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cachet de son Ex ce sur le dos estoit ce jour d'huy le xxix e de
Mars 1586 a Jehan Balfort faict le serment de fidelite es mains
de messr rs du Conseil d'estat de soy bien et deuement acquiter



1586] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 81

comme Cap ne (Tune Compaignie de chevaulx, suyvant le con-
tenu de ceste commission. Actum ut supra a Utrecht, signe
T. Langhe et sur le dos estoit aussy Les Deputez hors du
Conseil d'Estat pour la chambre de la tresorie le d* son Ex ce
consentant autant quen eulx est que le contenu au blancq de
ceste soit faict et accompli en la forme que sa dicte Ex ce com-
mande et entend estre faict par Icelle faict ut supra et estoit
soubzsigne G. Zuylens.

Mars 1586. Commission pour le Capitaine Alexandre Witchart.
Ecossois d'une compaignie de cent chevaulx harequebouseiers.

Robert, Conte de Leycester, Baron de Denbigh, etc. Lieu-
tenant de Sa Majeste d'Angleterre, Gouverneur et Capitaine
General des Provinces Unies des Pays-Bas, a tous ceux qui ces
presentes verront Saluyt.

Comme le Capitaine Alexandre Witchard, Escossoys aiant
cydevant servi quelque bon espace en ces pays tant du temps
de feu notre tres cher et bien ayme Cousin le Prince d'Orange
H. M. Comme depuis avecque charge et jusques ores continue
en toute fidelite, soing et debvoir mesmement a la derniere
entreprinse sur la dyke de Cawesten et quil nous ait remonstre
le bon desir quil en a de continuer et faire le mesme a Tadvenir,
Scavoir faisons que pour la bonne cognoissance qu'avons du
d. Capitaine Witschardt et de sa vaillantsie et preudhomie au
faict de la guerre, Nous confians a plain de la fidelite et experi-
ence, avons Icelluy establi, ordonne et commis, establissons,
ordonnons et commettons par ceste a la charge de Capitaine
d'une compaignie de cent chevaulx harequebousiers, desia
dressee ou encores a dresser, la ou il trouvera le mieulx con-
venir, en luy donnans plain pouvoir, authorite et mandement
especial, de la pourveoir d'un Lieutenant cornette et aultres
officiers, en oultre de Commander a Icelle compaignie et la
conduire et emploier contre les Espaignols, malcontents, leurs
adherens et aultres nos ennemis, soit en campaigne ou es villes
et places fortes que de par nous luy sera commande, prennant
soigneux regard que par ceulx de sa dicte Comp ie ne soit faict
aulcun tort ou foule aux Bourgeois et habitans d'icelle, ains
qu'entre eulx soit tenu tout bon ordre et discipline militaire,
suivant les ordonnances sur ce faictes ou encores a faire, et au



82 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

surplus faire toutes et singulieres les choses qu\m bon et fidele '
Cap ne de Cavaillerie est tenu de faire.



Commissions granted • by the Council of State. 1

Commission of William Waddel, 2 as Captain of a Company of
Infantry, 130 strong.

The States-General of the United Netherlands, to all who
shall see or have read to them these our open letters of com-
mission, greeting ! ... Be it known, that we consider it
necessary for the service of the said United Netherlands to
keep certain Companies of the Scottish nation in the service of
the said Lands. By reason of the good report made to us of
the person of William Waddel, and of his affection for the
service of these Lands, of his ability, piety, and experience in
the business of the war, and trusting completely to his good
character, loyalty, and diligence, we have, at a meeting of the
Council of State of the said Lands, retained and continued
him, William Waddel, and, so far as may be necessary, have
anew commissioned, and do, by these presents, retain, continue,
and commission him to the charge of a company of Scottish
infantry, one hundred and thirty strong, included under the
regiment of Colonel Bartho. Balfour, the company to include,
besides his person and boy, a lieutenant and ensign, each with
his boy, two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, one
quartermaster, one surgeon, 19 musqueteers, 36 pikemen,
9 halberdiers, three bucklermen, 3 and 48 arquebusiers, giving
him full power, authority, and special charge, to take com-
mand of the said company, to lead and employ them against
the Spaniards, malcontents, and their adherents, and all other
enemies of the United Netherlands, whether afield or in
garrison, for the safeguarding of any towns or fortresses, also,
should need be, on board ships of war therein, and when it
shall be ordered and commanded by us, and by those having
commissions from us in the service of the Lands, or by the
said colonel. He as captain keeping his soldiers in good



1 From the Commission Book, 1588-1591.

2 See State of War, 1586, p. 49, note 3. 3 Rondasseurs.



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 83

order, watch, and discipline of war by day and by night : not
suffering them to burden or do any injury to the citizens and
inhabitants of the places where they shall be garrisoned ; and
further to do everything that a devoted and loyal captain is
bound to do, in accordance with the ordonnance and regula-
tions made, or to be made, for the conduct of the war ; and
this on the payment for the whole company, as above stated
130 strong, of the sum of 1500 pounds of 40 Flemish grotten 1
every 32 days. In particular, he is to content himself from
this date with payments at the end of every 48 days. With
which he the captain, his subordinate officers and soldiers
must, like others in the service of the Land, content themselves,
serve us and the said Lands loyally without any contention,
and allow themselves to be mustered at every journey, or at
any time when told to do so.

And that he may in all these respects acquit himself well
and loyally, he, William Waddel, captain, holds himself
bound to take the proper oath before us, or before the members
of said Council of State : and he shall cause this his com-
mission to be register'd, as well by the said Council of State,
as by the commissioned Councils of the States of Holland, on
whose repartition he shall forthwith be paid. Hereupon, there
shall also be granted him thereto an Attache from their Lord-
ships the Governor and the commissioned Council of the States
of Holland. Which done ; we charge and command the lieu-
tenants, commanding officers, cadets, and common soldiers of
the same company, and also all others whom it may concern,
to acknowledge him, William Waddel, for our captain, obey
and submit to him, also in case of need, to give him all assist-
ance and direction — and all this till further orders. For we
have found this essential to the service of the Lands.

Given at the Hague, the 20 June 1588. 2



1 See note, p. 85.

2 Mutatis mutandis, similar commissions were issued on 26th June 1588 to
\Vm. Murray and John Dallachy, and on 27th June to John Prop, David Cant,
Wm, Hay, and David Trail.



84 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

Commission in favour of Bartli. Balfour 1 for his ' compagnie
colonelW of' 200 men.

The States-General of the United Netherlands, unto all who
shall see or shall have read to them these open letters of
Commission, Greeting.

Be it known that we, considering it needful for the service
of the said United Netherlands to keep some companies of
the Scottish nation in the service of the said Lands, and being
well informed regarding the person of the respected and noble
Barth. Balfour, colonel ; and of his affection for the service
of these Lands, his ability, good character, and experience in
the business of the war, and being thoroughly assured of his
devotion, trustworthiness, and loyalty, have by a resolution
of the Council of State of the said Lands, retained, continued,
and in so far as is necessary, appointed anew Barth. Balfour,
colonel ; and we hereby do by these presents retain, continue,
and appoint him to the charge of captain of his compagnie
colonelle of two hundred Scottish infantry, which shall include,
besides his person and boy, a lieutenant and ensign each
with his boy, two sergeants, two drummers, one piper, three
corporals, one quartermaster, a surgeon, 27 musketeers, 73
harquebusiers, 63 pikemen, 18 halberdiers, and three buckler
men ; " giving him full power, authority, and general command
over said compagnie colonelle, to order, lead, and use them
against the Spaniards, the malcontents, and their adherents,
and all other enemies of these United Netherlands, whether
afield, or in garrison for the protection of any towns or
fortresses ; also, in case of need, on board ships of war,
wheresoever he shall be ordered and commanded to such
duties in the service of the country by us, and by those
commissioned by us ; always keeping his soldiers in good
order, guard, and discipline of war, both by day and night,
not permitting them to burden or in any way to injure the
citizens or inhabitants of the towns and places where they
may be garrisoned. And further, to do everything that a



1 See State of War, 1586, p. 48.

2 Rondasseurs, from rondas = s. round shield.



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 85

good and faithful captain ought and is in duty bound to do,
in pursuance of orders and written regulations already made,
or that may be made, as to the "conduct of the war. And
this at a pay for the whole company of the above strength of
200 men of the sum of 2200 pounds, of 40 groats 1 the pound,
every 32 days, with the reservation that henceforward he
shall content himself with these payments every 48 days.
With this he and his subordinate officers and his soldiers, like
others in the country's service, must content themselves. And
on this stipulation loyally serve us, and the Lands aforesaid,
without complaint, and at each journey allow themselves,
when called upon, to pass muster. And in order that he
may acquit himself in all these well and faithfully, he, Barth.
Balfour, acknowledged as Captain, is bound to take the proper
oath at our hands, or those of the Council of State aforesaid,
and to cause register this his commission both by the said
Council of State and by the commissioned Councils of the
States of Holland, upon whose repartition 2 he shall forthwith be
paid. In addition also there will be granted to him the attache
(or confirmation) of the Lord Governor, and of the commis-
sioned Councils of the States of Holland. Which being done,
we charge and command the lieutenant, commanding officers,
cadets, and common soldiers of the said company, and all
others whom it may concern, to acknowledge him, Barth.
Balfour, as our captain, submit to and obey him ; also when
necessary to render him all help and direction ; and all this
till our further orders ; for we have found this essential in
the service of the Land.

Given at the Hague, the 26 June 1588.

(Initialed) J. Valcke V*.

Docqueted (below) : —

By order of my Lords, the States-General of the United
Netherlands, relative to the report of the Council of State in
respect of this commission. (Signed) Ch f Huygens.



1 Old Flemish pound equal to n shillings sterling: 40 grotten=ls. iod., or
one guilder : groot = ^d.: pound = los.

2 Repartitie = division into smaller parts.



86 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

And sealed with a hanging-out seal in red wax on doubled
string. Indorsed (on back) : —

This fifth day of July 1588, Bartolt. Balfour took the
proper oath before the Council of State as captain of a com-
pany according to the commission on the other side of this.

CH r Huygens.

Original Dutch of the preceding.

C'ommissie voor Bartolt Balfour voor sijne compagnie collonnelle van
II C hoofden.

Die Staten Generael der Vereeniehde Nederlanden alien den ghenen
die dese opene brieven van commissie sullen sien oft liooren lesen, Saluyt.

Doen te weeten dat wij noodich achtende tot dienste van de selve
Vereeniehde Nederlanden eenighe Compaignien van de Schotze natie in
dienste der voorz landen te houden, om de goede kennisse die wij hebben
van den persoon des edelen erentfesten Bartolt Balfour collonnel ende
van sijne affectie tot deser landen dienst, cloecheyt, vromicheijt ende
experiente in't stuck van der oirloge. Ons gantschelick betrouwende
zijnder vromicheyt, getrouwicheyt ende neersticheyt, hebben bij deliberatie
van den Rade van State derselver landen hem Bartolt Balfour, collonnel
onthouden, gecontinueert ende voor 200 veel des noot zijnde op nijes
gecommitteert, onthouden, continueren ende committeren bij desen tot
den last van Capiteyn van zijne compaignie collonnelle van twee hondert
Schotze voetknechten, daeronder sullen wesen neffens sijnen persoon
ende jongen, eenen Lieutenant ende Vendrich, elcx met heurl jongen,
twee Sergeanten, twee trommelslagers, een pijper, drie corporalen, een
forier, een chirurgijn, sevenentwintich musketters, drie ende tzeventich
harquebousurs, drie ende tsestich spiessen, achtien hellebaerden ende
drie rondassuers, hem gevende vol comen macht, auctoriteijt ende
generael bevel over deselve compaignie collonnelle te gebyeden, die te
geleijden ende te gebruye-ken gegens den Spangaerden, malcontenten
ende heuren aenhangeren ende alien anderen vianden deser Vereeniehde
Nederlanden 't zij te velde ofte in garnisoen tot bewaringe van eenige
steden ende stercten, oock op de schepen van oirloge des noot sijnde,
daer ende soe hem sulcx bij ons ende bij den ghenen van ons last
hebbende tot der landen dienst sal worden geordonneert ende bevolen,
houdende sijne soldaten in goede ordre, wacht ende crijchs discipline soe
bij daghe als bij nachte, sonder te gedoogen dat sij den burgeren ofte
ingesetenen van de steden ende plaetzen, daer zij zullen garnizoen
houden, eenigen last ofte schade aen doen. Ende voorts alles te doen
dat een goet ende getrouwe Capiteyn schuldich is ende behoort te doen,
achtervolgende d'ordonnancien ende artyckelbrief op 't beleyt van der
oorloge gemaect, ofte alsnoch te maken. Ende dit op de gagie voor
de geheele compaignie als boven, sterck sijnde twee hondert hoofden, te
summe van twee ende twintich hundert ponden van veertich grooten 't



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 87

pondt alle twee en dertich daghen, behoudelick dat hij hem voortaen sal
contenteren mette betalinge van acht en veertich daghen te acht en
veertich daghen daermede hij sijne onderhoorige bevelhebberen ende
soldaten, hen gelijck anderen in dienst van den lande sijnde, sullen
moeten contenteren ende daerop ons ende de voorz-landen getrouwelick
dyenen sonder eenich wederseggen ende hem telcken reijse te monsteren
laten des vermaent zijnde. Ende omme hem in alien desen wel ende
vertrouwelick te quyten, wert hij Bartolt Balfour als Capiteyn gehouden
den behoorl. eedt te doen aen handen van ons ofte die van den Rade
van State voorz, ende dese sijne Commissie te doen registreren, soe wel
bij den voorz. Rade van state als bij de gecommitteerde Raden van de
Staten van Hollandt, op wijens repartitie hij voortaen betaelt sal worden,
daertoe hem oock attache van den Heere Gouverneur ende gecommitteerde
Raden van de Staten van Holland sal worden verleent 't Welck gedaen
weesende lasten ende ordonneren wij den Luetenant, Bevelhebberen,
Adelborsten ende gemeene soldaten van deselve compaignie ende oock
alien anderen dyen't aengaen mach, hem Bartolt Balfour voor onsen
Capiteyn te erkennen, hem te gehoorsamen ende obedieren. Oock des
noot sijnde alle hulp ende addres te doen, ende dat alles tot onsen
wederseggen, want wij sulex tot dienste van den lande bevonden hebben
te behoiren.

Gegeven in 's Gravenhage den xxvi. Junij xv c acht ende tachtentich.
Geparapheert J. Valcke v*. Op de plycke stont ges- ter ordonnan van
myn Heeren de Staten Generael der Vereeniehde Nederlanden. Ter
relatie van den Rade van State der selve. Onderth Chr. Huygens.
Ende besegelt met een uythangende Zegel in rooden wassche aen
dubbelde strecke. Opten rugge stondt. Op huyden den vijffden July
xv c lxxxviii heeft Bartolt Balfour den behoorlicken eedt gedaen aen die
van den Rade van State als Cap n van een Compaignie volgende de
comissie aen d'andere sijde van dese. Chr. Huygens.



Commission of William Brog as Sergeant Major over
the Scots.

The States-General of the United Netherlands, etc. Be it
known that we, considering it necessary for the service of the
Land, and the good direction of the affairs of the war, to
appoint a qualified sergeant-major over the Scottish soldiers
and regiment under Colonel Balfour, and other Scottish
captains in the service of the Lands : We have, on account
of the good knowledge we possess, of the person of the doughty
William Brog, as also of his ability and experience in the
conduct of the war, and trusting to his capacity and diligence,
at a meeting of the Council of State of the said United Lands,



88 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

retained, placed, and appointed the same, and we do by these
presents retain, place, and appoint him to the position and
office of sergeant-major, and Watchmaster (Wachtmeester)
over the said Scottish regiment and soldiers, giving him com-
plete power, authority, and particular charge, to enter into the
service, and serve in all faithfulness, whether in towns, fortresses,
or afield; therein to take good heed and to see that marches
and watches be well provided, and faithfully carried out,
according to circumstances, and to this end he must, at the
proper moment, give the word of command, or the watchword
to those who ought to have it, and he may ask it to be
repeated at his pleasure, also he is to make his rounds with
great strictness, or cause them to be made. He is occasionally
to test the corps, the guards, the sentinels, in every place, and
is to take particular care lest through neglect of these measures
any troubles should occur ; also to take good oversight of the
common soldiers and troops, and take care that every one be
provided with such weapons and accoutrements as his place
demands ; and on the detection of fraud by any one, the cap-
tains and other officers whose duty it is to see to it, are to be
earnestly exhorted to take proper action in the matter. Also at
times and on occasions when musters or reviews shall be held on
the part of the Land, he is to render all good assistance to the
commissary [or muster master] or commissaries, and to exert
himself that such may be carried out in the best order, and as may
be best for the service of the Land. And further, in general and
particular, he is to do all that pertains to the maintenance of
good discipline of war and order among the soldiers, and in
other respects to do what a good and loyal sergeant-major, as
aforesaid, is in duty bound and ought to do. And since it
is likely said regiment of Scottish soldiers will not remain
always together with the others in one place, but at times the
companies of it will be employed in various quarters or places
according as the service of the Land may require, he shall be
bound to allow himself willingly to be employed on all other
occasions, and when good opportunity offers in the service of
the Land, when ordered in his quality as sergeant-major; and
in particular to let himself be employed and serve as sergeant-
major-general, when that shall be asked of him in the service



1588] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 89

of the Land ; and that at a salary of 80 pounds, of 40 Flemish
groats per pound a month. And in order to acquit himself
in this his post and office honestly and devoutly he is held
bound to take the proper oath of loyalty, before the Council
of State aforesaid, and to allow his commission to be registered,
as well by the said Council of State, as by the commissioned
Councils of the States of Holland on whose repartition he shall
forthwith be paid. Thereto also a proper attache shall be
granted him by the Lord Governor, and by the commissioned
Council of the States of Holland. The which being done, we
invite and command Colonel Balfour, those under him in his
regiment, together with all other Scottish captains, officers,
and common soldiers being in the service of the Land ; and
further, all others whom these presents in any way concern,
to acknowledge the said William Brog in the quality of
sergeant-major, hold him for such and respect him. Also
in the fulfilment of his duty and commission, if need be, and
he require it to render him unhesitatingly all good help and
assistance ; for we have found this indispensable in the service
of these Lands.

Given at the Hague, the twelfth July 1588, etc.

Commission of Alexander Murray as Captain.

The States-General of the United Netherlands, etc. Since
Captain William Murray has informed us that on account of
certain private affairs, he finds it needful, with our consent,
to leave the service of these Lands to go to Scotland, having
also presented and delivered over the company of infantry,
led and commanded by him for some time past, and up to this
date. We therefore find it necessary to provide the same
company again with a qualified captain. Be it known that
we, owing to the good knowledge we have of the person of
Alexander Murray, and of the good services done by him
during a considerable time for these United Lands, in his
quality of captain of a company of infantry, and having con-
fidence in his ability, experience, and honesty, have, at a
meeting of the Council of State of the said Lands, continued,
etc., in place of the foresaid William Murray, the said Alexander



90 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

Murray in the post of captain of the said company of infantry,
130 men strong, including, besides his own person and boy, a
lieutenant and ensign each with his boy, two sergeants, three
corporals, two drummers, one quartermaster, one surgeon,,
fifteen musketeers, 36 pikemen, nine halberdiers, 4 broad-
swordsmen, 1 48 arquebusiers, giving him full power, etc.
The payment of the whole company aforesaid, 130 strong, to
be the sum of 1500 pounds, of 40 groats Flemish per pound,
every 32 days, etc.

Given at the Hague, the nineteenth September 1588. 2



Commission of William Edmond 3 as Captain of a Company
of sixty mounted Lancers.

The States-General, etc. Seeing we have found it advisable I
and necessary for the prosecution of the present war, and to
resist the common enemy, to take some more cavalry into the
service of the Land, be it known, that on account of the good
report received by us regarding the person of the doughty and
honest William Edmond, and relying on his ability and ex-
perience in war, we have, at a meeting of the Council of State i
of the said united Lands, appointed and commissioned and do j
appoint and commission him, by these presents, as speedily as-
possible to raise and take command of a company of sixty
lancers cavalry, giving him complete power, authority, and ;
a special order to take command thereof as captain, to lead
it and employ it against the Spanish, the malcontents, their j
adherents, and all other enemies of the United Netherlands,, j
whether afield or in garrisons, and for the defence of any
towns or fortresses there and wherever he may be ordained ;



1 Slagzwaard = two-handed sword, probably the meaning.

2 In 1586, in ' a band ' drawn up by ' the haill name of Murray,' the signatures-
appear together of —

• William Murray of Pitcairles.
Alexander Murray of Drumdeway.
In another similar bond of 1598 there appears the signature of —
' Alexander Murray of Drumdeway, Colonel.'
See also supra, p. 50, note I, and infra, pp. 153, 166, 170.

3 See State of War, 1595, p. 54, note 1.



1589] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 91

and commanded in the service of the Lands by us, or by those
having authority from us ; holding his cavalry in good order,
watch, and discipline of war as well by day as by night, with-
out suffering them to burden excessively or to injure the
citizens or the inhabitants of the towns and country districts ;
further, to do all that a good and faithful captain ought
and is in duty bound to do in accordance with the rules and
letters of instructions on the conduct of the war, already made
or yet to be made. And this for payments such as other
captains and cavalry are in receipt of; provided that he, his
under officers, and cavalry shall rest satisfied with receiving
one month's pay every 48 days, like others in the service of
the Land ; that he shall serve us and the said Lands faithfully,
without any contention, and always allow his company to be
passed in muster if called upon. And that he shall have no
poxver outside the United Netherlands to arrest or molest any
of the said Land's inhabitants in their persons or goods on the
account of this or other company for past services ; but must
comfort himself with the thought that he is being treated in
everything like other companies of these Lands in the Land's
service. And that he may acquit himself in all this well and
faithfully, the said Captain Edmond binds himself to take



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