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the resulting galvanic action these were abandoned, and a
" composite " system of construction with wood planking on
iron frames was adopted: the " Tubal Cain" of 787 tons,
built in 1851, is the first ship of this class in Lloyd's Register,
but the famous China tea clippers were the most celebrated
examples of this system of building. The method, however,
proved to be expensive, and is now only used for special
purposes.

An account of the development of marine steam propulsion
is given on pages 241-4. The growth of the transatlantic
service forms a general record of the continuous development of
the mercantile steam marine and it is very clearly indicated in
a scale diagram of the ships of one of the largest companies
(see No. 305). The pioneer Atlantic liner was the P.S. " Great
Western " (1837) of 1,320 tons, which took about 14 '5 days in
her runs between Bristol and New York (see No. 182). In 1909
the S.S. "Mauretania" of 31,940 tons (see No. 607) steamed
from Queenstown to New York in 4 ' 45 days.

The advantage of large capacity for long voyages has
resulted in the building of steel sailing vessels of upwards of
4,000 tons register, the requisite sail area being obtained by
the use of four to seven masts. Some modern sailers have been
fitted with small auxiliary steam power, by which they can be
economically driven through a district of calm at a speed of
about six knots.

The classification and registration of vessels dates back to
the time of the Phoenicians, the earliest merchants ; the present
insurance register has, however, developed from the "ships
lists " prepared by the proprietor of Lloyd's Coffee House, about
the year 1700. In 1834 a great expansion was effected, and
Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping was esta-
blished in its present form, and on an international basis. The
classification, necessary for a register suited for insurance
purposes, has resulted in careful surveys and investigations
that have greatly advanced the whole science of naval con-
struction as well as the shipping industry.



54



SAILING MERCHANT YESSELS.

142. Built half model of brig " Liberty and Property." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by James Young, Esq., 1883. N. 1590.

This sailing vessel was built of wood at Whitby in 1754. She was
employed in the Shields and London coasting trade ; but her ports and some
other details suggest that she was intended for use as a war-vessel if
required.

Tonnage, 274 tons ; length, 120 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; depth at
side, 20 ft.

143. Rigged model of brig " Brotherly Love." (Scale 1 : 96.)
Lent by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1421.

This merchant sailing vessel was built of wood at Ipswich in 1 764 and in
1876 was said to be still employed as a coasting collier. Many of these small
brigs were engaged in this coasting trade, until the general introduction of
steam colliers rendered them almost obsolete.

Gross register, 214 tons; length. 86 '5 ft.; breadth, 24 ft.; depth at
side, 27 ft.

A photograph is also shown.

144. Rigged model of brig "Antelope." (Scale 1:96.)
Lent by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1420.

This vessel, built of wood at Suiiderlaiid in 1766, is shown with topsail,
courses, foretopmast, staysail, and jib set.

Tonnage, 195 tons ; length, 80 ft. ; breadth, 24 ft. ; depth at side, 20 ft.

145. Oil painting of S. " Swallow." Lent by the Peninsular
and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 1903. N. 2342.

This shipbuilders' picture, painted in 1788 by T. Limy, represents a ship
of 18 guns and about 700 tons burden, belonging to the Hon. East India
Company. About that time their ships were well armed and more strongly
built than ordinary merchantmen and the crews regularly drilled for naval
warfare.

The vessel is shown in three different positions : Bow View " Hove
to " for picking up a pilot ; Broadside Yiew Under plain sail ; Stem
View Before the wind and under all possible sail.

146. Lithograph of S. k ' The Earl Balcarres." Received 1908.

N. 2505.

This lithograph, by T. G. Button, represents one of the latest and
largest of the vessels belonging to the Hon. East India Company and known
as " East Indiamen." These vessels were superior in general construction
and equipment to ordinary trading vessels while their crews were much in
excess of trading requirements and were trained similarly to those of the
Royal Navy. They performed the duties of both man-of-war and merchant-
man and often took a successful part in naval engagements. " The Earl
Balcarres " was built at Bombay in 1815 and was sold out of the Service in
1834 when the Company ceased their trading operations. She carried 130
men, 26 18-pr. guns and was of 1,417 tons burden. The vessel is here
shown sailing " free " under plain sail and weather studding-sails.
Although carrying but one tier of guns she is painted to represent a two-
decked man-of-war.

147. Rigged model of S. " Merlin." (Scale 1 : 96.) Presented
by H. Davis, Esq., 1901. N. 2263.

This is a built model of a wooden ship constructed at St. John, ISTew
Brunswick, in 1851 and a sister ship to the " Eagle " a well known clipper



00

ship of the period. They were both originally intended for sailing between
Liverpool and New Orleans, but afterwards made voyages between England,
Australia and the East and West Indies. Such vessels have now almost
disappeared, being replaced by the " tramp " steamer which, not confining
itself to any route, goes wherever cargo is to be conveyed or procured.

Gross register, 1,030 tons ; length, K6 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 24 ft.

148. Rigged model of Bengal pilot brig. (Scale 1 : 48.)
Received 1908. Plate IV., No. 1. N. 2454.

This represents some six similar brigs built of iron in this country from
the designs of Mr. J. Thompson between 1850 and 1870 for the pilot service
at the mouth of the river Hooghly, Bengal. This day and night service is
earned on by three brigs : one brig cruises at or near the Western Channel
of the Hooghly to supply pilots to ships inward-bound to Calcutta ; another
is stationed near the Eastern Channel to receive the pilots leaving outward-
bound ships, while the third brig conveys pilots between the Eastern and
the Western Channels, a distance of about 50 miles.

These vessels are fast, easily-manoeuvred craft with excellent sea-going
qualities. A large windlass, shown forward, is provided for use with coir
hawsers.

Gross register, 250 tons ; length (b.p.), 105 ft. ; breadth, 25 ft.

Steam vessels are now being introduced for this work.

149. Rigged model of a barque (1850). (Scale 1 : 48.) Re-
ceived 1908. Plate IV., No. 2/ N. 2463.

This model was originally the property of the late W. H. Overend,
marine artist (1851-1898), and represents a wood- built, barque-rigged sailing
vessel of about the middle of the 19th century. The model was re-rigged
in the Museum in 1909.

The barque rig differs from the ship rig in having the sails on the mizen
mast fitted in a fore-and-aft direction, instead of being earned transversely
on yards. It was much in vogue in merchant craft of the 14th and 15th
-centuries, but afterwards fell into disuse, until it was revived about 50 years
ago. As fewer hands are required to manage the sails, this form of rig
reduces to some extent the working expenses of a vessel, and it is now
largely adopted both by steamers and sailing vessels. It may be noted that
on recent vessels there has been a tendency to use relatively shorter masts
and longer yards to obtain the necessary sail area.

Gross register, 900 tons : length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 32 '5 ft.

150. Half block model of S. " Fiery Cross/' (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by J. Campbell, Esq., 1869. N. 1305.

This wooden- built clipper ship was constructed by Messrs. Bennie and
Rankine at Liverpool in 1855 for the Liverpool and China trade. She
was built partly of fir, and was sheathed with yellow metal below the
water-line.

Tonnage, b.o.m.. 810; register, 686; length, 173 ft. ; breadth, 31 '5 ft.:
depth, 18 -75 ft.

151. Whole model of S. " Fiery Cross." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by J. Campbell, Esq., 1869. N. 1304.

This clipper sailing ship was designed by Mr. Bennie, and built of wood
at Liverpool in 1860 by Messrs. Chaloner, Hart, & Co., for the China
tea trade. She \vas sheathed with yellow metal and copper fastened.

Displacement at load water-line, 1,615 tons ; displacement per inch of
immersion at water-line, 10 46 tons ; register, 702 tons ; length between
perps., 185 ft.; length on load line, 181 ft.; breadth, 31'25 ft.; depth of
hold, 19 '5 ft. ; area of midship section to load water-line, 424 sq. ft. ; area
of load water-line, 4,395 sq. ft.



56

152. Lithograph of S. "Malabar." Received 1905. N. 2404,
This full-rigged clipper ship, here represented under all plain sail,

close hauled on the port tack, was built of wood at Sunderland, in 1860,
by Mr. Wm. Pile, for Mr. Richard Green, for the East Indian trade.
She was copper fastened, and her bobtom was sheathed with felt and
yellow nietal.

Tonnage, 1,350 tons; length, 207-2 ft,; breadth, 36-6 ft.; depth,
22-5 ft.

153. Half block model of centre-board schooner. (Scale
1 : 24.) Presented by the Kew Museum of Economic
Botany, 1876. N. 1406.

This vessel was built about 1860 at Victoria, British Columbia, for the
coasting trade.

Displacement, 40 tons ; length between perps., 51 ft. ; breadth, 15 ft. j
depth, 5 ft. ; draught, 3 '5 ft.

154. Half block model of S. "Victory." (Scale 1:48.)
Presented by Messrs. Laurence Hill & Co., 1865.

N. 1085,

This wooden sailing ship was built at Port Glasgow in 1863 by Messrs,
Hill & Co. for the Australian trade ; on her first voyage she ran from the
Clyde to New Zealand in seventy-two days.

Gross register, 1,199 tons ; length, 205 ft, ; breadth, 36 ft. ; depth,
22-9 ft.

155. Lithograph of clipper race (1866). Received 1905.

N. 2405.

During the years 1855-70, considerable rivalry existed between ship-
owners engaged in the China tea trade ; rewards were offered for the first
vessels arriving in London with the early teas, and as a result great
improvements were made in the building, equipping, and sailing of the
ships employed. Their route lay via the Cape of Good Hope, but since
the opening of the Suez Canal, in 1869, they have been gradually displaced
by steamships using the shorter route. The composite system of con-
struction, illustrated by drawings and models in an adjacent gallery, was.
largely adopted in this class of vessel.

This lithograph shows the last phase of a race that excited unusual
interest in shipping circles in 1866. Three vessels, "Ariel" (composite),
"Taeping" (composite), "Serica" (wood), all built by Messrs. Steele and
Son, at Greenock, and each accredited with fast homeward passages, had
started from Foo-chow-foo (China) practically together, and after losing
sight of each other during the whole voyage reached the English Channel
on the same day, each making a record passage of 99 days. This record
was reduced to 90 days by subsequent vessels. The leading clippers,
" Ariel " and " Taeping," are shown carrying stay-sails, sky-sails, studding-
sails and mizen course. The " Fiery Cross " (see No. 151) also took part
in this race and completed the passage in 101 days.

" Taeping " (1863) ; tonnage (b.m.), 767 tons ; length, 183 7 ft. ; breadth,
31-1 ft.; depth, 19 '6 ft.

"Ariel" (1865); tonnage (b.m.), 853 tons; length, 197 -4 ft.: breadth,
33 9 ft. ; depth, 19 6 ft.

156. Whole model of S. "Arundel Castle." (Scale 1:48.)
Lent by Messrs. Donald Currie & Co., 1878. N. 1509.

This iron sailing ship was built at Greenock in 1864 for the London and
Cape trade. She was ship-rigged, had two decks, and a poop deck 30 ft.
long.

Register, 1,042 tons; length, 203 ft, ; breadth, 33 -5 ft.; depth, 21'9 ft.



57

157. Half block model of schooner " James Duckett." (Scale
1 : 36.) Lent by Messrs. Thomas Grendon & Co., 1888.

N. 1803.

This three-masted schooner was built of iron at Drogheda in 1865.
Register tonnage, 232 tons ; length,^ 20 -3 ft. ; breadth, 23 ft. ; depth at
side, 12 -75 ft.

158. Rigged model of S. " Stonehouse." (Scale 1:48.)
Received 1877. Plate IV., No. 3. N. 1480.

This wooden-built clipper sailing vessel was designed in 1863-4 by
Mr. Gilbert Row and built at Pallion in 1866 by Mr. John Smurthwaite,
for the Australian trade. She had a topgallant forecastle 43 ft. long, and a
full poop 66 ft. long, where there was cabin accommodation for about 40
first-class passengers ; she had also large cargo carrying capacity. The
vessel had double topsails and was sheathed with yellow metal and copper
fastened ; in service she proved herself to be one of the fastest ships of her day.
In 1875 she was transferred to French owners and re-named " Fanny."

The model was made by Mr. Row in 1871 ; the starboard side shows the
horizontal section lines, and the port side the vertical longitudinal ones.
The masting, rigging, and sails were added in the Museum in 1906. A
complete sheer draught or line drawing of this vessel is shown on an
adjacent wall.

Gross register tonnage, 1,153; length, 209 ft.; breadth, 36 -2 ft. ^
depth, 21 -9 ft.

159. Rigged model of S. " Carmarthenshire." (Scale 1 : 96.)
Received 1909. N. 2533.

This represents a ship-rigged vessel built at Pembroke Dock in 1865 ;
she was of wood construction with iron beams.

Double topsail yards and studding sail booms are shown on the model.

The principal dimensions of the vessel were : Net register tonnage, 812 ;
length,|174- 6 ft. ; breadth, 32 7 ft. ; depth, 20 5 ft. She was omitted from
Lloyd's Registers after 1884.

160. Whole model of S. "Durham." (Scale 1:48.) Lent
by Messrs. Oswald & Co, 1867. N. 1160.

This sailing ship was built of iron at Sunderland in 1866.
Displacement at load line, 1,378 tons ; register, 998 tons ; length,.
209-5 ft. ; breadth, 34-75 ft.; depth, moulded, 21 -3 ft.

161. Lithograph of S. " Lahloo " (1867). Received 1910.

N. 2539.

This lithograph by T. Gr. Dutton represents one of the fastest of the famous
China tea clippers ; she is shown outward bound and preparing to land her
pilot. Her quickest passage from Foo-chow-foo to London was 97 days in
October- January 1870-1. She was wrecked in 1872.

The vessel was of composite construction (see sectional models and
drawings) and was built by Messrs. Steele and Sons, Greenock, in 1867.

Her principal dimensions were : Register, 799 tons ; length, 191 6 ft. ;.
breadth, 32-9 ft. ; depth, 19 -9 ft.

162. Rigged model of clipper schooner " John Wesley." (Scale
1 : 32.) Received 1908. Plate IV., No. 4. N. 2502.

This schooner-rigged clipper, of composite construction, was built at
Aberdeen in 1867 by Messrs. Hall and Sons, for the London and Australian
trade. In 1873 she was brig-rigged and passed into the employ of the
Wesleyan Missionary Society, with whom she remained until 1881, when
she again became a trading vessel. The model was rigged in the Museum



58

in 1910 from particulars supplied by Messrs. Hall, Alexander & Co., and
shows the vessel as originally fitted out.

Like all composite- built vessels (see Nos. 643 and 646) her principal
internal framing was of iron ; her outside planking was partly of American
elm and partly teak ; it was also copper-fastened and sheathed with yellow
metal below the water-line. There were two decks, with a raised quarter-
deck 35 ft. long, which were mainly planked with yellow pine.

Her principal dimensions are : Register tonnage, 238 ; length, 118 ft. ;
breadth, 23 -9 ft. ; depth, 13 -5 ft.

163. Half block model of clipper ship. (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by J. Campbell, Esq., 1869. N. 1306.

This represents a British sailing clipper of the following dimensions :
Length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; depth, 21 ft.

164. Rigged model of American schooner " E. W. Morrison."
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by Phillips Melville, Esq., 1909.

N. 2522.

This represents a wood-built three-masted fore-and-aft schooner which
was employed, about 1870, in the transport trade on the North American
lakes. She belonged to the port of Chicago and had the following approxi-
mate dimensions : Length, between perps., 85 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; register
tonnage, 150.

Yessels of the " schooner " rig carry all their sails in a fore-and-aft
direction or if of the " topsail schooner " class carry, in addition, yards and
upper sails on the foremast. (See Yachts and No. 162). Fore-and-aft
schooners have been largely developed in the coasting and lake trades of
North America since about 1860 ; they are well adapted for use in smooth
waters with off-shore winds and require a comparatively small crew to
manage them. Their usual characteristics are, high bow, full beam, wide
quarters and tall lower masts. They are principally engaged in coal, lumber,
ice and fish transport, and sometimes make oversea voyages. Recent
examples of this type of sea-going American sailing vessel show a remarkable
increase in size; they are over 300 ft. in length, 3,000 to 5,000 register tons
and carry six to seven masts.

165. Half block model of schooner "Saint." (Scale 1 : 36.)
Lent by Messrs. Thomas Grendon & Co., 1888. N. 1802.

This three-masted schooner was built of wood at Drogheda in 1870.
Gross register, 118 12 tons; carrying capacity, 204 tons ; length (b.p.),
87-16 ft. ; breadth, 21-25 ft. ; depth at side, 10 -6 ft,

166. Whole model of S. " Cygnet." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by
A. T. Rowe, Esq., 1870. * N. 1326.

This represents a wooden sailing ship on launching ways. The star-
board side shows the framing and disposition of the timbers, the port side the
planking. Her poop was 40 ft., and forecastle 28 ft. in length; in addition
she was provided with a deck-house, 24 ft. long by 12 ft. broad.

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 446 tons ; length. 144 ft. ; breadth, 26 ft. ; depth.
12ft.

167. Half block model of Ss. " Lammermoor " and " Cedric
the Saxon." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. John Reid
& Co., 1881. N. 1558.

These full-rigged sailing ships were built of iron at Glasgow in 1874-5.
Register, 1,704 tons; length, 249-5 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 23-6 ft.



59

168. Half model of S. " Japanese." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by
T. Royden, Esq., 1866. N. 1427.

This represents a wooden sailing vessel, for both passenger and cargo
service. The poop is 48 ft. long and the forecastle 38 3 ft.

Gross register, 905 tons: length, extreme, 193 ft.; breadth, 29 ft.;
depth, 20 ft.

169. Half block model of S. "County of Selkirk." (Scale
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., 1881.

N. 1555.

This four-masted sailing ship was built of iron at Glasgow in 1878 for
the " Counties " East Indian line.

Register, 1,942 tons ; length, 281 ft. ; breadth, 40 5 ft. ; depth, 24 ft.

170. Rigged model of S. "Sudbotirn." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent
by Messrs. Richardson, Duck & Co., 1896. N. 2100.

This full-rigged sailing ship was built of iron at Stockton- on- Tees in
1881. She has two steel decks ; her poop is 42 ft. and forecastle 33 ft. long.
Her bar keel is 9 5 in. deep, and she has one collision bulkhead.

Gross register, 1,750 tons ; net register, 1,700 tons ; length, 265 ft. ;
breadth, 39 ft. ; depth, 24-25 ft.

171. Half block model of S. " Palgrave." (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent
by Messrs. Win. Hamilton & Co., 1884. N. 1671.

This four-masted sailing ship was built of iron at Glasgow in 1884.
When launched she was the largest sailing ship afloat. Her masts and
lower yards are of steel, and she is fitted with a donkey boiler to supply
steam to the engines of the cranes, winches, pumps, &c.

Register, 3,111 tons ; length. 309 -5 ft. ; breadth, 48 ft. ; depth of
hold, 25 -6 ft.

172. Half block model of S. " Falls of Earn." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Messrs. Russell & Co., 1888. N. 1819.

This four-masted sailing ship was built of iron at Greenock in 1884.
She had three tiers of beams, two decks, and one bulkhead. She was fitted
with steam appliances for the general heavy work of the vessel.

Gross register, 2,386 tons; length, 300 ft.; breadth, 42 ft.; depth,
24-5 ft.

173. Half block model of barque " Maiden City." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Charles J. Bigger, Esq., 1888. N. 1812.

This barque was built of steel at Londonderry in 1887.
Gross register, 1,242 tons ; dead weight capacity, 1,950 tons ; length,
223-25 ft. ; breadth, 35 ft. ; depth, 20 -6 ft.

174. Half block model of barque " Cupica." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by Charles J. Bigger, Esq., 1888. N. 1813.

This barque was built of steel at Londonderry in 1888, and has two decks
and one bulkhead.

Gross register, 1,210 tons ; dead- weight capacity, 1,650 tons ; length,
226 ft. ; breadth, 36-4 ft. ; depth, 21-9 ft.

175. Photogravure of barque " France." Presented by Messrs.
D. and W. Henderson & Co, 1891. N. 1855.

This five-masted, barque-rigged sailing vessel was built of steel at
Glasgow in 1890 by Messrs. Henderson & Co. for the French mercantile
marine.



60

Gross register, 3,784 tons ; dead weight of cargo, 6,150 tons ; length.
361 ft.; breadth, 48 -8 ft.: depth, 25-9 ft.; water ballast capacity
2,200 tons.

176. Rigged model of barque " Pass of Melfort." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.
1896. Plate IV., No. 5. N. 209?!

This four-masted barque-rigged sailing vessel was built of steel at
Glasgow in 1891. She has one deck of steel, sheathed with wood; her
poop is 50 ft. long, forecastle 42 ft., and her bar keel is 10'5 in. deep. The
lower and topmasts are in one, and she has double topsail and topgallant
yards. Steam power is used for the heavy work of the ship.

Gross register, 2,346 tons ; net, 2,195 tons ; dead weight cargo, 3,850
tons ; length, 298 -7 ft.; breadth, 44 ft. ; depth, 24-5 ft.



STEAM PROPELLED MERCHANT VESSELS.

177. Water-colour drawing of P.S. "James Watt." Received
1905. N. 2398.

This three-masted schooner-rigged paddle-wheel steamer was built of
wood, at Glasgow, in 1822, by Messrs. J. and C. Wood, to ply between Leith
and London ; she was the largest steamship that at that time had been built.
and the first steamer entered at Lloyd's.

She was fitted with two engines of 50 h.p. each, by Messrs. James Watt
& Co. The paddle-wheels were 18 ft. diam., with 16 floats 9 ft. long by
2 ft. broad.

At 10- 5 ft. draught of water her speed was 8 7 knots.

Tonnage, 448 tons; length, 141-75 ft.; breadth, 25 -5 ft.; depth,
16 -5 ft.

178. Rigged model of P.S. " William Fawcett." (Scale 1 : 48.)
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co.,
1903. ' N. 2341.

The Peninsular Steam Navigation Co. was founded in 1837, and their
sailings were at first limited to a weekly mail and general service between
Falniouth and Gibraltar, calling at intermediate ports 011 the Atlantic
seaboard of Spain and Portugal. In 1840 they extended their service
to Egypt and, since that time, to India, China, Japan, and Australia.

The small paddle-steamer shown was built of wood in 1829 and was
acquired by the Company in 1837 to commence their contract mail service
to the Peninsular ports. Length, on deck, 74 '3 ft.; breadth, 15 -1 ft.;
depth, 8-4 ft. ; tonnage, (old measurement), 206 tons ; horse-power, 60.

179. Whole block model of the first iron steamers built on
the Thames. (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. Maud-
slay, Sons and Field, 1866. N. 1093.

This represents the paddle steamers " Lord W. Bentinck," " Thames,"
" Megna," and " Jumna," built of iron in 1832 for the Hon. East India Co.,
for the navigation of the River Ganges. They were designed and con-
structed by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, and fitted with oscillating
cylinder engines of 30 nominal h.p. The hulls were flat-bottomed, and the
vessels were shipped to India in pieces. Ten in all were ultimately supplied
for this river service.

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 275 tons ; length, 120 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; draught,
2ft.



61

180. Lithograph of Woolwich steam packets. Received 1905.

N. 2406.

These early paddle steamers were the first vessels built for the Woolwich
Steam Packet Company, which established a regular day service between
London and Woolwich in 1834, and was absorbed in 1875. The boats ran
between Htmgerford Market (now Charing Cross Pier) and Strother's
Wharf, High Street, Woolwich, calling at Greenwich and Queenhithe.

181. Lithograph of P.S. " Sirius." Presented by the City of
Cork Steam Packet Co., 1906. N. 2414.

Although several passages across the Atlantic were made by steamships
between 1819 and 1838, it was not until the latter year that the practicability
of transatlantic navigation by such vessels was fully demonstrated. In
April of that year interesting passages were made by the P.Ss. " Sirius "



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