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the proper oath at our hands, or at those of the Council of
State aforesaid, and to cause register his commission, as well
by the same Council of State, as by the appointed Councils of
the States of Holland, upon whose repartition he shall be
\ paid. Thereto shall also be granted to him the attache of
the Lord Governor, and of the appointed Councils of the
States of Holland, which being accomplished, we charge and
command the lieutenant, officers, and common horsemen to
, receive him into their company; and all others whom it may
J concern, to acknowledge the said William Edmond for our
I appointed captain, submit to and obey him. Also in case
; of need, to lend him all assistance, help, and direction, and
all this till further orders ; for we have found this essential to
the service of the Land.

Given at the Hague, the tenth June 1589, etc.



92 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593

Commission of Patrick Bruce as Captain of Horse over a
Company of' a hundred mounted Lancers.

The States-General of the United Netherlands, etc. Seeing
that Captain Patrick Bruce has offered to recruit a company 1
of lancers for our and the service of the said United Lands, '•
his payment to be found in contributions levied in the country j
parts of Flanders, which he is to bring under the safeguard j
and control of the State-General : and we having found it I
desirable to increase the cavalry already serving in defence
of the said Lands, in order the better to withstand the common ;
enemy : we have accordingly, at a meeting of the Council of j
State of the said Lands, accepted the offer of the said Patrick
Bruce and retain the same, etc., for captain over a company
of good lancers of 100 horses ; giving him complete power, |
authority, and particular charge to raise the said company j
with all diligence, so that within the course of the next three
months it may be ready to be employed in the service of these ;
Lands, said company he is to take command of and lead, and j
is to suffer himself to be employed against the Spaniards, etc.,
and particularly for the execution and ingathering of the fore- i
said contributions ; that is to say, when and as often as he j
shall be requested to do so by the officers appointed over the
same, and in doing so to regulate himself according to the
measure and order given, or that may be given by us. He is j
to keep his cavalry in good order, watch, and discipline of
war, etc. ; his payment to be 3000 pounds per month of 32
days, the officers' salaries and horse fodder included therein : j
provided he shall take care to procure, according to his agree- j
ment, all such payments out of said levies on the country dis-
tricts of Flanders, the which he is to exact with all diligence :
and put in train, so that his pay beyond the present incomes
can be escheat (or claimed) out of them ; and he, the captain,
his subordinate officers, and cavalry shall, like others, rest
satisfied with receiving a month's pay every 48 days, it being
understood that these United Lands do not hold themselves
bound in their ordinary payment, nor in the third part of the
remainder due for his services : reserving always an action (or
law suit) by him against the Lands of Flanders.

Given at the Hague, the 15 April 1593.



1594] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 93

Commission of William Balfour 1 as Captain over Colonel
Balfour s Company of 150 men.

The States-General of the United Netherlands, etc. Seeing
that Colonel Bartolt Balfour is discharged from the post of
captain over a company of infantry for some years led by
him ; and that we deem it necessary to continue the same
company in the service of these Lands, and therefore again to
place another suitable person over them as captain : Be it
known, that owing to the good report made to us regarding
the person of William Balfour, lieutenant of the foresaid
company, and his long continued and faithful services per-
formed to these United Lands, together with his experience
and honourable comportment, wherein we trust he shall per-
severe, we have, at a meeting of the Council of State of the
foresaid United Lands, unanimously accepted the same William
Balfour, etc., for captain of the company above mentioned, in
the place of Colonel Balfour, giving him full authority, etc.,
to command the said company, and reduce it to 150 men, and
it shall include, besides his person and boy, a lieutenant and
ensign each with a boy, two sergeants, two drummers, a piper,
three corporals, a quartermaster or clerk, a surgeon, 30
musketeers,', 39 pikemen with corselets, ten halberdiers, three
buckler-men being noblemen, etc.

Given at the Hague, 19th February 1594.

Commission qf Robert Barclay 11 as Captain of a company of
Scots o/'150 men.

The States-General, etc. Having found good, because of
the death of Captain Egger, that another fit and trusty person
should be appointed to take command as head and captain
over the company of Scots infantry, formerly led by the
deceased, be it known that owing to the good report we have
received regarding the person of Robert Bercley, and relying
on this, as also on his ability and military experience, he
having served for some time as lieutenant of the company of



1 See State of War, 1595, p. 54, note 2. 2 Ibid., 1598, p. 57, note 2.



94 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1595

Colonel Murrey : at a consultation of the Council of State of
the same United Lands, have placed and appointed the same
Bercley, etc., as captain over the said company of the late
Captain Egger to the number of 150 men, etc.
The Hague, the 21 November 1597.



Act of' Commission 1 for Captain Brogh 2, as Sergeant- Major
over the said auxiliary.

The States-General of the United Netherlands. To all
those, etc., whereas we, for the service of the King of France
and of these Lands, have found it good and necessary to
appoint a sergeant-major over the two regiments of infantry
ordered to go to France to the relief of the town of Camerijck, 3
under the conduct and command of the noble and trusty
Jonker, Justinus van Nassau, Admiral of Zeeland, general of
the said auxiliary, so for the good carrying out of this we
have taken the person of William Brogh, captain of a com-
pany of Scots soldiers and sergeant-major of the Scots
regiment, and believing his ability, valour, and experience to
be certified, vouched, and assured, we have appointed and
commissioned, and do hereby appoint and commission the
foresaid Captain Brogh to be sergeant-major or Wachtmeester
over the foresaid two regiments of infantry, giving him full
power and authority to lead said force during its campaign in
France, to take service of, and exercise the same, and to take
the word of command concerning it from the said general, and
to give it to the officers who shall be on duty in said expedi-
tion, to take the sharpest heed that among the soldiers good
watch, ward, and war discipline shall be maintained, as well
by day as by night. To listen to all complaints, and to report
them to the authority whose business it is to attend to them
that they may be seen to as is fitting ; and further, to do all
that a good and faithful sergeant-major or Wachtmeester
ought, and is in duty bound to do ; on a pay of a hundred pounds



1 From the Commission Book of the States-General. Commissions 1586-
1625.

2 See State of War, 1595, p. 54, note 3. 3 Cambrai.



1595] COMMISSIONS GRANTED 95

of xl. great pieces per month (his ordinary pay of sergeant-
major special over the Scotch regiment therein included) to
commence the first of October next. - It is therefore ordained
and commanded to all and sundry whom it may concern that
they are to recognise, respect, and obey the foresaid Captain
Brogh in his foresaid quality on pain of our displeasure
inasmuch as we have found this to be essential to the service
of the Land.

So drawn up, etc., the 27 th September 1595.



96 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1586



IV

EXTRACTS RELATING TO THE CLAIMS OF
COLONEL BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR AND
THE POSITION OF THE SCOTTISH OFFICERS.
1586-1594

1586, Septr. % — On account of the arrival of 150 soldiers at
Amsterdam [from Scotland], and of those which are still
expected ; orders about their transport ; also the authorities
of Amsterdam are requested to receive them, and to pay them
per head, a captain 1 florin [ = 1 guilder], a lieutenant 10 patars
[ = 14 pence], an ensign and sergeant 6 p. each, a cadet, cor-
poral, clerk 6 p. each, and every soldier 3 p. daily.

Novr. 15. — Est ordonne que les capitaines Ecossois seront en
deux colonnels et sous le commandement de Balfour et Palton,
et le traitement party en deux moities, a moities egalement,
et que commissions soyent faits in forma.

1587, January \0th. — On General Norris^ proposal, it is
resolved to retain in service the company of Captain Rally ;
and with reference to this it was mentioned that before the
departure of his Excellency [the Earl of Leicester] it was fixed
that thenceforth not more than 2000 Scots would be kept in
service.

Dec. \2>th. — At the request of Colonel Balfour and Captain
Patson 2 for a resolution about the interests of his regiment
and other Scots regiments, gentlemen are nominated to enter
into negotiations with them thereanent.

Dec. \3th. — Report : It was fixed that Colonel Balfour shall
have in his Regiment the 10 Companies mentioned here, each



1 Generale Index op de Notulen van den Raad van State, 1584- 1600, door
A. Bogaers. Deel 3. P— Z.

2 i.e. Aristotle Patton. See pp. 26 and 46.



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 97

containing 150 men, and the Colonel's company containing
200 men. Regarding his pay, it shall be at the rate of 40
guilders per month paid to him for each company. It was
also resolved that Captain Arobel Patson shall be colonel of
the four Scots companies here mentioned, and to send him his
commission ; lastly, to consider as to how many officers shall
be henceforth in each company, and what arms officers as well
as privates shall bear.

Addendum, Dec. 20th. — The salary of colonel was fixed at
400 guilders, of the sergeant-major at 80, and of the provost
at 50.



Acta Consilii Status Provincialium Confoederatorum.
Differences between the States and Colonel Balfour.

1588, Saturday, May 28. — Colonel Balfour was asked to
come in, and was informed that their Honours understood he
and his captains and officers felt themselves aggrieved at being
asked to accept pay at the rate of 32 days for a month (nothing
else, he must recollect, was undertaken during this war, in par-
ticular, too, in respect of the Scots, and so likewise with his
comrades and other regiments brought over for the service of
the land), and it being well known that he was a lover of their
Fatherland, their Honours did not doubt but that he would
be willing to put up with that, and give no occasion that
through him the generally accepted footing be infringed upon.
After various allegations brought forward by the colonel, and
among others that he had persuaded his captains so far that
they had been altogether willing to be reasonable, but that
they had allowed themselves to forget many things, he ulti-
mately undertook to urge his captains to rest contented with
the arrangement.

And it having further been intimated to the colonel that
great complaints had been made by certain people who had
been fetched by his soldiers from Maas and Waall, he answered
in effect that it had been done through a misunderstanding, he
not being aware that those peasants were under Sauvegarde ;
but having ascertained this, he had given orders that satisfac-



98 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

tion should be made to the peasants; and he would take
measures so that such complaints should cease, or would be
himself answerable for them.

1588, Monday, June 13. — Captains Wm. Meurrey, Nysbeth,
and Waddel, having compeared, the resolution of the Lords
States-General and the Council was communicated to them,
with the intimation that they should render their accounts,
and would receive a month 1 s pay, and henceforth they would
be paid each 48th day by the authorities of Holland. Where-
upon they answered that they were willing to go and to serve
the country, but that they must have the means to make their
soldiers willing and to satisfy them. Being asked what means
they desired, they explained that they desired to get some
security about the settling of accounts. Whereupon it was
explained to them at some length that they had no reason
to insist upon that, or to refuse to serve the country on that
account, and they were again charged not to fail to have
their companies ready to march. So then the said captains
left the Council to have a consultation. And thereafter it
was resolved that the foresaid Scottish captains shall be pro-
vided with new commissions in the name of my Lords the
States-General, containing the express stipulation that they
must be satisfied with a pay of 48 days for a month, and
thereupon take a new oath. And should any objection be
made by them to accept this commission, or take the oath,
that they should be given their leave and discharge.

1588, Wednesday, June 15. — The Scottish captains having
yesterday undertaken to declare their opinion to-day as to
whether they should, under the terms of the commission
offered to them yesterday, continue in the service of the
country or not, it is resolved to summon them to appear
before the gentlemen who were also present yesterday, and
ask for their declaration.

June 15. — The Scottish captains being called in, their declara-
tions anent the commissions offered them yesterday were
asked for. Whereupon they answered that they could not
accept any change in their commissions before the arrival of
their Colonel ; and it having been represented to them that
such pretexts were 00 frivolous, and that the distress of the



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 99

country could not bear any delay, but that the soldiers must
be employed now against the enemy, they were urged there-
fore to give the matter further consideration. And mean-
while it was resolved that, having heard their declaration, the
captains not agreeing to the terms should receive their dis-
charge at once. The captains, having come in again, declared
that they were willing to serve the Lands, but as they wished
to give some satisfaction to their soldiers, they asked to get
with the accounts some written security, particularly on the
part of Holland, as otherwise they dare not go back to their
soldiers ; and if they could not get such security they would
prefer to be discharged and leave the country, and for that
they made request for ships and provision. On this the
meeting was adjourned, and it was resolved to come to a
decision in presence of my Lords the States-General in the
afternoon.

Afternoon. — As, after many consultations, the Scottish

captains would not accommodate themselves to what is offered

1 them in polite and reasonable manner, but have, after repeated

! discussions, finally declared that they could only remain

; longer in service on condition of receiving security for their

j accounts, it was necessary at last to declare that the States

would not hinder them, willing or unwilling, from departing,

and gave them their discharge. And in case they should

insist on departing with their companies, it was intimated

that the companies would be disbanded, and every soldier

: might then do as he liked. Which they would not accept,

■ -saying that they had paid the companies' 1 way from Scotland

at their own expense, and they desired that a rendezvous

should be granted where all the companies might be brought

together, to depart also together. The captains having left

! £the Council chamber], it was resolved that the disbanding

i shall be proceeded with, that commissioners should be deputed,

I who would discharge every company in each town in the

I country, and announce to them at the same time that every

one who might still desire to remain in the service of the

icountry would be treated, as hitherto, as an honest soldier.

; It being not at all advisable to allow them a rendezvous, but

; it is considered better to embark the discharged companies



100 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

one after the other, with [a] reasonable [amount of] provisions.
And of this action and the necessary resolutions notification
shall be sent to all the provinces and governors, as also to the
Count of Hohenlohe and Colonel Balfour, with the explanation
that the Council has been forced to do so, and if they would
have accepted any reasonable satisfaction the Council would
have been willing to retain them in the service. And it is
also resolved that those of the Scottish captains shall be
written to that are elsewhere, and in this action have probably
been in sympathy with the other captains, as for instance,
Nysbeth, Dallachy, Cant, Hay, to inform them of what has
been decided ; but that, as they were not present with, nor
included among the others, they were not to be considered as
discharged, and could therefore continue in their service,
marching or in garrisons, as ordered.

1588, Friday, June 17. — Colonel Balfour having come in,,
begged to be informed of all that had been discussed and
transacted between their Lordships and the captains. And
after he had been asked whether he had received the letter of
the Council, and he declared that he had not, the minute was
then read to him, and all that passed with the Scottish cap-
tains on the previous day was told to him at length, and even-
tually he requested their Loi'dships to allow him to confer
with the captains, and promised to give as soon as possible a
report of his conference.

1588, Saturday, June 18. — There was also read a certain
remonstrance of Colonel Balfour and his captains, appearing
to indicate that it would not be agreeable to him if the
Scottish companies, lately determined to be discharged, were
to leave the service of the country for want of the necessary
security, but that he would prefer that he should enter into
negotiations with them in order that his own and the others 1
companies should still continue in their service, with reasonable
concessions. Which also the Advocate of Holland, Barneveldt,
being present before the States-General, reported that he had
that day been led to understand by the said Balfour. There-
upon, by the States-General together with the Council, it was,,
after deliberation, resolved that the decision arrived at three
days before shall take effect, but in such a manner that the



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 101

■despatches already sent for the discharge of the companies
shall be executed, and that the captains of the companies in
reference to which a despatch was not sent, who, however, were
present in the Council when the entreaty and protest of the
Scottish captains was made three days ago — namely, Waddell
and Traill — may, if they choose, continue in the service as
before, and that the despatch and the effect of discharge shall be
as respects them cancelled. And in regard to the request for
some security for their accounts, this is still to continue in
terms of the act of the States-General by which the settlement
is promised. Whereupon Colonel Balfour, coming in and
being spoken to on the subject, answered that it was a strange
way to deal with the captains who had served so long, the
more as they are content to continue their service on reason-
able conditions ; and when it was said to him that it was a
matter of certainty that by far the greater portion of the
soldiery who were to be discharged would wish very much to
stay in the country, he answered that peradventure they might
be mistaken, as he indeed was sure that not a single one would
remain here. And, besides, he had also been specifically in-
formed that the captains, as to whom the despatches of dis-
charge had been already sent away, were, the two Murrays,
John Balfour, Blair, and Prop.

June 18, afternoon. — The matter of the Scottish captains
and companies was discussed again in the presence of the
Advocate of Holland, Oldenbarnevelt, Colonel Balfour being
present also, who earnestly insisted that these captains and
their companies should be retained in service, representing in
his speech that they had for years long done good service, that,
though they had made their demand indiscreetly, the Council
should be pleased to consider that they were soldiers, and that
the Council ought to put into use its wisdom and discretion
against their indiscretion, to secure that the service of the
country should not be harmed by such a little cause. Finally,
they seemed to incline to the view of the said Advocate, that
those who were designated before should be discharged ; and
no despatch of discharge should be sent regarding the others,
those, namely, like Trail and Waddel; and regarding the
remainder that, in order to preserve authority, they should



102 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

cause them to embark, and so make evident some tokens of
obedience ; but that, thereafter, some resolution may be arrived
at regarding their retention in service.

1588, Thursday, June 23. — The States-General being met,
it was announced that Colonel Balfour, having been present
yesterday, had requested information as to what further
arrangements had been made in the case of the discharged
Scots companies, and that the said colonel had been told that
their Honours could make no alteration in the resolution
taken by the States-General ; thereupon he again requested
that further consideration might be given to the matter, and,
should they not see fit to retain the discharged soldiers and
companies any longer, that at least some satisfaction might be
given them ; he recounted also the wearing service rendered by
Captain Blair to these Lands. Which, being taken into delibera-
tion, it was resolved that in order to maintain authority, the
three companies already discharged were to remain discharged,
and orders were promptly issued that ships and victuals be got
ready for those of them who wished to return to Scotland;
and to give them some satisfaction, an agreement was to be
made with said captains as to their arrears of pay, the furthest
practicable day and terms to be fixed, namely, eight to ten
years. And regarding the other companies which also are
designated for discharge, this not being as yet carried out, it
was for certain considerations resolved that, if by the captains
or colonel in their name a request should be made that they
be continued in the service, they should be retained, provided
that they, captains, by solemn deed, in the first place shall
renounce the combination entered into by them mutually, and
promise, moreover, that they will always, without any refusal
or excuse about their colonel or otherwise, put themselves at
the disposal of the service of the country, where such shall be
ordered by the States- General or by the Council of State.
And that they will content themselves with the pay of a month
each forty-eighth day ; and that they, also, during the time
of their service, will make no pretension to get any security for
their account or terms of pay ; on condition that, if the state
of the country should require the discharge of some of their
companies, that these captains will be treated in the same
manner as the captains who were discharged.



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 103

Afternoon.— The resolution taken this forenoon in the busi-
ness of the Scots was communicated to Colonel Balfour, he
being present, and he insisted arid begged much that the
officers of the three dismissed companies should be placed
under the flags of the others, and some support should be
granted them. It was resolved to enrol and distribute under
the other flags the lieutenants, ensigns, and sergeants of the
three discharged companies, and with a view to this their
names are to be given up to the Council, and that every
lieutenant is to receive twenty pounds [= guilders], every
ensign eighteen, every sergeant eight pounds, in addition to
the salary of 10 pounds a month.

1588, Friday, the 24 June, afternoon. — Considered and
read the Requests of Captains Blair and Murray, resolved that
the discharge decreed is to take effect, but Blair is to be
retained in the service for a time till some order and arrange-
ment can be made as to his arrears and the payment of them,
not the United Provinces alone being; held bound in the large
sum that he fixes as his amount of arrears. And as to Murray,
as he is a nobleman of high rank, and has behaved himself



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