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Gc M. Li

v. 32



3 1833 00668 9431

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center







January 1899






Extracted by permission from the Government

Archives at The Hague, and edited by


vol. I

• .32^

941-0 60(>


Printed at the University Press by T. and A. Constable

for the Scottish History Society





General Introduction, ....... ix

List of the Successive Colonels of the Scots Brigade, . . xxxiv

The War of Independence, 1572-1609.

Introductory Narrative, ....... 3

(1.) Preliminary Extracts from the Archives of Holland.

1573-1587, 36

(2.) States of War. 1579-1609, 43

(3.) Commissions granted by the Council at the East side
of the Meuse, the Governor-General, the Earl of
Leicester, and the Council of State. 1581-1595, . 76

(4.) Extracts relating to the claims of Colonel Bartholomew
Balfour and the position of the Scottish Officers.
1586-1594, 96

(5.) Papers relating to the Claims and Embassies of
Colonel Sir William Stewart of Houston, Sir
William Murray, and Others, and Reports of the
Dutch Embassies to England and Scotland in
1588, 1589, and 1594. 1588-1595, . . .115

(6.) Extracts from Resolutions of the [States-General,
Letters of Recommendation, and Requests and
Petitions sent to the Council of State. 1594-1609, 177



The Time of the Twelve Years Truce, 1609-1621.


Introductory Narrative, . . . . . .221

(1.) States of War. I6l0-l6l8, 226

(2.) Extracts from Correspondence, Recommendations,

Resolutions, Reports, and Requests. l609-l6ll, . 234

(3.) Extracts relating to the Services and Claims of Sir
William Balfour and Captain Henry Balfour.
I6ll-l6l5, 250

(4.) Extracts relating to the Services and Claims of
Colonel Lord Buccleuch and his Son the first
Earl of Buccleuch. l6ll-l620, . . . .256

(5.) Resolutions, Reports, Requests, Recommendations,

etc. 1612-1620, 270

The Thirty Years War, 1621-1648.

Introductory Narrative, ....... 307

(1.) States of War. 1621-1648, 318

(2.) Resolutions, Reports, Requests, Recommendations,

etc. 1621-1629, 335

(3.) Resolutions relating to Captain William Douglas.

1626-1629, 358

(4.) Further Extracts relating to the Services and Claims

of Sir William Balfour. 1627-1 634, . . .369

(5.) Extracts relating to the Claims and Services of the

Earl of Buccleuch. 1623-1635, . . . .378

(6.) Papers relating to the Earl of Morton's Regiment,

commanded by Lord Kinfauns. 1629-1630, . . 396



(7-) Resolutions, Despatches, etc., relative to recruiting in

England and Scotland. 1632-1 638, . . .406

(8.) Resolutions, Reports, Requests, Recommendations,

etc. 1630-1645, .438


The Age of William of Orange and the
British Revolution, 1649-1697.

Introductory Narrative, ....... 465

(1.) States of War. 1649-1689, 489

(2.) Papers illustrating the Position of the Brigade
during the War with the English Commonwealth.
1652-1653, 519

(3.) Papers illustrating the Position of the Brigade during

the War with Great Britain. 1664-1 668, . . 521

(4.) Papers relating to the Despatch of the Brigade to
England on the occasion of the Duke of Mon-
mouth's Rebellion. 1685, ..... 536

(5.) Papers relating to the Recall of the Brigade by

King James in 1688. 1688, 542

(6.) The Revolution of 1688, and the period in British

Service to the Peace of Ryswick. 1689-1697, . 566


The papers embraced in this and the subsequent volumes
consist of documents, transcribed in Holland, illustrating the
services of the Scots regiments to the United Netherlands
during the long period of more than two hundred years for
which the Scots Brigade formed part of the permanent military
establishment of the Dutch Republic, except for an interregnum
of about ten years between the Revolution of 1688 and the
Peace of Ryswick, when these troops were in British pay, and
in the direct service of Great Britain under King William in.
They consist of two classes : (a) Documents from the archives
of the United Netherlands at the Hague, relating to part of
the sixteenth, the seventeenth, and the eighteenth centuries ;
and (b) the Rotterdam Papers, a collection of regimental
papers which were kept in the regiments, and afterwards pre-
served among the records of the Scots Church at Rotterdam,
from which they were removed to the municipal archives at the
Town Hall, where they still remain. In the first volume are
embraced the documents from the Dutch Government archives
relating to the period prior to the service of the Brigade in
Great Britain after the Revolution of 1688 : in the second it is
proposed to include the further documents from the State
archives for the period from 1697 to the final merging of the
Brigade among the Dutch national troops, and the departure
of the British officers : and in the third, the Rotterdam Papers,
which form a separate series, will be printed.

The sources from which the papers contained in the first
two volumes are drawn consist of several series of records
preserved in the 'Rijks Archief at the Hague. They include


extracts from the Resolutions of the States-General, from the
secret resolutions of the same, from the * Instruction Books, 1
the files of the incoming documents, and separate portfolios
of requests, from the diplomatic correspondence, the secret
diplomatic correspondence, and the reports of the ambassadors
given to the States-General on their return to the Hague.
They also include extracts from the resolutions of the Council
of State, from the collection of letters sent to the Council of
State, from the commission books of the Land Council at the
east side of the Meuse, which preceded the Council of State
(1581-84) and of the Council of State, and from the portfolios
marked Military Affairs. The names of the officers are taken
from the States of War, which are documents made up with the
object of showing the military establishment for the time
being, and the proportion in which its expenses fell to be
defrayed by the separate provinces which constituted the
United Netherlands.

It will be noted that the archives of the United Netherlands
at the Hague do not furnish illustrations of the earlier history
of the Scottish troops, the reason being that it was only after
the Union of Utrecht, and the reconciliation of the Walloon
Provinces with the King of Spain, that the permanent central
government of the outstanding provinces took shape. Previous
to this the Scottish troops were either in the service of Holland
and Zealand alone, or in that of the States-General of the
whole associated provinces of the Low Countries during the
campaigns against Don John of Austria. As, however, special
interest attaches to the early services of the Scots in the war
of independence, there are prefixed to the papers which form
the proper subject of the volume, a series of extracts from the
Resolutions and Pay Lists of Holland which supply the blank.
With this exception the mass of material has rendered it
necessary to confine the reproduction to the archives of the
United Netherlands. To search for and publish the whole
documents relating to the Brigade in the Low Countries


would involve ransacking not only the independent archives
of Holland, but those also of Zealand, Guelderland, and pro-
bably other provinces, and certainly those of the great garrison
towns like Breda, Bois-le-Duc, and Maestricht. But a con-
siderable amount of material has been obtained from the
Records of Holland, which has been found valuable for pur-
poses of illustration and explanation, while the annotation in
regard to the personnel of the officers has been much assisted
by extracts from the Oath Books and Commission Books.

The extent of time covered by the subject, and the clear-
marked character of the periods into which the history divides
itself, indicated the method which has been adopted in the
arrangement of the materials. The papers have been collected
in sections corresponding to distinct historical developments,
and a short historical introduction, noting the services of the
Scots regiments, as far as they can be traced, prefixed to each
section. The documents have themselves been arranged,
irrespective of the series of Dutch records from which they
come, in chronological order, subject, however, to the collecting
together, where this seemed advisable, of those relating to a
particular subject or the claims of a particular individual.


The Scots Brigade in Holland began by the enlistment of
separate companies, each complete under its own captain. At
what time these were embodied into a distinct regiment it is
difficult to say, but they underwent the experience afterwards
undergone by the Black Watch, and by every administrative
battalion of rifle volunteers. Colonel Ormiston is referred to in
1573. In 1586 the Scots companies were divided into two
regiments under Colonels Balfour and Patten, and by the time
of the Spanish Armada, if not indeed before, the elder regiment
seems to have had its complete regimental organisation. The
second regiment was brought over complete by Lord Buccleuch
in 1603. The third was formed on a readjustment in 1628, and


although from 1655 to 1660 the three were again converted into
two, and between 1665 and 1672 the third regiment became
completely Hollandised, and its place was taken, in 1673, by a
newly raised one, the two older regiments had an unbroken
existence from 1588, if not from 1572, and from 1603
respectively, while the third, dating from 1673, substantially
represented the one formed in 1628. 1

But while from 1628 onwards there were substantially three
permanent regiments in service, on special occasions the number
was increased. Thus in the campaign against Don John of
Austria, Stuart's regiment also served, and from the allusion
to other colonels, it would seem that there were others in the
pay of other provinces. In 1629 the Earl of Morton's regiment,
commanded by Lord Hay of Kinfauns, served at the siege of
Bois-le-Duc. In 1697-98 three additional Scottish regiments,
Ferguson's, Lord Strathnaver's, and Hamilton's, were tempo-
rarily employed, replacing the English Brigade, and again
during the time of Marlborough three regiments (Lord
Portmore's, Lord Strathnaver's, and Hamilton's) were em-
ployed, and reduced after the Peace of Utrecht. Again a
fourth regiment, commanded by the Earl of Drumlanrig,
was in service from 1747 to 1753.


The services of the Scots were not confined to the infantry arm.
During the earlier period there seem to have been at least two
companies (squadrons or troops) of Scottish cavalry and some-
times more in the service of the States. Captain Wishart received
a commission as captain of horse-arquebusiers in March 1586,
and served until 1615 or 1616, when his company appears to
have been transferred to Sir William Balfour, who commanded
it till 1628. William Edmond received a commission as
captain of lancers in 1588, and led his squadron at least

See List of Colonels, pp. xxxiv-xxxv.


until his succession to the command of the infantry regiment
in 1699; and his son Thomas came from the infantry to a
cavalry command in 1625. Patrick Bruce was commissioned
as captain of a hundred lancers in 1593, and Thomas Erskine
and Henry Bruce appear as cavalry captains in 1599. Captain
Hamilton, a gallant Scottish cavalry captain, fell in the decisive
charge at Nieuport in 1600. In 1604, after much deliberation
and some remonstrance, the States accepted the offer of Archi-
bald Erskine to raise a company of cuirassiers ; and the troubles
of a cavalry captain, the anxieties of the magistrates of Zwolle
in connection with his troop, and the questions that arose on
his death in 1608, will be found illustrated in the papers. 1 In
1617 and 1620 Robert Irving and William Balfour appear as
cavalry captains, the former probably being succeeded by the
younger Edmond, and at the close of the Thirty Years'
War, William Hay and Sir Robert Hume occupy a similar

The papers also disclose the names of artillerymen and
engineers, while of the infantry officers some, such as William
Douglas and Henry Bruce, distinguished themselves as inventors
and scientific soldiers. John Cunningham won reputation
as an artillery officer at Haarlem, nor was he the only Scot
who commanded the artillery. On 30th June 1608, James
Brace's request to succeed Peter Stuart was refused. Breda
also requested that James Lawson, a Scot, should be appointed
cannoneer of the city. Samuel Prop, engineer, appears in the
States of War.


The numbers of the companies varied. Originally the
ordinary strength appears to have been one hundred and fifty
for each ordinary company, and two hundred for the colonel's
(or life) company. Of the one hundred and fifty, one hundred

Pp.196, 204, 215, and 275.


were musketeers (or harquebusiers) and fifty pikemen. In 1598
the companies were temporarily reduced to one hundred and
twenty heads. 1 How long the pikemen were continued is
not certain, but General Mackay's Memoirs show that ' old
pikemen , served in the Scottish campaign of 1689-90. (See
documents showing establishment under William the Silent,
p. 43, Commissions, pp. 82-93.) The sergeant-major and the
provost-marshal appear in 1587, the 'minister'' in 1597, and
the lieutenant-colonel and quartermaster in 1599. The
establishment of a company will be found detailed in the com-
missions printed on pp. 76-95. It will be noted that in some
cases one or two pipers are mentioned, and in others none. In
1607 the colonels remonstrated against the English and Scots
companies being reduced to seventy rank and file, 'pesle-mesle
avec la reste de Farmee. 12 In 1621 it was resolved to increase
the foreign companies to one hundred and twenty.

The number of companies in a regiment seems to have varied,
but in the reorganisation into three regiments in 1628 it was
fixed at ten companies. 3 The difficulties that attended the
supply of men for the regiments, and the competition of foreign
states in the British recruiting field, are illustrated by a series
of documents relating to the recruiting in England and Scot-
land between the years 1632 and 1638. 4

The rates of pay for the different ranks in the time of William
the Silent are shown by a document from the archives of the
Council of State, prefixed to the States of War of 1579-1609. 5
The commissions of 1586 and subsequent years also show the
agreed-on pay, and indicate a method of payment which led to
many questions. Thus for Colonel Balfour's company of two
hundred men, he was entitled to =£2200 of forty Flemish
grotten (or groats ?) per pound per month, each month being
calculated as consisting of thirty-two days, but the monthly

1 Meteren, fol. 311. - P. 241. 3 MS. of Holland.

4 Pp. 406-437. In 1641 there was presented to the Scottish Parliament a
letter from the Prince of Orange in favour of officers sent over 'for re-enforcing
their regiments, which are greatly decayed and diminished.' — Scots Acts.

5 P. 43-


payment was only made each forty-eighth day, and the balance
of one-third of the pay thus retained constituted the arrears
which led to so many claims on the" part of the Scottish officers,
to the issue of letters of marque by the King of Scotland in the
case of Colonel Stuart, and to the compromises for slump sums
or annual pensions, in his, Sir William Murray's, Colonel Bal-
four's, and other cases. In 1588 the objections of the Scottish
captains to this system, and their insistence on obtaining some
security for the settlement of their arrears, led to the dismissal
of some of them by the States-General, and to the others being
required to sign a declaration expressly stating their acquies-
cence in the practice. 1 In 1596, however, the states of Holland
improved the position somewhat by paying the troops for
which they were responsible every forty-second, instead of
every forty-eighth day.

When in 1678 the Brigade had been fully established on
its reorganised basis, the capitulation of that year expressly
stipulated, that the pay of the soldiers was to be increased
' d'un sous de plus par jour.' 1 In 1774 the men had ' twopence
a week more pay than the Dutch troops/ 2 At that time a
captain's pay came to at most i?140 sterling yearly, a colonel's
was not above i?850, and a lieutenant's about <£ J 40, while that
of the Swiss companies was much higher.

The appointments of subaltern officers seem originally to
have been made by the captains, who raised and brought over
the companies. Later on they seem to have been made by the
Prince of Orange, who also filled any vacancy in the higher
ranks occurring in the field, commissions being subsequently
issued by the States- General confirming his appointment. 3 In

1 Pp. 97-105 See also Meteren, fol. 311.

2 Strictto es on Alilitary Discipline.

3 See terms of subalterns' commissions, printed in Two Scottish Soldiers (D.
Wyllie and Sons, Aberdeen), and also the commissions printed in the appendix
to Major Bernardi's Memoirs. The commissions thus granted by the prince were
registered by the states of the province on whose 'repartition' the company was.
In 1688 the captains received commissions on separate parchments from the
Prince of Orange and from the States-General {Two Scottish Soldiers).


1608 the states of Holland resolved that the captains on their
repartition should not be allowed to fill vacancies in their
lieutenancies and ensigncies without the previous consent of the
states or of the committee, who reserved the right of appoint-
ment, and this right appears also to have been exercised by
other provincial states.

In 1588, after the departure of the Earl of Leicester, the
States revised and reformed their whole military establishment,
and instituted the system of allocating regiments or companies
to be directly paid and supported by the different provinces,
which is referred to when they are described as ' on the Re-
partition ' of Holland, of Zealand, of Guelderland, or of any
other province. ' lis en firent, 1 says Meteren, * les repartissions
sur chasque province selon qu'elles estoyent quotisees et
qu'elles contribuoyent ens charges de la guerre, selon aussi que
chasque Province le pouvoit porter, ce que causa des bons et
remarquables effets. Les gens de guerre,"' he adds, ' pouvoyent
asseurement scavoir en quelle Province ils pouvoyent aller
poursuiyvre leur payement, tellement que s'il y avoit quelque
faute en cela on le pouvoit incontinent scavoir et le conseil
d 1 Etat y pouvoit remedier.' In addition to the ordinary con-
tributions of the provinces, extraordinary contributions were
levied on the more wealthy provinces, and the revenue derived
from them was administered by the Council of State. At the
end of each year the central authority settled accounts with
the respective provinces, in regard both to the ordinary and
to the extraordinary contributions.

One result of this somewhat complicated system was that
the regiments were frequently divided between two provinces,
and indeed in 1655 the states of Holland resolved, in view of
the fact that of several regiments one portion stood on their
repartition and another on that of other provinces, to bring
all the forces on the Repartition of Holland together in com-
plete ' Holland regiments 1 ; but it seems doubtful whether this
was ever fully carried out, although the two Scots regiments


in 1655, and the three in 1662, are described as Holland
regiments. Certainly in the latter part of the century Mackay's
regiment was on the Repartition of Guelderland, and in 1698
one regiment at least was on the repartition of more than one


The appearance of the Scottish soldiers in the early years
of their service can be gathered from occasional indications in
the papers. In carrying the pike in the Low Countries, they
found themselves armed with a weapon similar to that which
in the hands of the Scottish spearmen had often repelled the
charges of England's chivalry. The Spaniards regarded the
pike as la senora y reyna tie los armas, but at ' push of pike '
they found their match in the sturdy English infantry, and the
* sure men ' of the Scots Foot. The arquebuse gave place to
the musket, and in 1689 one at least of the regiments was in
whole or in part fusiliers.

In 1559, Prince Maurice prescribed a uniform equipment
for the troops in the service of the States ; x and the approved
w.eapons seem to have been strictly insisted on. 2 Thus it is

1 'Parmy l'lnfanterie ceuxqui portoyent desPicquesdebvoyent avoir un Heaulme,
un Gorgerin avec la Angrasse devant et derriere, et une Espee. La picque devoit
estre longue de dix-huict pieds, et tout cela sur certaines peines establies. II
falloit pareillement que la quatriesme partie de ceux qui portoyent des Picques
fussent armes de garde bas jusques au coulde, et au bas de larges tassettes. Les
Mousquetaires debvoyent avoir un Heaulme, une Espee, un Mousquet portant une
balle de dix en la Livre, et une Fourchette. Les Harquebusiers debvoyent avoir
un Heaulme, une Espee, une bonne Harquebuse d'un calibre qui debvoit porter
une balle de vingt en la Livre, mais en tirant une balle de 24 en la Livre, et
chacun avoit ses gages et sa solde a l'advenant. Nous avons trouve bon de dire
cecy, afin que nos successeurs puissent scavoir de quelles armes on s'est servy en
ce temps en Pays-Bas en ceste guerre ' (Meteren, fob 451, where the cavalry
equipment is also described. See also fol. 416. The fourth part of the pikemen
were to be picked and seasoned soldiers, of whom Mackay records that they
stood by and were cut down with his brother, their colonel, at Killiecrankie,
when the ' shot ' men broke and fled).

2 Resolutions of Holland. — '1605, Dec. 28th. — Circular Letter to all Colonels
and Cap ns of Foot. The States-Gen. requiring strengthening of the forces



noted that new levies were good men, but 'armed after the
fashion of their country. 11 It has been thought that the High-
land dress was worn by some at least of the Scots who fought
at Reminant in 1578, and it would seem that at various
periods a considerable number of recruits were drawn from the
Highlands. In 1576 an ' interpreter for the Scottish language '
was appointed in connection with ' the affair and fault of certain
Scotsmen,'' 2 and in 1747, the orders had to be explained to
some of the men of Lord Drumlanrig's regiment in their own
language, 3 because they did not understand English.

Even in the days of Queen Elizabeth, 'the red casaques 1 of the
English soldiers had attracted attention in the Low Countries.
From at least the time of the reorganisation in 1674, the Scots
Brigade was clothed in the national scarlet. In 1691, Mack ay's
regiment wore red, lined with red, and Ramsay's red, lined
with white. Lauder's being then in Scotland, the colour of
its facings has not been recorded, but from a picture of an
officer serving in it in the middle of the eighteenth century,
it would appear that then at least its facings were yellow.
Curious evidence as to the uniform of the Brigade in 1690 is
preserved by a Highland tradition. It is said that before
Major Ferguson's expedition to the Western Isles in 1690,
the people of Egg were warned of its coming by a man who

without delay, all companies to be brought to their full number of men, conform
the state of war, and this on or before March 1st, certainly before March loth,
new style : and though this ought to be done at the expense of the Cap ns , the
States-Gen. , H. Ex?, and the Council of State have resolved that for this once
for the cost of transportation shall be allowed : to the French, English and Scots,

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