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tons, with an air pressure in the stokehold of 1 '12 in. ; the steam pressure
was 160 Ib., and the mean indicated h.p. 3,800, giving a coal consumption of
2 03 Ib. per i.h.p. per hour.

The armament consists of one 12-pr. Q.F. gun on the steering tower
forward, and three 6-pr. Q.F. guns on deck, also two swivel deck torpedo
tubes for discharging 16-in. torpedoes over either beam.

Displacement, 240 tons ; length, 190 ft. ; breadth, 18 5 ft. ; draught, 7 ft.

133. Half block model of H.M.S. " Powerful." (Scale 1 : 150.)
Received 1905. N. 2363.

This first class protected cruiser was built of steel at Barrow-in-Furness
in 1895-7 by the Naval Construction and Armaments Co. ; she was repaired
and refitted in 1902, by their successors Messrs. Vickers, Sons & Maxim.

The vessel was a new departure in Admiralty practice, embodying many
of the features of ocean mail steamers ; she was about 100 ft. longer than
any previous British warship, and was, with her sister ship the " Terrible."
the first large vessel in H.M. Navy fitted with water-tube boilers.

Protection is given to the vital parts of the ship by a curved steel deck,
from 3 in. to 6 in. thick, extending over the full length and associated with
protecting coal spaces to the height of the main deck abreast of the engine
and boiler rooms. In the more recent " armoured " cruisers, which have now
practically superseded the " protected" type, such protection is supplemented
by a deep belt of vertical side armour.

The " Powerful " is propelled by two sets of inverted three -stage expan-
sion engines, each with four cylinders ; a high pressure 45 in., an intermediate
70 in., and two low pressure cylinders 76 in. diam., with a common
stroke of 48 in. Steam at 260 Ib. is supplied by 48 Belleville boilers (see
No. 903) arranged in eight groups in separate watertight compartments.
During the official trials in unfavourable weather, a speed of 21 8 knots
was realised with 29,000 indicated h.p.

The model represents the vessel after the addition of four 6-in. guns (in
casemates) to the armament which now consists of: Two 9'2-in. B.L.R.



47

guns, one forward and the other aft ; 16 6-in. Q.F. ; 14 12-prs. and
eight 3-prs., with four submerged torpedo tubes. Her complement is
840 men.

Displacement, 14,200 tons ; length, over all, 538 ft. ; breadth, 71 ft. ;
draught, 22 ft.

t.

134. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Diadem." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Fairlield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.,
Ltd., 1907. N. 2448.

This first class protected cruiser, which was built and engined at
Glasgow in 1896-8, by the Fairfield Co., is representative of a class of eight
vessels, similar in design to their immediate predecessors the " Powerful "
and " Terrible " (see No. 133), but having smaller dimensions ; they have
also less speed but retain the important features of a high gun platform
and large coal supply while a reduction in draught of water enables them
to pass through the Suez Canal.

The hull of the " Diadem " is of Siemens steel and the cellular system
of construction is adopted amidships, with a close watertight sub- division of
all spaces at the extremities. To permit of long periods at sea without dry
docking, the underwater portion is sheathed with wood and copper, galvanic
action being minimized by the use of phosphor bronze castings for the
stem and stem posts, rudder-frame, and propeller brackets. Excessive
rolling of the ship is prevented by two bilge keels 3 ft. in depth and about
210 ft. long.

There is no side armour, but a thick arched deck, protecting the most
vital portions, extends from end to end in the region of the water-line ; this
deck has a total thickness of 4 in. amidships tapering to 2 5 in. at the
extremities. Coal stowage above and below the water-line gives additional
protection to the machinery spaces. Communication pipes and wires,
ammunition hoists, &c., are specially protected by armour tubes and towers.

The main armament consists of 16 6-in. Q.F. guns, twelve of which
are enclosed in broadside casemates of 4 5 in. armour, while the remainder
are carried in pairs behind armour shields, on the poop and forecastle.
Two submerged torpedo tubes are fitted forward and one above-water
tube at the stern.

The external details of the anchor and cable arrangements, both forward
and aft, are well illustrated. The capstans, riding-bitts, and other deck
fittings are shown, the capstan engines being, as usual in H.M. ships, below
the protective deck. The main cables are 2*375 in. diam. and the bower
anchors, of improved Martin type, weigh 5 5 tons each ; a simple method
of carrying these latter, in a vertical position, is here shown.

The vessel is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines each
having four cylinders with diameters 34 in., 55 in., and 64 in. (two) by 48 in.
stroke. Steam is supplied by 30 water-tube boilers of the Belleville type
(see No. 903) at a pressure of 300 Ib. per sq. in. which is reduced to 250 Ib.
at the engines. It is interesting to note that these were the first Belleville
boilers in H.M. Navy to be permanently fitted with the " economiser," an
improvement in the form of a smaller boiler or feed-water heater constructed
of 2 75 -in. tubes which is placed, with an intervening combustion chamber,
over the main boiler of 4'5-in. tubes. This arrangement results in more
perfect combustion, lower temperature of the funnel gases, and considerable
economy in fuel ; it has been generally adopted in all subsequent vessels
fitted with this type of steam generator.

During full-power steam trials in 1898 the " Diadem," on a draught
of 25-3 ft., realised a speed of 20-6 knots with 17,188 indicated h.p.

Her normal coal supply is 1,000 tons, but provision can be made for
carrying about 2,000 tons if necessary.

Displacement, 11,000 tons; length (b.p.) 435 ft.; breadth, 69 ft.;
draught, 26 ft.



48

135. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Good Hope." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.,
Ltd, 1908. N. 2492.

This first class armoured cruiser was built and engined at Glasgow
in 1900-2 by the Fairfield Co., and is representative of a class of four
vessels of about the same dimensions as H.M.S. " Powerful," but superior
in offensive and defensive qualities and in speed. The chief improvement
consists in the addition of a broadside belt of armour 396 ft. long terminating
at the after end in a 5-in. bulkhead. The after portion outside the armoured
belt has a protective deck 2 5 in. thick, while within the belt there are two
protective decks of 1 5 in. and 1 in. respectively.

Several structural alterations have been made from the design adopted
in the " Powerful " which have diminished the displacement of the vessel.
There is no poop, and the boat deck has been omitted. Wood and copper
sheathing has been dispensed with and there are no military tops to the
masts. Although cowls are fitted on the model, these have been replaced
on the vessel by wind sails for giving air to the fans in the shafts communi-
cating with the machinery spaces. The three after funnels are oval in
plan as a larger number of boilers exhaust into each of them than into
the forward one.

The main armament consists of two 9'2-in. B.L. guns within barbettes
of 6-in. armour, and sixteen 6-in. Q.F. guns mounted within two-storey
casemates of 5-in. armour. Two submerged torpedo tubes are fitted
forward, one on each side of the vessel ; their positions are indicated on
the hull of the model. An important addition in the gun fittings is a
sighting hood fitted upon all the upper casemates, which enables the gunner
to see all round without exposing himself.

The external fittings are fully shown. The anchors are stowed
horizontally and made snug to the ship's side; this is a noticeable
departure from previous ships (see No. 134). Electricity is in extended
use for working the ventilating fans, gun-hoists, &c. ; hydraulic power
is used for the boat-hoisting gear.

The vessel is propelled by two sets of inverted three-stage expansion
engines, each having four cylinders with diameters of 43 '5 in., 71 in. and
(two) 81-5 in. respectively, by 48 in. stroke. Separate condensers, each
with its own air pump, are provided for the low pressure cylinders. Great
rigidity of the framing is obtained by supporting each cylinder by two cast
standards at the rear, with the usual steel columns in front, four points
of support instead of three being thus obtained. Steam is supplied by
43 Belleville boilers of the economiser type, containing 382 elements
in all, giving a total heating surface of 71,964 sq. ft., and a grate area
of 2,314 sq. ft.

The steering gear is of the right- and left-handed screw type. This
arrangement occupies comparatively little space athwartship and so is
specially suitable for a fine-ended cruiser.

During her trials in 1902, the" Good Hope" on a draught of 26 '1 ft.
realised a speed of 23 '05 knots, with 31,071 indicated h.p. and a steam
pressure of 278 Ib. per sq. in. at the boilers.

Displacement, 14,100 tons ; length (b.p.), 500 ft. ; breadth, 71 ft, ;
depth, 40 ft. ; draught, 26 ft,

136. Drawing of torpedo boat destroyer, " Nembo " class.
(Scale 1 : 32.) Received 1908. N. 2495.

The " Nembo " class of ten twin-screw torpedo boat destroyers was
built in Italy in 1901-6, for the Italian Navy, from the designs of Messrs.
J. I. Thornycroft & Co. ; six of them were constructed at Naples by
Messrs. C. & T. T. Pattison, and the remainder at Genoa by Messrs.
Ansaldo, Armstrong & Co. In general characteristics these vessels re-
semble the " Coquette," " Cygnet," " Cynthia," " Mallard," and " Stag,"
built by Messrs. Thornycroft in 1896-1901 for the British Navy. Four



vessels of this type were also built at Chiswick in 1901 for the Japanese
Navy, and these took part in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. A similar
vessel was built for the German Navy in 1898, and one of larger dimensions
for the Swedish Navy in 1905.

The drawing shows (i) a complete sectional longitudinal elevation,
(ii) an above-deck half-plan and a sectional under-deck half-plan. From
these the main framing, watertight sub-divisions and principal structural
features of the hull can be seen, together with the general arrangement of
armament, main and auxiliary machinery, boilers, coal-bunkers, magazines,
store-rooms, cable-lockers, anchor and capstan gear, and the men's quarters.

There are two sets of three-stage expansion, four-cylinder engines, each
having a high, intermediate, and two low pressure cylinders 22 in., 29 in.,
and 30 in. diam. respectively, by 18 in. stroke. The axes of the cylinders
are inclined alternately to the right and to the left of the vertical, so as to
save longitudinal space. Steam is supplied at 220 Ib. per sq. in. by three
Thornycroft water-tube boilers each in a separate compartment, protected
at the sides and forward ends by coal-bunkers, which have a total capacity
of 80 tons ; with about 6,000 indicated h.p. a speed of 30 knots was
^attained on trial by these boats. Engines of this type are further illus-
trated in the Marine Engineering Gallery by wall diagrams of H.M.S.
" Daring" (see No. 861), and the boilers by a sectional model (see No. 908).

The armament of the "Nembo" class consists of two 18-in. torpedo
tubes carried aft, five 6-pr. Q.F. guns, and one 12-pr. Q.F. gun, the
latter mounted upon the conning tower forward. There is a complement
of 53 men.

Length, 210 ft. ; breadth, 19 '5 ft. ; draught (maximum), 7 75 ft. ;
displacement, 330 to 350 tons.

137. Diagrams of typical modern warships. (Scale 1 : 60.)
Lent by the Right Hon. Earl Brassey, K.C.B., 1905.

N. 2365.

The six diagrams shown above represent types of modern war-vessels
selected from the British, French, German and Italian Navies. They were
prepared to illustrate a paper read by Lord Brassey in March, 1905, before
the Institution of Civil Engineers in which he suggested the construction
of a number of powerful vessels, of relatively small displacement and
draught, for service in shallow waters. The " Vittorio Emanuele " was
taken as an existing vessel embodying some of the features of the type
proposed.

The following are the principal particulars of the vessels shown :





Dis-














Name.


place-
ment


Length
(Feet).


Breadth
(Feet).


Draught
(Feet).


Armour
(Inches).


Armament.


Speed
(Knots)




(Tons).














" Vittorio Eman-


12,425


435-5


73-5


27-25


10 to 4


2 12-in.


22


uele" (Italy).












12 8-in.




"Braunschweig"


12,997


398-5


73-5


24-5


10 to 4


4 11-in.


18


(Germany) 1904.












14 6-7-in.




1 Republique "
(France).


14,635


439


79-5


27-5


11 to 6


4 12-in.
18 6-4-in.


18


;< King Edward


16,350


425


78


26-75


12 to 6


4 12-in.


19


VII." (Great












4 9-2-in.




Britain) 1905.












10 6-in.




; Lord Nelson "


16,500


410


79-5


27


12 to 8


4 12-in.


18


(Great Britain).












10 9-2-in.




"Duke of Edin-


13,550


480


73-5


27


6 to 3


6 9-2-in.


22


burgh " (Great












10 6-in.




Britain).

















u 6773



50

138. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Lord Nelson." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co., Ltd., 1910.
Plate III., No. 8. N. 2559,

This twin-screw first class battleship was built and engined by the Palmer
Co. at Jarrow-on-Tyne in 1904-8 from the designs of Sir P. Watts.

In dimensions and general structural arrangements this vessel differs but
slightly from typical warships of the previous ten years ; in armour and
armament, however, a notable advance is made.

A main battery of four 12-in. guns in barbettes is retained, but in place
of a secondary battery consisting chiefly of 6-in. guns, there is a battery of
ten 9-2-in. guns enclosed in a central citadel. This powerful concentration
of gun power is peculiar to the " Lord Nelson " and the " Agamemnon " in
the British Navy and immediately preceded the general adoption of the
" Dreadnought " design with a single battery of ten 12-in. guns. For
repelling torpedo craft a number of light guns, chiefly 12-pr. and 3-pi%
are mounted upon a central superstructure which is likewise used for a
navigating and searchlight platform and a boat deck. Five submerged tubes
for the discharge of 18-in. torpedoes are fitted ; four of these are on the
broadside and one at the stern.

The heavy guns are protected at their bases by a lower tier of 12 to
14-in. Krupp armour and an upper tier of 8 in. extending from the main
to the upper deck ; beyond the citadel the side armour tapers to 6 in. at the
bow and to 4 in. at the stern. Special protection against explosive mines
or torpedoes is provided by a thick fore-and-aft bulkhead of nickel steel
extending along each side of the machinery spaces and between the inner
bottom plating and the protective deck. A complete set of torpedo defence
nets are also fitted to the actual vessel.

The propelling machinery consists of two complete sets of three- stage
expansion engines; these are in separate compartments having no com-
municating doorways. In each set there are four steam-jacketed cylinders,
a high pressure of 32* 75 in., an intermediate pressure of 52' 75 in. and two
low pressure of 60 in. diam., with a common stroke of 48 in. ; double ported
valves with relief frames are fitted to the low-pressure cylinders and piston
valves to the others. Forced lubrication is used throughout. The pro-
pellers are of manganese bronze of 15 ft. diam., and 19 ft. pitch. Steam
at 275 Ib. maximum pressure, is generated in 15 water-tube boilers of the
Babcock & Wilcox type ; they have a total grate area of 848 sq. ft. and
a heating surface of 50,265 sq. ft. During fun-power trials in 1908 a speed
of 18 '9 knots was realised with 17,445 i.h.p. There is bunker capacity
for 900 to 2,200 tons of coal and 400 tons of oil fuel. Rapid manoeuvring
is a special feature of this design.

Hinged davits are shown attached to the superstructure and also
derricks to each of the two masts ; these are used for lifting the boats
and other heavy loads. The larger derrick to the tripod main mast is
worked by hydraulic power. The observation and gun fire control positions
are shown upon the masts as well as the light spars and rigging used in
connection with wireless telegraphy.

Displacement, 16,500 tons; length (water-line), 435 ft.; breadth,.
79 5 ft. ; draught, mean, 27 ft. ; complement, 747 men.

On adjacent wall diagrams (see No. 137) the " Lord Nelson " is com-
pared with previous or contemporary warship types in British and foreign
navies.

139. Rigged model of H.M. destroyer " Viking." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co., Ltd., 1910.

N. 2560.

This represents one of the larger examples of the " Tribal " class of
ocean- going torpedo boat destroyers ; she was built and engined by the
Palmer Co. at Jarrow-on-Tyne in 1908-10. A special steel of high tensile
strength is uped in the construction of the hull.



51

For propulsion a three- shaft arrangement of Parsons steam turbine is
installed and is estimated at 15,500 shaft h.p. Steam is supplied by six
modified Yarrow water-tube boilers burning oil fuel, and a separate funnel
is fitted to each boiler. On trials, in April 1910, a speed of 33 7 knots was
attained. There is bunker capacity for about 100 tons of fuel and a
steaming radius of 1,500 miles is possible at low speeds.

The armament consists of two 18-in. deck torpedo tubes and two 4-in.
(25 Ib.) B.L. guns ; one of these latter is carried aft, and the other forward
upon a raised platform in front of the navigating and searchlight positions.

There are two lightly rigged masts fitted for the reception of wireless
telegraphic apparatus.

Displacement, 1,050 tons ; length between perpendiculars, 280 ft. ;
breadth, 27' 3 ft. ; draught, mean, 9 ft. ; complement, 71 men.

Similar in general design and armament but differing slightly in dimen-
sions, equipment, and speed are the following : " Crusader," " Maori,"
" Nubian," and " Zulu."



140. Drawings and photographs of Garrett's submarine boat
" Resurgam." Contributed by Messrs. Cochran and Co.,
1882. N. 1586.

In 1878, Mr. G. W. Gurrett experimented in the Liverpool Docks with
a small boat of this type, which was driven by manual power. From the
experience thus obtained the vessel represented was constructed in 1879
by Messrs. Cochran and Co., but it was lost at sea soon afterwards, before
it had been fully tried.

Its extreme length was 40 ft., and the maximum diameter 9ft., but this
included a wooden sheathing jacket 2 ft. thick round the middle length.
The boat was built of steel, and could be completely closed. It had a
single propeller, and a pair of horizontal rudders amidships, as well as an
ordinary rudder aft, and was controlled by three men.

The engine was of the return connecting-rod, surface condensing type,
and received steam from an internally fired cylindrical boiler, loaded to
150 Ib. pressure. When moving submerged the furnace, &c. were closed,
the heat in the boiler water supplying the steam required ; in this way a
submerged steaming radius of 12 miles was believed to be obtainable.
An air purifying device was fitted for the support of the crew while thus
confined.

141. Whole model of submarine torpedo boat. (Scale 1 : 16.)
Lent by Messrs. Vickers, Sons and Maxim, 1903.

N. 2336.

This represents, generally, the first submarine war-vessel introduced
into H.M. Navy and built by Messrs. Yickers, Sons and Maxim in 1901. It is
of the type invented by Mr. J. P. Holland, of the United States, who
constructed his first experimental boat in 1877, and finally patented the
essential details of the design in 1895. Compared with other submarines its
most distinctive feature is its method of submergence as, instead of sinking
horizontally with a level keel, it dives at a small angle like a porpoise until
the required depth is reached, when it is again caused to take a horizontal
position and course.

The plating and f raming of the boat are of steel, and of sufficient strength
to withstand the water pressure at a depth of 100 ft. ; watertight decks and
bulkheads stiffen the structure as a whole, and reduce the danger from a
collision, while the external portions of the hull are so formed as to minimise
the risk of ropes or nets becoming entangled. A superstructure deck or
platform is provided for use when the boat is running on the surface, and
there is an armoured conning tower amidships, 32 in. diam. and 4 in. thick,
for the use and protection of the navigator. Water ballast tanks throughout

D 2



52

the length provide means for altering the draught, also for preserving
longitudinal trim, and keeping the displacement constant in different
waters ; they are also utilised in the automatic arrangements for compen-
sating for the discharged weights, including fuel and torpedoes.

Two vertical and two horizontal rudders control the steering and diving
respectively, and these may be operated by hand or engine power. Com-
pressed air is used for mechanical purposes, and for ventilating the interior
when entirely submerged, while reducing and safety valves limit the pressure
to about one atmosphere.

From the outer deck rises a periscope, consisting of a tube, about 10 ft.
high, fitted at its ends with an arrangement of lenses and reflectors, which
enables a view of surrounding objects to be obtained by the navigator when
the boat is submerged ; the tube also assists the ventilation under certain
conditions of submergence. The interior of the vessel is lighted by glazed
openings in the hull, and by portable incandescent electric lamps.

The boat is propelled by a single screw, which, when running at the
surface, is driven by a gasolene engine of 160 h.p. and gives a speed of
9 knots, while the fuel supply permits of a total run of 400 nautical miles.
When submerged, an electric motor is substituted which gives a speed of
7 knots, while the storage battery supplying it has sufficient capacity to
a run of four hours ; the main engine may, however, be utilised for
re-charging the accumulators.

At the forward end of the boat is a torpedo expulsion tube, and there is
storage capacity for five torpedoes each 11 6 ft. long. An adjacent diagram
shows the general arrangement of the framing, machinery, and torpedo
stowage.

Displacement, submerged, 120 tons ; length, over all, 63*3 ft. ; breadth,
extreme, 11 75 ft. Later submarines built for H.M. Navy are 135 ft. long,
and have a surface speed of 14 knots.



MERCANTILE VESSELS.

The early merchant ships of the present era down to about
the 16th century, did not differ materially from the warships,
although at the earlier periods when Greece and Rome were
most prosperous, the fighting and the commercial fleets were,
as at present, quite distinct.

Shipbuilding was for ages entirely empirical, and till the
middle of the 19th century advanced but very slowly in both
design and construction, excepting, however, during a portion
of the 17th century. The material used for all parts was wood ;
knees, breast-hooks, and pillars, of iron were not introduced till
about 1810, tree-nails being used for the planking, and copper
fastenings for special parts.

The use of iron for the skin of a vessel was tried by John
Wilkinson, the ironmaster, as early as 1787, but the P.S.
"Aaron Manby," built at the Horseley Ironworks, Tipton,
in 1821, was the first steamer built entirely of iron. The
practical introduction of iron shipbuilding dates, however, from
1829, when John Laird of Birkenhead commenced its con-
struction ; in 1832, iron vessels were built on the Thames,



53

Clyde, and Tyne. A steamer " Sirius " of 1837 and of 180 tons
was the first iron vessel classed by Lloyd's, but the innovation
was generally opposed by shipowners, Imilders, and naval
aiithorities, and it was not till the building in this material
of the S.S. " Great Britain " (1843) by the younger Brunei, and
subsequently her survival of nearly a year's exposure while
stranded in Dundrum Bay in 1846, that iron came into general
favour. The substitution of iron for wood caused a saving in
weight of about 35 per cent., while since about 1870 the
introduction of mild steel has reduced the metal scantlings
15 per cent., so leaving a steel hull only about one-half the
weight of a wooden one.

Owing to the fouling of iron vessels on long voyages and
the consequent reduction of speed, many attempts were made
at directly sheathing an iron ship with copper, &c., but through



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