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always with great discretion, without meddling much with the
protest of the Scottish captains, is resolved that he, therefore,
is to be retained on a reasonable monthly pay till opportunity
occurs of employing him again either by permitting him later
on to form a new company out of the disbanded Scottish com-
panies, or by appointing him to a vacant company.

1588. Declaration to be subscribed by the Scottish Captains.

Since, owing to the corruptions that arose among the
soldiery and to other troubles occurring, the State of the
United Netherlands has been weakened and injured, so that it
is necessary to provide against the recurrence of such corrup-
tions and troubles by the best and surest means, therefore,
we, the undersigned colonel and captains, together and
severally, with special regard to the receipt of our accounts in
the service of the said United Netherlands, made up to the
last day of April last, and likewise of our new commissions, of
our own free will and to show the good Christian zeal we have



104 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

to the true Christian religion and the welfare of said lands,
generally and particularly, for which the heavy charges of war
are borne, and for which we have taken up arms, have promised
and do promise in good faith, honourably and devoutly by this
declaration, for ourselves and our soldiers under us, that we
shall honestly and faithfully serve the States of the said lands
after the tenor of our new commissions aforementioned, and
shall be content and satisfied with receiving a full months
pay at intervals of 48 days, whether in more than one
payment or delivery as may be most convenient to them (but
not counting five or six days which sometimes elapse before
payment, as often happens when provisions and other neces-
saries are delivered which cannot quickly be liquidated) ; and
on these terms maintain good military discipline ourselves and
among our soldiers under us, in accordance with the rules of
war and the oath we took, and that we shall not, because of
the third part of our pay (which in future service is to remain
for us and our soldiers in arrear) or even because of what the
lands owe us for services rendered, refuse any service or permit
or suffer any corruption, but oppose such to the uttermost of
our power. We having entire confidence that the Sovereign
States, according to their Highnesses'' resolution, will settle
accounts with the whole soldiery for their past services, and
take action from this date, and that said reckonings be made
in accordance with the wealth of the Government of the
country, we, as regards times of security and payment, to be
treated and favoured as others who have rendered the like
services : and as regards our future arrears, they are to be
reckoned and satisfaction given as in the case of others. And
to uphold this we have pledged and do pledge each one of us
our respective persons and goods, and in witness signed the
beginning with the year 1588.

[On 24th June 1588, the following officers signed this
declaration : — J. Balfour, John Prop, David Cant, William
Waddel, William Hay, William Murray. The Dutch text is
as follows : — ]

Alsoo den Staet van de Vereenigde Nederlanden duerende d'alteratien
ontstaen onder het volck van oorloghe ende andere voorgevallen



1588] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 105

swaricheyden geswackt ende gecreuckt ; dat nootlick tegens gelycke
alteratien ende swaricheyden by de beste ende versekertste middelen
dient voorzien.

Soo hebben wy ondegescreven Colonnel ende Capiteynen tsamen ende
elcx byzonder int ontfangen van onse affrekeninghen, van den dienste
der voorsz, vereenichde Nederlanden tot den laetsten April lestleden
toegedaen, mitsgaders van onze nyeuwe commissien wt onse vrye wille,
ende omme te thoonen den goeden Christelicken yver die wy hebben
totte ware christelicke Religie, ende den welstande der voorsz. Landen.
Int generael ende bysonder, daer vooren de beswaei-licke lasten van den
oorloghe gedraghen wordden ende voor de welcke wy de wapenen ge-
bruycken, ter goeder trouwen by eere vromicheyt belooft ende beloven
by dezen voor ons ende onsen onderhebbenden crychsluyden, dat wy
volgende de voorsz, onze nyeuwe commissie den Staten vande voorsz
Landen zullen vromelick en getrouwlick dienen ende ons tevreden
houden ende genoughen, mits van Achtende veertich tot achten veertich
daghen (onbegrepen vyff oft zes daghen dat somwylen de betalinghe
zoude moghen verloopen. In regard dat dickwils vivres ende andere
behouften gelevert wordden, die zoo haest niet en comen wordden geli-
quideert) ontfangende een voile maendt solts tzy van eene oft meer
betaleugen oft leveringhen naedat hen best zal wesen gelegen, , ende
daerop mit onse onderhebbende crychsluyden ons in goede dissipline
militaire te houden, ende te achtervolghen de ordonnancien van der
oorloghe ende onsen gedanen eedt, zonder dat wy ter oorsaecken van het
derdeudeel van onze besoldinghe (welcke wy voor ons ende onse onder-
hebbende Crychsluyden voor de toecomende dienste ten achteren blyven
zullen) oft oyck voor tghene de Landen ons van onsen voorgaenden
dienste schuldich zyn, eenighe dienst weygeren, oft eenighe alteratie
toestaen, oft gedoghen zullen, maer nae onse wterste vermoogen deselve
beletten Ons volcomelick betrouwende dat die Heeren Staten volgende
Haer E. resolutie mit alle het volck van oorloghe tot affrekeninghe van
voorleden dienst voortaen zullen doen procederen ende dat deselve
affrekeninghe gedaen synde nae het vermoge ende den staet van den
Lande, wy zoo inde termynen van betalinghe als versekeringhe zullen
getracteert, ende gefavoriseert wordden, als yemandt anders van gelycke
diensten, ende dat ons van tgene wy voor den toecomenden tyde ten
achteren zullen blyven, als anderen affrekeninghe en contentement zal
wordden gegeven, ende van het onderhoudt van desen hebben wy ver-
bonden en verbinden by desen een yegelick onse respective personen
ende goederen, ende ten oorconde dese geteyckent den
beginnende met den jaare 1588. 1

1588, Saturday, Sep. 10. — Resolved : to inform Captain
Muray, by Secretary Huyghens, that he is offered eight



1 Instructie Boek van den Raad van Staaten.



106 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592

hundred guilders with permission to depart for Scotland as
requested, and to leave his company to Captain Muray, his
brother ; x and if he accepts this, that the States of Holland
shall be communicated with and induced to grant him pay-
ment of this money. 2



Sir Bartholomew Balfour and the King's Commission.

Resolutions of 1592, December 14. — Compeared the Conservator of Scot-
tne states- j an( j anc j delivered a certain letter of His Majesty, dated
St. Croix [Holyrood], the 24th Oct. last, in which His Majesty
declares that he makes and appoints Sir Bartholomew Balfour
one of his lords-in-waiting as colonel-general and captain-
in-chief of all His Majesty's companies of foot and horse.

N.B. Extract from the Conservator s Letter of Instruction.

. . . Qu'aucun general ou colonel ne soit recognu sur noz
subiects presentement en service soubz les Estats, excepte
seulement Colonel Balfour.

Qu'il rendra paine et negotiera que les dits Estats prennent
quelque pied pour le soulagement de la pauvrete de nos sub-
jects, illecq en leur service, affin de faire cesser leurs con-
tinuelles doleances.



N.B. Extract from the answer of the States-General
to the Conservator.

. . . Les dits Estats remercient le Roy bien humblement de
ce qu'il Luy a pleu leur permettre, comme ont fait aussy autres
Roys, Princes et Republicques chrestiens, qu'ils se soient serviz
a la soulde de ces pays de leurs subiects, avec lesquels les
Estats ont accoustume de traicter sur le faict de leurs com-
mandemens, commissions, instructions et payemens, tant en
qualite des Colonnels et capitaines que d'aultres, ainsy qu'ils
ont aussy faict avec le Colonel Balfour et feront encore d'icy



1 See Commission, p. 89, notes p. 50.

2 On Sept. 20th, 1596, the States of Holland resolved 'henceforth to pay the
companies every 42 days in the place of every 48 days.'



1592] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 107

en avant de temps a aultre comme sera trouve convenir pour
le plus grand bien et service de ces pays, selon les occasions et
occurences.

1592, December 18. — Colonel Balfour was asked whether he
held any commission from the King of Scotland to assume
here in this Land command of the Scottish companies.

He declared that it would not be his first commission of
that kind, that he has had other commissions and appoint-
ments from His Majesty in Scotland.

Finally, that the Conservator of Scotland had a certain
commission for him from His Majesty, which he had seen, but
not yet received — the authority of the States-General not
being prejudiced.

Whilst here in this Land, he desired no other commission
than that of their Highnesses, with which he would be well
contented ; but that the foresaid commission from the king
must be of service to him should he go to Scotland, against
those of his nation whom he had commanded, and the friends
of those who had died, or been executed by him injustice and
otherwise. At the same time, he did not presume to make a
practical use of the same in these Lands, otherwise than only
with the advice of his lords and masters.

After consultation on this, the said Balfour was informed
that their Highnesses the States felt completely assured of the
good judgment of the King of Scotland, and his earnest desire
for the preservation of the government of these Lands, and
the maintenance of the common cause of the same ; also of the
trustworthiness of the said Balfour in the service of the Lands.
And since it behoves the States to see carefully to the main-
tenance of equity in the Land and order in the same, and con-
sidering that in the foresaid commission there were divers
points in conflict therewith, which their Highnesses would not
conceal from him, that they could not permit him to make
use of the same in their Lands, and therefore desired that he
should hand over in writing his ultimate opinion on the sub-
ject, which, having been declared, further injunctions might
be given accordingly.

Dec. 18, post prandium. — Compeared Colonel Balfour, and
exhibited, according to the desire of the States, a certain



108 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592

memorial in writing, containing his declaration respecting the
Commission sent to him by the King of Scotland.

The foresaid memorial having been read, it was resolved
that the said Colonel Balfour be to-morrow told authorita-
tively that the States are convinced that he cannot serve in
this country (the rights of the same remaining conserved)
except on the Commission of their Highnesses the States-
General ; that he must therefore declare whether he will serve
on the commission of the same and no other, or not ; and that
the agent from Scotland be handed a memorial in writing,
giving the reasons why it can't be thought of, that the said
Colonel should serve in these Lands with such said commission
from the king.

Memorandum of the States to Mr. Denistoun, on account
of Col. Balfour "s commission.

Les Estats generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas,
Aians veu et examine Toriginale commission qu'il a pleu au
Serenissime Roy d'Escosse envoier au Colonnel Balfour par les
mains du S r Denistoun, Conservateur des privileges de la
nation Escossoise en ces Pays Bas, pour commander aux com-
pagnies Escossoises qui sont en leur service, datee le xxi
Novembre Mil cinq cent quatre vingt et onze, declairent qu'il
ne peult subsister avecq le droit et authorite du pays, que
aucun colonnel ou capitaine qui s'est mis volontairement au
service de ces pays soubz la soulde dlcelluy, se serviroit aux
pays d'aultre commission que des dits Estats generaux, oultre
ce que en lad. commission se retrouvent plusieurs pointz con-
trarians directement au droict, authorite et louables usages
des ditz pays, comme :

De faire la soulde des soldats, d'autant qu'il y a un ordre en
cela au pays selon lequel tous les Colonnels et capitaines sont
tenuz se regler.

Letter of Colonel Balfour to the States-General.

Messeigneurs, — Mess es Les Estats generaulx des Provinces
Unies des Pays Bas.

Le Colonnel Balfour desirant donner contentement a vos



1592] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 109

Seigneuries sur la proposition que luy a ete faicte par Icelles,
touchant Fexecution de la commission qu'il a pleu a sa Ma te
d'Escosse, son Prince Souverain, luy envoier.

Declare ne s'en volloir prevaloir au prejudice de Fauthorite
de voz Seig ies , ny des ordonnances militaires de par decha, mais
seulement pour augmenter son authorite et tenir soubz meil-
leure discipline les troupes commises soubz sa charge.

Et combien que la formalite de la comission soit par quelques
circonstances dissemblables au stille des commissions de par
decha, si est quelle nest aultre que toutes elles que sa Ma* 6 a
de coustume depescher en tel faict, affin que son authorite soit
recognue entre ses subiectz, quelque part qu'ils soient.

Parquoy, suivant la bonne preuve que le dit Colonnel a faict
de la fidelite et versance envers vos Seig ies et la cause duquoy,
est resolu persister jusques a la fin, vos S ies se peuvant reposer
sur sa prudhommie et le serment preste a Icelles.

Et si par quelques circumstances contenues en la dite com-
mission, voz S ies .

Item, de lever et casser des capitaines et aultres principaux
officiers.

Item, d^rdonner et faire les moustres des compagnies, des-
quels deux pointz la disposition appartient au pays.

Item, de recevoir et payer la soulde des compagnies d'aultant
que Ton n'est accoustume de payer es mains du colonnel que la
soulde de sa propre compagnie, oultre son tractement de
colonnel, et a chacun capitaine la sienne.

Item, de faire et enioindre telle discipline, reglement et loix
qu'il advisera estre requises parceque les loix et ordonnances sur
la discipline militaire se font de temps a aultre de la part des d.
Estats generaux, suivant lesquelles s^dministre droit et justice.

Faict a Fassemblee des dits Sieurs Estats Generaux a la
Haye en Hollande ce dix huictiesme jour de Decembre, L'an
mil cincq cens vingt et douze, soubzcr. par ordonnance des ditz
S rs Estats. (Signe) Aerssen.

Having consulted about the request presented by Colonel
Balfour, as well for himself as for the captains of his regi-
ment, it was resolved, that he be told in the assembly, that
he has no reasons to complain — in respect that he and the



110 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592

captains of his regiment receive their pay every 48 days, 1
as they had been informed they should. And if they have
not had the best pay in France, on the other hand, in other
quarters and garrisons within these Lands, it has been better.
However the States desiring to deal with the foresaid regiment
in all reasonableness, notwithstanding this, have resolved and
granted the foresaid colonel, for his extraordinary expenses
incurred in the march to France, six hundred guilders, and to
each of his captains three hundred guilders in one payment,
and more than that, are willing to make payment in clothing,
when the petitioners shall desire it, to the extent of one
months pay for each company, that thereby the soldiers may
be brought up to the mark in accoutrements and order, so as
to be of service to the Land, always with the understanding
that said month's pay shall be deducted from the pay of the
'foresaid Company, during the next six months, a sixth part
thereof every month. Wherewith the above-mentioned colonel
and captains shall have to content themselves. And touching
the remaining points of his request, they will be gone into at
a fitting time.

Request of Colonel Balfour.

Ledum, November 21, 1592. — A Messeigneurs les Estatz

generaulx des Provinces Unies des Pays Bas. Remonstre en

Collection of toute reverence et humilite Colonel Balfour, tant en son propre

to *he sta t Cnt nom c V 1Sin nom ^ es Capitaines de son Re'giment.

Seneral. Que passe un an ou environ se trouvantz surcharges de

debtes crees pour Tentretement de leurs compagniez, comme
ne pouvant suffire la paye de 48 par mois, lis presenterent
requeste a voz Seig ies , tendant au contentement que leur fut
promis au mois d'Apuril 1588 pour le deu de leur service avecq
leurs compagniez, depuis leur sortie d'Anvers, iusques au
premier May 1588, dont ils ont descompte arrestez. Sur
laquelle req te fut donnee responce de dilay, et depuis survenant
le voyage de France, les dits remonstrants ont tellement aug-
mente leurs debtes, si pour Tequipage qu'entretennement
extraordinaire de leurs compagnies, durant le dit voyage,

1 See note p. 106.



1592] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 111

avecq la recrute quMl leur a convenu mander cTEscosse pour
le supplement de leur nombre perdu au dit extraordinaire
service, qu'il leur est du tout impossible se depettrer des dites
debtes, ne jouissant que des payes ordinaires, ce qui les a faict
esperer estre fondes en leurs pretentions representes en leur
requeste puis n^guerres a vos Seig ies , de laquelle req te n'est
sorty le fruict espere, mais au contraire un simple renvoy a
Messeig 8 les Estatz de Hollande pour leur paye de 48 jours
par mois. En quoy leurs S ies ont consenti d'entrer en liquida-
tion a la charge que tout ce que Ton trouvera par les ditz
remonstrantz avoyr este recu tant en argent, vivres, qu'armes,
excedant la dite paye de 48 jours, qu'il sera deffalque de leur
paye courante. Lesquelles extremitez recherchees contre eux,
seroyt cause de leur totalle ruyne et dissipation de leurs
trouppes. Ce qu'il n'esperent estre les mercedes ou recom-
pensse de leurs tant fidelles et loyaux services. Et comme
a rayson de la presente necessite et serieuses debtes qui les
accablent, lesquelles sont procedantes du dit extraordinaire
et non oblige service, ne se trouvent aulcunement accomodes
de la paye ordinaire de 48 jours, laquelle comme diet est, ne
peut suffire pour Tentretennement quotidien de leurs com-
pagnies, sont contraintz de recheff suplier vos S ies entrer en
descompte advenant 32 jours par mois, suivant le contenu de
leurs derniers contracqs, et en conformite des promesses a eux
faictes a la despeche de leurs derniers descomptes, entrer en
traicte pour l'asseurance du payement de leur entier deu ;
desquelles lettres d'asseurances ils se pourront servire pour
subvenir a leurs necessitez, payement de leurs debtes et entre-
tennement de leurs soldats au service du pays.



Continuation of Balfour 's business.

Dec. 19. — The Conservator of Scotland compeared, and the
foresaid resolution was communicated to his lordship, the
clerk being charged to hand it over to him in writing.

Colonel Balfour compeared, and was informed of the resolu-
tion arrived at regarding the memorial handed in by him in
reference to the commission sent to him by the King of Scot-



112 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1592

land. He declared that he does not wish to make use of it in
these Lands, nor to serve in virtue of any other commission,
but only on the commission of the States-General, his lords
and masters.

Dec. 20. — Colonel Balfour compeared and presented his
answer to the offer made by the States to him and the
captains of his regiment, which answer is inserted below
as follows : —

' Response de Monsieur Balfour, Colonnel et ses Capitaines,
sur la proposition a eux faicte par Messeigneurs les Estats
Generaux.

' Le dit Colonel et ses Capitaines declarent ne chercher
aultre chose de mesditz Seigneurs, sinon de voir leurs soldatz
soulagez par quelque convenable moien de leur presente
necessite. II a pleu a mesditz Seigneurs de faire un offre I
d'un mois en drap pour chacune compagnie et estre rabatu '
en six paiemens ; sauve la correction de vos S ies , le soldat ne I
sera en cet endroit soulage, puis plus tost charge davantage, j
quitant la sixiesme partie de sa paye, Fespace de six mois.

'Mais s'il plaisoit a mes d. Seig s de vouloir accorder un mois ji
en drap en tant moins et a bon compte de ce qui est deu par
d'escompte faicte, ou sera trouve deu par d^scompte de leur |
present service, alors le diet Colonel et Capitaines obliger de il
remercier vos S ies .

' lis remerchient aussy voz S ies de Toffre faicte a leurs per- i
sonnes en recompense des grands frais par eux faictz durant I
le voiage en France. Us ne sauront avecq si petite somme j
donner contentement a leurs crediteurs, car ils desirent plus i
tost de voir leurs soldats soulages que leur particulier.

' Touchant d'entrer d'escompte avec voz S ies et quieter un |
sixiesme, le dit colonnel et capitaines ne sauront ceder a ceste
poinct sans meure deliberation et advis de leurs officiers et
soldats, et aultres respectz.

' Quant a la commission expediee par sa Ma* 6 d'Escosse au j
Colonnel, cela tend plus pour se guarantir contre aucuns qui
vouldroient prendre action contre luy en Escosse, comme il
a desia declaire par escript. Car il est prest de continuer a
voz S ies le service, comme il a faict. Pour tant prient bien



1593] CLAIMS OF BARTHOLOMEW BALFOUR 113

affectueusement led. Colonnel et Capt es , qu'il plaise a Voz
g e jgies considerer la longue et fidele service par eux faicte par
decha, et Tintime affection qiTilz ont de continuer jusques au
dernier de leur vie et leur accorder moitie en drap en tant
moins et a bon compte comme dessus. Car voians leurs
soldatz soulagez, ils sont prestz en union et bon accord de se
soubzmettre a toutes choses qu'il plaira a Messeigneurs leur
commander pour le prouffit et service du pays. 1

Dec. 24. — The foresaid answer having been considered, it was
resolved to declare in regard to it that the States by no means
understand that he is at liberty to serve and help himself in
any manner in these Netherlands, with any commission, in his
position as colonel in command of the Scottish companies,
they being in the service of these Lands, other than with
the Commission of the States only, in conformity with the
foregoing declaration made respecting this.

Then as regards the deduction for the clothing or accoutre-
ments agreed to by the States, that the same shall be carried
out according to what shall be found to be just and reason-
able.

1593. Alleged Plot of the Scots Transaction with Balfour.

Dec. 2. — On the remonstrance being made, that apparently Resolution of
some plot might be entered into by the Scots, which in future statesGeneral
times might tend to injure the condition of the Land, it was,
during a long consultation suggested and advised in what
manner this might be dealt with, so that the Land might be
assured of their services ; and with that end in view several
plans and suitable methods were proposed. Thereafter nothing
else was resolved on than that his Excellency [Prince Maurice]
should be advised to divide the Scottish companies in the
garrisons, and post them in such places, that they may not,
and cannot do any ill.

Dec. 4. — A consultation was once again held as to how in
time to come they could be assured of the service of the Scots.
< And it was thought good in the first place to try to satisfy
i Colonel Balfour, concerning the payment requested by him of
I the arrears of his salary ; and for that end to offer 1000 dollars
I ready money, and further 1000 dollars yearly, till paid in full.

h



114 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593

Item. To sound the intention of the said Balfour, in regard
to his accounts of his company. Also what is due him for the
services afterwards performed by him, with the foresaid com-
pany ; and to resolve, that it shall be accumulated with the
principal, till report shall have been made and heard, of what
has occurred concerning this. As to this, it being well under-
stood that the system be still insisted on of keeping the com-
panies apart, and that they ought to be placed in such garrisons
that it shall not be in their power to do any ill. Finally, in
order that the foresaid Scots be fitly treated, the act shall be
renewed, signed by the captains.

Feb. 12. — The Council was requested to go to the Assembly
of the States-General, and went accordingly. And there
Colonel Balfour, Captains Murray, Dalachy, Brog, Prop,.
Egger and Waddel were informed that since they will not
content themselves with the settlement, of which an offer has
been made them severally, nor otherwise with such pay as the
other captains are in receipt of, that therefore they are dis-
charged from their service, and loosed from their oath. But
should any one among them desire to continue in the States 1
service, it is devised that he shall come to an agreement with



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