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Nominations of M.R.C. Greenwood, Jane M. Wales, and Robert T. Watson to be associate directors of the Office of Science and Technology Policy : hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, October 28, 1993 online

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Online LibraryScience United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on CommNominations of M.R.C. Greenwood, Jane M. Wales, and Robert T. Watson to be associate directors of the Office of Science and Technology Policy : hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, October 28, 1993 → online text (page 2 of 6)
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for many years. And I would also like to thank President Clinton
and Jack Gibbons for this opportunity to serve.

Thank you.

[The prepared statement, biographical data, and questions and
answers of Dr. Greenwood follow:]

Prepared State.me.nt of M.R.C. Gree.nwood

It is a great professional and personal honor for me to appear before you today.
I am deeply grateful to have been nominated by President Clinton as Associate Di-
rector for Science in the Office of Science and Technology Policy. With your consent,
I look forward to serving the Administration by working with the Director of OSTP,
Dr. John Gibbons, and other key members of the Clinton Administration. Working
closely and coof)eratively with Congress will be especially important in our joint ef-
forts to insure the continued growth and vitality of our nation's scientific and tech-
nological enterprise.

IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND THE SPECIAL ROLE OF SCIENCE

The scientific discoveries arising from basic research in the past have been at the
heart of many fundamental changes in the way we live and work — indeed, they are
reflected in the astonishingly rapid rate at which the entire world has changed dur-
ing recent decades. As nations around the world plan for their own futures and de-
velop new sets of relationships with other nations, political leaders have increas-
ingly come to see science and technology as powerful, revolutionar>' forces. It is with
this in mind that I come before you today to suggest that we stand at the threshold
of a new century that will see a continuation of the rapid changes that have been
the striking characteristic of recent times.

There is no doubt in my mind that this scenario of change— much of it driven by
science and technology — creates the need for a new consideration of the relationship
between science and government, for a re-examination of the traditional roles of
science and technology, and for a better understanding of the ever more complex
interactions between science and technolog>'. For example, while synergistic efTects
between science and technology are more common now than in the past, and the
time scale between the discovery of new knowledge and its application is much
shorter, there remain fundamental difTerences — in purpose, in performance, and in
results — between science and technology. In the years ahead. Congress, the Admin-
istration, and members of the science and technology community must, I think,
work together on achieving a better understanding oithese roles and relationships
and the way they shape national destiny.

All of this work should be aimed at reaching a better understanding of the
changes underway and making the right kinds and levels of investment in the intel-
lectual capital of our nation. Among the circumstances we face are: 1) the increasing
sophistication of fundamental research and its dependence on more complex and
powerful instrumentation; 2) the growing complexity of the problems that are being
addressed by science; and 3) the need to bring the knowledge and insights from a
variety of scientific disciplines and a variety of perspectives to achieving a deeper
understanding of complex phenomena. For example, recent work related to the "Dec-
ade of the Brain" vividly shows the need for integration of new knowledge from such
diverse fields as molecular biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, genetics, neu-
rology, medicine and the social and behavioral sciences.



THE STATE OF SCIENCK IN Tilt; UNITED STATES

The United States remains in an enviable position of leadership in most areas of
fundamental science. This is apparent by almost any measure one cares to use —
from publication counts, to citations, to Nobel awards. Yet there are some indicators
that all is not well, and that we must move aggressively and strategically to secure
our position for the future.

• As we move into a period of relatively slow or flat growth of funding for re-
search while coping with our budget deficit problems, resource allocation and prior-
ity-setting problems will become more acute. However, even in such an environ-
ment, it is essential to maintain a well-balanced portfolio of scientific investments
to insure a continuing flow of new discoveries; to stay up with — or ahead of — other
industrial nations' research capabilities; and to improve our ability to link the ad-
vance of knowledge with broad national goals such as economic strength, health and
environmental quality, and national security.

• The inadequate state of afi'airs in our research infrastructure — lack of stable
investigator funding as well as inadequate facilities and equipment, especially in
our research universities — is a matter of increasingly grave concern. We will need
a multiagency, long-term, non-partisan policy to provide remedies in the years
ahead, or the negative consequences for U.S. research and economic well-being could
be far-reaching.

• Those of us involved with science cannot be indifferent to the evidence of the
relatively poor performance of U.S. students in science and mathematics. This is of
direct concern to our economic system and the work place that ultimately employs
these students. Nor can the marked scientific and technical illiteracy' of large num-
bers of U.S. citizens be a matter of much comfort. It is from this general population
pool that our science and engineering work force of the 21st Century will come. We
must do better in our educational system.

The support of science is mentioned specifically in President Clinton's February
22nd policy document, Technology for America's Economic Growth: A New Direction
to Build Economic Strength. Among the three primary goals, the President stated
that we must remain focused on "world leadership in basic science, mathematics,
and engineering" which includes "strong and sustained support for basic science to
protect the source of future innovations."

MY POSITION AND RESPONSIBILITY

As the OSTP Associate Director for Science, it will be my responsibility to work
with the Director, other ofBces in the Executive Office of the President, key agency
offices. Congress, and a large number of concerned stakeholders outside the federal
government. My portfolio will include a broad range of issues — the life sciences, the
physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and the social and behavioral sciences.
As a provider and facilitator of timely information and advice, I expect to be helpful
in setting budget and program priorities and in bringing about more effective man-
agement of the research enterprise. In other areas such as science, engineering and
mathematics education, I will be working to help improve our overall performance.
Finally, on subjects such as integrity in science, research facilities, and government-
university relationships in the performance of research, I expect to play an active
role.

MY CREDENTIALS AND HOPES

It is with a great deal of humility that I face the lai^ge number of matters on our
national agenda in science. No single person could hope to possess all of the req-
uisite talent and background, but I hope you will agree with the Presidentls and
Jack Gibbons' views that I bring a well-rounded set of credentials to the Executive
Office of the President.

First, as a scientist, I will bring a practical perspective to the political process
that will permit us to work together efTectively on many of the matters I have men-
tioned today. Science "is in my blood" and has been a central interest for me since
I was a small child. And even today I can personally relate to the young graduate
students who are just getting started in their careers or worrying about how they
will finance a graduate education. An NSF undergraduate summer grant in chem-
istry years ago was pivotal in shaping the plans that ultimately led to my graduate
work at the Rockefeller University. In turn, this led to twenty-five years of labora-
tory research, substantial peer-reviewed grant funding, close interactions with many
students and colleagues in the science world, and cherished mentors who helped
bring me along.



Another feature of my experience that I hope will be of value is that I have been
connected with a broad range of educational and research institutions — including
the Rockefeller University, a major research institution; Vassar, a small liberal arts
college; Columbia Medical School; and most recently, the largest public university
in the nation, the University of California at Davis. It is with UC Davis that I ac-
quired vital senior level administrative experience as Dean of Graduate Studies.

As part of staying involved in my multidisciplinary interests in science, I have
served as an officer in several dilTerent scientific and professional societies. In 1992
I was elected to the Institute of Medicine, and until my nomination by the Presi-
dent, served as Chair of the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine/
National Academy of Sciences.

From NSF summer student to graduate school dean, I think I have absorbed some
important lessons that should be enormously helpful to me in this new position: lis-
ten to many points of view; never rush to conclusions; and value the importance of
hearing the various sides of an issue from a variety of sources. And I intend to apply
these lessons in working with you!

CONCLUSION

If confirmed — and with your help — I will do my utmost to insure that this coun-
try's future is strengthened by a set of science policies of the highest quality. These
policies will be aimed at creating a fertile environment for scientific discovery as
well as enhancing processes for the dissemination and transfer of knowledge for
technical applications and for the well-being of our people and our global neighbors.

Finally, I would like to take a moment to thank publicly my son James for his
love and patience as he put up with the erratic hours and extensive travel of a sci-
entist mom over the years. Also I would like to thank President Clinton and Jack
Gibbons for this opportunity to serve my country. And for my mentors who helped
make it possible for me to be here today, Professors Margaret Wright, Elbert Tokay,
Sue Lumb, Jules Hirsch, and the recently deceased Anita Zorzoli and Eliot Stellar
as well as others, my gratitude is boundless.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.



Biographical Data

Name: Greenwood, Mary Rita (M.R.C.) Cooke; address: 5033 El Cemonte Avenue,
Davis, CA 95616; business address: 252 Mrak Hall, Graduate Studies, University
of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Position to which nominated: Associate Director for Space; date of nomination:
Aiigust 9, 1993.

Date of birth: April 11, 1943; place of birth: Gainesville, FL.

Marital status: Divorced; names and ages of children: James Robert Greenwood,
31.

Education: Auburn East High School, 1961; Vassar College, A.B., 1968; Rocke-
feller University, Ph.D., 1973; and Columbia University, postdoctoral fellow, 1974.

Employment: 8/19/93, Present Associate Director (Designate) for Science, Office of
Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC;
7/1989, Dean, Graduate Studies (on leave pending confirmation). University of Cali-
fornia, Davis, CA; 10/92-9/93, Interim Reporting Dean for the Division of Education,
University of California, Davis, CA; 7/1989-, Professor, Department of Nutrition,
University of California, Davis, CA (on leave); 7/1989-, Professor, Department of In-
ternal Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (on leave); 7/1989-90, Adjunct
Professor, Department of Biology, Vassar College; 1986-1989, Chair, Department of
Biology and John Guy Vassar Professor of Natural Sciences; 1988-89, Director, the
Howard Hughes Biological Sciences Network Program, Vassar College; 1986-88, Di-
rector, Undergraduate Research Summer Institute, Vassar College; 1985-89, Direc-
tor, Animal Model CORE Laboratory of NIH Obesity Research Center Consortium,
The Rockefeller University, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Vassar College; 1981-86,
Professor, Department of Biology, Vassar College; 1985, Visiting Professor, Depart-
ment of Clinical Chemistry, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden; 1978-89, Adjunct
Assistant Professor, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University; 1981-85,
Director, Adipose Tissue Laboratory, Obesity Research Center, Columbia University;
1982, Visiting Scientist, University of Washington Medical School, Feb-June; 1978-
81, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Vassar College; 1974-79, Adjunct
Research Associate, The Rockefeller University, New York; 1976-78, Assistant Pro-
fessor, Human (genetics and Development, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia
University; 1977-78, Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Vassar
College; 1975-76, Adjunct Assistant Professor, Human Genetics and Development,



10

Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University; 1974-75, Research Associate,
institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University; 1974-75, Adjunct instructor.
The Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York; 1973-74, Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of
Human Nutrition, Columbia University; and 1968-73, Graduate Fellow, The Rocke-
feller University, Laboratory of Human Behavior and Metabolism directed by Dr.
Jules Hirsch.

Government experience: Member, F'ood and Drug Administration Science Board,
Department of Health and Human Services, 1993; National institutes of Health,
Task force, Future of Biomedical Careers for Women, 1993; Member, NEH Nutrition
Study Sectionl 1983-87; Reviewer for 2-3 NIH or NSF ad hoc study sections a year,
1978-83; Co-Author (with P.R. Joimson) of NIH pamphlet on Obesity, completed in
early 1980; and Site visitor for EDC review group, 1979.

Political affiliations: No offices, miscellaneous small contributions to local demo-
cratic candidates.

Memberships: Professional Societies: Institute of Medicine of the National Acad-
emy of Sciences; Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research; American Association
of the Academy of Sciences; American Dietetics Association; American Institute of
Nutrition; American Psychological Society; American Society for Clinical Nutrition;
American Physiological Society; The Harvey Society; New York Academy of
Sciences; North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASO); Phi Kappa
Phi; Prytanean Society (Honorary Member); Sigma Xi; and Society for Experimental
Biology and Medicine.

SERVICE IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES

Institute of Medicine / National Academy of Sciences — Chair, Food and Nutrition
Board, Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences, 199 1-; Member, Food
Forum, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, 1993; U.S. National Com-
mittee for the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (USNC/IUNS), 199 1-;
Member, Program Committee, Institute of Medicine, 1990-; Member, Food and Nu-
trition Board of National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, 1985-;
and Correspondent, Committee on Human Rights, 1993.

American Institute of Nutrition (AIN /ASCN): Vice President-elect, The American
Society for Clinical Nutrition, 1993-; Co-Chair, FASEB Summer Conference Energy
Balance and Nutrient Partitioning, Vermont, July 1989; Chair and Organizer,
FASEB symposium, 1988; Chair, American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)
Minisymposium, Animal Models of Obesity, 1986; and Nominating Committee, AIN,
1987, 86.

Member, AIN Mead Johnson Award Committee, 1986; Chair or Co-Chair for
FASEB Obesity sessions, 1986, 85, 82, 81, 80; Chair, American Institute of Nutri-
tion (AIN) Osborne-Mendel Award Nominating Committee, 1984; Member, AIN,
Osborne-Mendel Award Nominating Committee, 1983, 1982; XII International Con-
gress of Nutrition, San Diego, Caliiomia, 1981, member of the Program Committee.

International Association for the Study of Obesity (lASO): Treasurer, International
Association for the Study of Obesity, 1991-; Governing Board Member, International
Association for the Study of Obesity (LASO) 1988-present; Co-Editor, Proceedings of
the Adipose Tissue Satellite Meeting of the IV International Congress on Obesity,
International Journal of Obesity, 1985; Organizing Member, International Associa-
tion for the Study of Obesity (lASO); IV International Congress on Obesity, New
York, 1983; Organizing Board Member and Co-Chair of Satellite Conference on Cel-
lularity held at Vassar College; Chair, Abstract Selection Committee Second inter-
national Congress on Obesity, Washington, D.C., Chair of the Program Committee,
member of the Organizing Committee, 1977.

North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASO): President, North
American Association for the Study of Obesity, 1987-^8 (Vice President 1986-87);
Chair, Publications Committee, North American Association for the Study of Obesity
(NAASO) 1986 - 89; Councilor, North American Association for the Study of Obesity
(NAASO), 1983-85; Second International Congress on Obesity, Washington, D.C.,
Chair of the Program Committee, member of the Organizing Committee, 1977.

Other: Advisory Committee, Benjamin Franklin/Lafayette Seminar, 1988-; Editor,
Proceedings of the NIH Workshop on the Characterization of Human Obesities,
International Journal of Obesity, 1984; Co-Chairman of "Workshop on the Charac-
terization of Obesity" (funded by the NIH) held at Vassar College, Oct. 17-19, 1982;
Executive Board, Obesity Research CORE Center Consortium (ORC), St. Luke's-
Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, Rockefeller University, Vassar College,
1980-; Consultant, Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc.; Councilor, American Diabetes Associa-
tion; Consultant, Campbell Soup Company, April 1992-; and Co-Chair, Civic Task



11

Force, Linking Education & Economic Development (LEEDS), Sacramento, CA,
1993.

Regional and National Higher Education Committees and Service; Evaluator,
Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC), Accreditation Teams, 1991;
Executive Board, Council for Research Policy and Graduate Education, National As-
sociation of Schools, Universities, and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC), 199 1-;
Federal Relations Task Force, Council for Research Policy and Graduate Education,
National Association of Schools, Universities, and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC),
199 1-; Program Committee, Western Association of Graduate Schools (WAGS),
1990-; Planning Committee, Northern California, American Council on Education,
National Identification Program (ACE/NIP), 1991-; Executive Committee, Western
Association of Graduate Schools (WAGS), 1993-; Member, Graduate Record Exami-
nations Board (GRE), 1993; and SIPh.D. Review Comnvittee, University of Washing-
ton, 1993.

Honors and awards: Vassar College, A.B., Summa cum laude, 1968 Biologv; Insti-
tute of Medicine iNational Academy of Sciences, elected 1992; Doctor of Humane
Letters, Mount Saint Mary College, Newburgh, NY, May, 1989; Endowed Chair —
John Guy Vassar Chair for Natural Sciences 1986—89; 1982 American Institute of
Nutrition (AIN) Award in Experimental Nutrition (BioServ Award); NIH Research
Career Development Award, 1978-83; Mellon Scholar-in-Residence, St. Olaf College,
Northfield, MN, January, 1978; NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1974; Matheson
Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1973-74; New York State Regents Fellowship for Graduate
Study, 1968; Phi Kappa Phi; Prytanean Society (Honorary Member); and Sigma Xi.

Published writings: The list of the many articles and abstracts may be found in
the committee files.



Questions Asked by Senator Hollings and Answers Thereto by Dr.

Greenwood

Question. If confirmed as an Associate Director of the Office of Science and Tech-
nology Policy (OSTF), what will be your principal responsibilities and activities?
Also, what will be your two or thee highest priorities?

Answer. If confirmed as the Associate Director for Science, my principal overall
responsibilities will be to provide the Director of the Office of Science and Tech-
nology Policy and other ofTices in the Executive OfTice of the President — such as the
Office of Management and Budget and the National Economic Council — with infor-
mation, analysis, and advice on a broad array of scientific issues. The range of is-
sues is diverse since the Science Directorate will encompass the life sciences, the
physical sciences and engineering, mathematics, as well as the social and behavioral
scieices. In addition to the specific scientific issues, there remain an extensive num-
ber of issues including the state of research facilities at universities, science and
mathematics education, effectiveness of research management, and the overall level
of our investment in fundamental research.

Related to the above, I expect to play a major role in helping to guide and formu-
late policies related to scientific research supported by the lederal government. This
would be done by participating in the evaluation of the budgets of various agencies,
setting priorities, and coordinating the combination of national and international re-
search with aspects of private sector research. Specifically, this would include work-
ing with interagency groups and organizations to coordinate the research programs
of the National Science F'oundation, the National Institutes of Health, and other
agencies and departments.

My overall responsibility would be aimed at achieving the goals of highly effective
management of the federal research enterprise and assuring that the U.S. main-
tains global leadership in science, mathematics, and engineering in fields important
to broad national objectives in the areas of our economy, health and quality of life,
energy and the environment, and national security.

In carrying out my overall responsibility, my highest priorities will include: (1)
Helping to develop and implement a sustainable non partisan framework for evalu-
ating, assessing, and establishing funding priorities for our nation's research in co-
operation with the various agencies; (2) Helping to clarify the respective roles and
relationships between fundamental science, transitional science, and technology in
supporting the achievement of various national goals; and (3) Working to develop
choices for the kinds and levels of investment in the intellectual capital of our na-
tion — including science support and science and mathematics education.

Question. In general, what will be the division of responsibility between you and
other Associate Directors? For example, while Mr. Johns has the lead in space mat-
ters, will you have the lead in space science matters?



12

Answer. Rather than having a single Associate Director as the "lead" for space
issues, OSTP's development and coordination of space policies and programs will be
managed by the four Associate Directors acting as a team, with each Associate Di-
rector bringing their specific expertise to bear on various technology, science, envi-
ronment, and international issues as appropriate. The Assistant Director for Space
at OSTP will serve as the point of contact and point of coordination between the
four Associate Directors, to ensure the development of integrated space policies.

I would expect to play a substantial role in space science matters as part of our
integrated approach in dealing with the space area. It happens also to be an area
where science and technology are closely connected and strongly influence each
other. Assuring a vigorous program in fundamental space research will be an impor-
tant responsibility for me as also discussed in the later answers to questions.

Ouestion. If confirmed, what role will you play in interagency science pro-ams
and initiatives? In particular, what role might you play in the interagency initia-
tives in advanced materials and global change?

Answer. It is planned that there will be two new interagency groups dealing with
fundamental research: one will focus on generic matters (e.g., overall renewal of fa-
cilities, conflict of interest, etc.); a second will consider priorities for fundamental
scientific and engineering research. Since a number of science -supporting agencies
will be involved in both tne advanced materials and global change interagency pro-
grams, I would expect to be involved as part of assuring the maintenance and im-
provement of a strong science base and the appropriate linkages of science with pol-
icy choices. All of these efforts would be geared to developing comprehensive, bal-
anced, and effective programs that serve national and global objectives.

Question. The February 22, 1993, technology policy statement issued by the Presi-
dent and Vice President contains the following statement: "In 1993, the civilian


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Online LibraryScience United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on CommNominations of M.R.C. Greenwood, Jane M. Wales, and Robert T. Watson to be associate directors of the Office of Science and Technology Policy : hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, October 28, 1993 → online text (page 2 of 6)