the
lower deck is a horizontal athwart-ship chamber, into which water can be
introduced to check excessive rolling (see No. 606).

The two barbettes each cover a space on the upper deck of about
45 ft. by 60 ft., being pear-shaped in plan, so as to leave room for the
loading gear ; they have steel-faced armour 12 to 14 in. thick. An
ammunition trunk, plated with 12 -in. armour, protects the charge while
being raised from the magazines. A wire rope raises the 1,800-lb. pro-
jectiles and the 960-lb. charges, which are in two portions.

She is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines, which,
under forced draught, indicate 11,500 h.p., and give a speed of 16 -75
knots.

Steam at 90 Ib. pressure is supplied by 12 oval-shaped steel boilers,
arranged athwart-ships, each boiler 12 3 ft. wide, 14 83 ft. high, and
9 92 ft. long ; there are 36 furnaces, and 20,440 sq. ft. of heating surface
while the forced draught is supplied by 8 fans, 5 ft. diam. The coal
bunker capacity is 1,200 tons, sufficient for 7,100 miles at 10 knots. The
twin screws are 16 ft. diam. and four-bladed.

The armament consists of two 16*25 in. Ill -ton breech-loading guns, one
in either barbette, having a muzzle velocity of 2,100 ft. per sec. and a penetra-
tion of 32-5 in. of iron at 1,000 yds. The auxiliary armament consists of
ten 6-in. Q.F. with a penetration of 10 '3 in., eight 6-pr. Q.F., ten 3-pr. Q.F.,
seven machine guns, and two boat guns. She has one fixed torpedo tube in
the bow and four launching carriages for torpedoes on the broadside. The
ship's complement is 430 men.

Displacement, 10,600 tons ; length, 330 ft. ; breadth, 68 5 ft. ; depth,
37 12 ft. ; draught of water, 28 3 ft.

126. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Orlando." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co., 1891.

N. 2000.

This first class, belted, deck-protected, steel-built cruiser was launched in
1888 at Jarrow-on-Tyne ; she is fitted with two military masts.

She has two sets of three-stage expansion engines, with cylinders 36 in.,
52 in., and 78 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke, indicating 8,500 h.p., and driving
twin screws 14 5 ft. diam. and 18 75 ft. pitch.

The belt is of compound armour 10 in. thick, while there is a steel
protective deck 2 in. thick, which extends from just above the water-line to
5 5 ft. below. The armament consists of two 9 25-in. 22-ton B.L.R., ten
6-in. B.L.B., sixteen 6-pr. and 3-pr. Q.F., six machine guns, and torpedo
tubes. The ship's complement is 484, and she has a coal bunker capacity of
900 tons.

Displacement, 5,600 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; breadth, 56 ft. ; draught,
22-5 ft.



44

127. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Magicienne.'' (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.,
1901. N. 2268.

This third class cruiser was built of steel at Glasgow, in 1888, by the
Fairfield Co., from the designs of Sir W. H. White, Director of Naval
Construction. She is barque-rigged and is fitted with twin screws.

The hull is constructed with a cellular double bottom, for carrying water
ballast, and is divided into ten watertight compartments, two of which are
occupied by the engines and two more by the boilers. The ram, stern and
rudder posts, together with the brackets for the screws, are bi'onze castings,
weighing altogther about 45 tons. Being intended to keep at sea, she is
sheathed with two 3-in. layers of teak and an outer sheathing of copper.
The rudder is of the balanced type and can be worked by hand or steam
gear from the bridge, conning tower, or from below. There is a 2- in.
protective deck, springing from 5 ft. below the water-line and rising 1 ft.
above it amidships.

The " Magicienne " was one of the last war- vessels fitted with horizontal
engines ; these are of the three-stage expansion type, and are in two sets,
with cylinders 34*5 in. diam., 51 in. diam., and 76 "5 in. diam. by 36 in.
stroke. Steam at 155 Ib. pressure is supplied by four double-ended Scotch
boilers, each with six corrugated furnaces and three combustion chambers ;
the total grate area is 535 sq. ft., and the heating surface 13,616 sq. ft. On
trial with a forced- draught pressure of 2 2 in. of water and an engine speed
of 140 revs, per min., the total indicated h.p. was 9,280, and the speed attained
18 knots. The coal bunker capacity is 400 tons, which gives a radius of
action, at 10 knots, of 8,000 nautical miles.

Her armament is: Six 6-in. B.L. guns, nine 6-pr. Q.F., one 3-pr. Q.F.,
and six torpedo discharge tubes. Complement, 300 men.

Displacement, 2,950 tons ; length, 265 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; draught of
water, 17 "5 ft.



128. Drawing of H.M.S. " Blake." (Scale 1:48.) Maudslay
Collection, 1900. N. 2253.

The " Blake," a first class twin-screw deck-protected cruiser, was
designed by the Admiralty and built of steel at Chatham in 1889-91.

Her engines, which were a new departure in the Navy, consist of four
distinct sets of three-stage-expansion inverted engines, coupled in pairs to
the two propeller shafts ; the cylinders are 36 in., 52 in., and 80 in. diarn. by
48 in. stroke. The forward sets are so arranged as to be easily disconnected
when only slow or moderate speeds are required. Each set has an air pump,
33 in. diain. by 2 ft. stroke, and a surface condenser with a cooling area of
2,250 sq. ft. ; also an independently driven centrifugal pump 45 in. diam. for
circulating, but capable of drawing from the bilge. Steam at 155 Ib. is
supplied by six doubled-ended Scotch boilers, with eight furnaces in each
fitted for forced draught ; the total fire grate area is 863 sq. ft., and the
heating surface 26,936 sq. ft. The screws are 18 25 ft. diam. and 24 5 ft.
mean pitch.

At her trial in 1891, with steam at 125 '5 Ib., air pressure '42 in., and
88 '8 revs, per min., 14,525 indicated h.p. was developed and a mean speed of
19 12 knots attained. Under forced draught it was expected that 17,000
indicated h.p. would be developed and a speed of 22 knots realised, but
this was never tested.

Her armament was: Two 9'2-in. 22-ton B.L. ; ten 6-in. 5-ton B.L. ;
sixteen 3-pr. Q.F. ; eight machine guns and four torpedo tubes ; her
complement was 570 men.

Displacement, 9,000 tons ; length, 375 ft. ; breadth, 65 ft. ; draught,
25* 7 ft. ; coal stowage, 1,500 tons.



45

129. Rigged model of first class torpedo boat. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Messrs. John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., 1909.

N. 2519.

This represents an improved type of torpedo boat built at Chiswick in
1892. The shape of stern, the flattened after-sections, and the steering
arrangements were novel features v afterwards adopted in larger vessels of
the " Daring " class (see No. 130) and similar destroyer types. Steering was
effected by twin rudders of the fin- shaped, balanced form, placed outside
and abreast of the propellers.

Water-tube boilers of the " Thornycroft " type were installed, with two
sets of three-stage expansion engines ; together these developed about
2,000 indicated h.p. and gave a service speed of 23 knots.

The armament consisted of three 3-pr. Q.F. guns and three 18-in.
torpedo tubes ; two of these latter were pivoted on the after deck and the
other formed a fixed bow-tube, an arrangement now obsolete.

Displacement, 130 tons; length, 140 ft.; breadth, 15 '5 ft.; draught,
5-3 ft.

130. Diagrams showing the development of torpedo boat
destroyers. (Scale 1 : 32.) Contributed by Messrs. John
I. Thornycroft & Co., 1895. N. 2059.

These were prepared to illustrate a paper by Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft
and S. W. Bamaby, read before the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1895.

Fig. 1 represents the earliest type of vessel specially designed to capture
or destroy torpedo boats. It was introduced in 1885, the intentions being
that with high speed and some armament such craft would overtake torpedo
boats and sink them by gun fire. They were 125 ft. in length, of 65 tons
displacement, 19 to 21 knots speed, and they carried two 3-pr. Q.F. guns
and three Nordenfeldts. Fifty-four of these vessels were constructed, but
before completion they were changed into torpedo boats.

Fig. 3 represents a larger type, built in 1886, and known as the " Rattle-
snake " class. The length was 200 ft. ; displacement, 550 tons ; speed,
18 '5 knots; and armament, one 4-in. gun, six 3-prs., and four torpedo
tubes. This was followed by a still larger type forming the " Sharp-
shooter " class of " torpedo gunboats " (see No. 123) in which the length
is 230 ft. ; displacement, 735 tons ; and the speed, 19 to 20 knots (with
locomotive boilers).

Fig. 4 shows the " Speedy," built in 1892. Its length is 230 ft. ; dis-
placement, 810 tons ; and speed, 20 5 knots, with Thomycroft water-tube
boilers (see No. 902). The armament is two 4'7-in. Q.F. guns, four 3-prs.,
and three torpedo tubes.

Fig. 5 shows a vessel of the " Dryad " class, commenced in 1893. The
length is 250 ft. ; displacement, 1,070 tons ; speed, 19 knots. The arma-
ment is two 4'7-in. Q.F. guns, four 6-prs., and three torpedo tubes.
Although these larger dimensions permitted heavier armament, with better
protection and sea-going qualities, there was no corresponding increase in
speed, while the speeds of torpedo boats had reached 26 to 27 knots. To
meet this difficulty a smaller type of destroyer, represented by Fig. 2, and
known as the " Daring " class, was introduced in the same year. The
length is 185 ft. ; displacement, 260 tons ; armament, one 12-pr. gun and
six 6-prs. These vessels, while having less draught of water than many
torpedo boats, have attained a speed of over 29 knots.

Fig. 6 shows the general appearance of the " Daring " when fully
equipped and under steam. A wall diagram in an adjoining section shows
also the curves of weight, buoyancy, &c., for this vessel.

131. Rigged model of H.M. paddle tug " Dromedary." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., 1905.
Plate III, No. 6. N. 2375.

The steel, paddle-wheel tug was built in 1894 by Messrs, Barclay, Curie
& Co., for the Admiralty, and is employed for towing and general harbour
purposes at Portsmouth.



46

The engines are two-stage expansion with oscillating cylinders 31 in. and
55 -37 in. diam. by 56 '5 in. stroke, and indicate 1,266 h.p. at a speed of 12
knots. Two Scotch boilers supply steam at 75 Ib. pressure, and the vessel
carries auxiliary machinery in addition to two fire engines, and distilling
apparatus. The paddle-wheels can be driven independently of each other,
and each contains nine floats, 9 ft. by 3 ft. 4 in.

Displacement, 680 tons ; length, 144 ft. ; breadth over plating, 27 '4 ft. ;
mean draught, 10 75 ft.

132. Whole model of Russian destroyer " Sokol." (Scale
1 : 32.) Presented by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., 1900. Plate
III, No. 7. N. 2257.

This torpedo boat destroyer, built by Messrs. Yarrow & Co. in 1895,
proved herself on trial to be the fastest steamer afloat and was the first
vessel that attained a speed of 30 knots. The hull is constructed of nickel
steel, and, to further minimise the weight, aluminium is used in many of the
fittings, while aluminium and special bronzes are extensively resorted to for
portions of the machinery.

The vessel is propelled by twin screws driven by three- stage expansion
engines with cylinders 18 in., 26 in., and 39 '5 in. diam. by 18 in. stroke,
which are together capable of developing 4,400 indicated h.p. Steam at
160 Ib. pressure is supplied by eight Yarrow water-tube boilers, each fitted
with a transverse diaphragm separating it from the stokehold so as to protect
the stokers from the steam or water that would escape should the boiler be
pierced by shot. On the preliminary trial the mean speed for the measured
mile was 30 28 knots, and the power exerted 4,039 indicated h.p.

On the official trial of the " Sokol," partly loaded, the mean speed of six
runs was 29 77 knots with 405 revs, per min. of the engines. For the total
run of three hours, the speed was 29 '76 knots and the coal consumed 10-35



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