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and very sincerely thanked Her Majesty for her good resolution adopted
regarding it, announced to me by Lord AValsingam on behalf of Her
Majesty, and I declared that I would, nevertheless, fain proceed on the
said journey ; especially because the King of Scotland had been in-
formed of my coming, and it was plain the postponement thereof might
cause some dissatisfaction to the King of Scotland, and be of disadvan-
tage and prejudice to the States. Thereupon it was declared by Her
Majesty that the King of Scotland might well forbear to bestow a single
execution of letters of marque in favour of one individual as against Her
Majesty's friends and allies, and that Her Majesty had expressed all that
very strongly in a letter written with her own hand. Nor did I omit to
remonstrate with Her Majesty on the condition of the town of Bergen-op-
Zoom, etc. ... As to that, Her Majesty declared that the Council had
issued foolish orders in the business referred to. And therewith having
taken leave of Her Majesty, the following day we came to Court with the
said Mr. Ortel to talk over with Mr. Bodsley and Walsingam the business
of the powder. Lord Walsingam handed to us the letters from your
Highnesses to the King of Scotland, despatched by Jasper the messenger,
and stopped at Barwyck, and conveyed back to Her Majesty at Court.
And after we had given orders about the discharge of the said messenger,
I waited on the said Mr. Duglas on November 10th, and communicated to
His Excellency the resolution of Her Majesty and also the duplicate of
the said points, requesting that His Excellency might kindly add to his
letters the letters of your Highnesses addressed to the King of Scotland ;
all the duplicates, both of the said points concerning the case of Stuart,
and of. a certain memorial concerning the case of the Earl of Orkenan,
and to despatch for the purpose a special messenger, in order that he
might be sure to hand them to His Majesty, that, from the contents, His
Majesty might be fully informed of the circumstances of both the cases
mentioned. That also His Excellency might be pleased to write to



124 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

certain of the principal gentlemen of the Council of His Majesty, who are
well disposed to the States, with assurances that the States would not
neglect in a fitting time and way to recognise the said service of His
Excellency. His Excellency, in pursuance of this, appointed a certain
Nobleman specially for the purpose, and sent him to Scotland on 12th
November with all the said letters. Of all which I have not neglected to
advise Your Highnesses. In the meantime, having received certain infor-
mation that full commission and instruction had not been granted
either to the" Lord General Noreitz [Norris], or to Mr. Bothley to give
the Lands proper satisfaction regarding the said points as to which redress
was previously sought verbally by me on behalf of your Highnesses both
from Her Majesty and from the Lords of the Council ; that, likewise,
the actions of Your Highnesses are very basely misrepresented to Her
Majesty, both in regard to Colonel Schenck, etc. . . . And having
heard, on December 6th, that Her Majesty had received letters from the
King of Scotland, I requested through Lord Walsingam that I might
have access to Her Majesty, both to hear the reply of the King of Scot-
land to the letters of Her Majesty, and to bring certain matters to the
notice of Her Majesty on behalf of Your Highnesses touching the state of
the country. Having been admitted on the 8th of the same month, Her
Majesty declared to me that it was unnecessary to proceed on the said
journey to Scotland, that the King of Scotland had suspended the
execution of the letters of marque, that Her Majesty would not allow
such ways of procedure against Her Majesty's allies, that the King of
Scotland, at least, would certainly abstain from granting them against
the States, without Her Majesty's foreknowledge and consent. Whereof,
after I had profusely thanked Her Majesty on behalf of Your Highnesses
I delivered to Her Majesty, etc.

Having been summoned on December 11th to Mr. Douglas, Hi*
Excellency informed me that he had heard from the King by letter, that
His Majesty was expecting me, that my coming would be very agreeable
to His Majesty, and that His Majesty would give the States all proper
satisfaction ; but that His Majesty could not comprehend how that could
be brought about by the intercession of Her Majesty of England, or of
any one else, telling me, moreover, the King of Scotland had been highly
offended at the messenger being stopped at Berwick, who was sent by
Your Highnesses to His Majesty, also at the letters addressed to His
Majesty being taken out of the hands of the said messenger and sent
back to the Court here, and that His Excellency had been ordered to
remonstrate about the injustice thereof to Her Majesty, or to Her
Majesty's Councillors. Accordingly, I made all possible and formal pre-
parations to proceed on the said journey, and by letter informed Lord
Walsingam, who was at the Court at Greenwich, both of the above noti-
fication made by Mr. Douglas on behalf of the King of Scotland, and of
my intention to proceed on the said journey at the first opportunity, in
accordance with the expectation of the said King and the command of
Your Highnesses. I very earnestly entreated his Lordship that he would



1589] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 125

graciously intercede with Her Majesty, that, for prosecuting the said
journey, proper letters of passport and recommendation might be granted
me, in order that all further inconveniences might be prevented, which
by longer delay and postponement of the said journey might be caused
to the detriment of the States.

Having come to Court on the 16th, to ask for the resolution of Her
Majesty regarding the aforesaid missive, I was informed by Lord Wal-
singam, that his Lordship had communicated the said missive to Her
Majesty and the members of the council, but that as yet Her Majesty
had taken no resolution regarding it, that he would not neglect to hasten
it on, and to inform me immediately thereof by some of his servants.
Next on the 18th December, Mi". Barford, first clerk of his Lordship,
came to me, and informed me that Her Majesty, for certain reasons which
influenced Her Majesty, could not see why the said journey should be un-
dertaken. That Her Majesty would again write in strong terms to the
King of Scotland ; that the States need not look for any difficulty ; also that
she would write to Your Highnesses for my discharge and the withdrawal
of my commission. And as on the same day I had been very earnestly re-
quested, and Mr. Ortel likewise, by the Earl of Essex to come and visit his
Lordship the following day at Court. Accordingly, being then at Court,
and Mr. Ortel being present, I asked Lord Walsingam himself about the
said resolution of Her Majesty, and he declared that Her Majesty's resolu-
tion was exactly that communicated to us on the previous day by his clerk,
and showed us a certain missive, minuted by his Lordship in English,
which was to be sent to the King of Scotland, the contents of which, Mr.
Ortel declared were written very much to the point, but I could not
obtain a copy of it. And after his Lordship had made certain statements
to me, especially regarding the excessively great expenses borne by Her
Majesty since the Treaty, where through Her Majesty had exposed her
state to great risk, and after, in reply, I brought forward other
arguments, thereupon I took leave of his Lordship. And on the follow-
ing day I waited on Mr. Douglas, and earnestly requested His Excellency
to be so good as oblige the States and Your Highnesses, by making
excuse to His Majesty for our delay in the letters of His Excellency. In
order that Your Highnesses, being advised thereof, might issue such
orders as the circumstances of the case, and the rendering of satisfaction
to His Majesty might be found to require. Accordingly we drew up a
certain letter, and despatched it along with the letters of His Excellency
to Scotland on the 24th, by a certain Nobleman appointed for the purpose
by Mr. Douglas. His Majesty's reply thereto is still expected.

And so to Mr. Ortel on the 28th were delivered, etc. . . .

On January 9th Mr. Douglas informed me that His Excellency had
received letters from Scotland from the first clerk of His Majesty, to
whom His Excellency had recommended the affairs of Your Highnesses.
That the King had resolved to give Your Highnesses every reasonable
satisfaction ; and that the letters for that purpose would have been
despatched, but that, on account of some obstacle placed in the way by



126 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589

Colonel Stuart, they, as well as the nobleman of Mr. Douglas, are yet
detained. He did not doubt, however, but that His Majesty would
persist in the resolution he had taken, and, at least, defer the precognitions
on both sides in the affair till a suitable opportunity. He also deemed it
was unnecessary for me to wait for the said despatches, especially as, in any
case, the journey to Scotland could not be promoted from any quarters,
but that the said despatches would be addressed to your Highnesses ; or
in case they should be sent to His Excellency, that His Excellency would
not fail to hand them over to Mr. Ortel to be despatched immediately by
express messenger to Your Highnesses ; according to which advice I have
thought it right to regulate my conduct, and hasten on my return to these
quarters ; the more because My Lords the Councillors of State had
recalled me by their letters of November 28th last. And because Lord
Walsingam, having sent me on January 11th the reply of Her Majesty
to the aforesaid points delivered by me on December 8th last to Her
Majesty, likewise my passports and other despatches addressed on the
part of Her Majesty to Your Highnesses, earnestly entreated me to set
out on my journey to our parts and procure from Your Highnesses that
the promised assistance agreed to by your Highnesses the 20th January,
stilo anglice, to further the projected voyage to Portugal, might be kept ia
readiness, lest by longer delay any detriment to the said voyage might
occur. To this Messrs. Noreitz [Norris] and Draech [Drake] respec-
tively exhorted me daily very earnestly, so leaving London on the 15th
inst., I arrived in Zeeland on the 18th. And after I had there with the
states of Zeeland discussed certain points, recommended to me by the
Council of Her Majesty, I arrived here on the 25th.

All which, Right Honourable, Noble, Wise, Learned and Most
Prudent Sir, is what was transacted by me in England with Her Majesty,
both regarding the case of Colonel Stuart and in respect of the points
delivered to me as instruction at headquarters.

Dated at Delft, January 25th, 1589. »

(s.) Leonard Voocht.

Ann ex a
A

Articles exhibes a Mess** 1 le Grand Thesaurier et De Walsyngem le 9 de

Novembre 1588 ; le double desquels sont envoyes vers le Roy d'Ecosse le

12 du diet moys.

Que le Colonnel Guillaume Stouart est venu environ l'an XV C LXXIV

es provinces d'Hollande et Zelande sans service ou charge, et que par les

geurs E s tats des dits Pais, a la requeste du S r Ortell, par recommandation,

du feu S r Eduard Chester, luy a este accorde' et paye pour son entretien-

nement traictement de XXV florins par mois.

1 On Dec. 30th, 1588, Roger Aston wrote from Edinburgh, that ' the king was
much offended at the stay of the ambassador from the Low Countries.' — Cal. of
St. Pap. Scotland.



1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 127

Que puis le d fc Stouart estant pourveu par les dits S rs Estats d'Hollande
et Zelande de commission de Cap ne d'une compaignie de gens de
pied j en Tan XV C LXXVI, apres la pacification a Gent, par les dits S rs
Estats a este licentie entre aultres, et du tout satisfaict de ses services
passees.

Depuis cela le dit Stouart s'est donne en service des Estats gene'raulx
des aultres Provinces et a receu d'iceulx commission de Colonnel sur
quelques compaignies Ecossoises, desquelles services pour le present sont
praetenduz par le dit Stouart et ses complices les dits arrierages.

Que ceulx d'Hollande et Zelande au mesme temps ont faict subside
aulz d s Estats des aultres Provinces de XXV compaignies d'Infanterye
et V c chevaulx a leurs despens, sans qu'en regard de la generaulte ils ont
este tenuz ou obligez en aulcunes oulterieures charges de guerre.

Si que le dit Stouart debvroit legitimement demander et pourchasser
le payement de ses arrierages pretendus et non par voyes extraordinaires
de repressailles ou de constringer les dits pays par aulti'es voyes inde-
centes a satisfaction.

Qu'oncques au dit Stouart par les dits S rs Estats du pays a este' refuse'
droict ny Justice. Rien estre vray que le dit Stouart a aultre fois par
requeste et puis aprez le Roy d'Escosse par importunite d'Iceluy faict
interpeller par le Conservateur de la nation Ecossoise, demeurant a
Quandfeu [Campvere] en Zelande, les dits Seigneurs Estats du pays a cause
du dit payement ; mais qu'estant sur cela par les dits S rs Estats rescribe
en pensoit au meme temps avoir donne deu contentement a sa Maj M . De
sorte que la dite requisition et interpellation respective a este seulement
extra indiciatis, laquelle n'a peu constituer les d s S rs Estats en ung cas de
si grande importance in mora.

Signament d'aultant que la voye de justice a touiours este ouverte au d*
Stouart laquelle les d ts S rs Estats mesmes obe'issent Joinct que les debtes
praetendues illiquides et qu'au d l Colonnel Stouart ne compete que rata
emeriti stipendii et aulx aultres Cap nes et souldats leur portion a
l'advenant.

Que la plus part des d ts Souldats et aulcuns des d ts Cap nes sont morts,
enfuys ou encores presentement en actuel service du pays et que
solemnelement ils ont promis de ne refuser aux d ts pays aulcun service
a causes des dites arrierages.

Et quand bien les debtes pouroyent estre entierement liquides (ce
qu'on soutient que non) que toutefois on debvroit faire surche'ance du
payement jusques a la fin de la guerre.

D'aultant que les plus puissants Roys, Princes et Republicques sont
reliquatores et continuent journelement de beaucoup de millions a cause
des guerres menees ou par eulx mesmes ou leurs praedecesseurs (si,
qu'encores aujourdhuy le payement de pareilles arrierages par iceulx est
differe.

Et encores qu'on le vouldroit prendre a toutes extre'mitez si estre que
ceulx d'Hollande et Zelande seroient de leur coste reduables au payement
des d s debtes non plus que leur contigeut ne porte. II est a presupposer



128 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588

que le payement des d es praetenses ensemble l'execution des d es repre'-
sailles, en ces conjuctures est procure a l'instigation du Prince de Parma
et aultres semblables tant secrets que publicqs ennemis de la cause com-
mune, Afin de contraindre les d s pays de se defendre extraordinairement
a l'encontre des procedures extraordinaires et si irraisonnables, et
employer leurs vassaulx de guerres tant a l'encontre la puissance des
ennemis que particulierement contre iceulx qui vouldroyent empescher
la negotiation par mer.

Par ou non seulement seroyent empesche's le service de Sa Ma w et
retarde touts aultres bonnes actions, mais aussy les moyens des pays
(lesquels par le regard des charges ordinaires des guerres pre'sentes n'en
ont que trop a porter) dissipez, au grand praejudice des bons inhabitants
du diet pays et oulterieure ruyne de leur present estat.

Que les d 3 procedures se facent a l'instigation, ou pour le moins par
praeadvertance des ennemis communs, cela ce peult appercevoir ou con-
jecturer par diverses circumstances. Veu que le dit Stouart laisse
entierement immoleste les autres Provinces, comme Brabant, Flandres,
Artoys, Haynault, Malines etc., des dictes praetenses; nonobstant que
les d es Provinces ayent principalement contracte avec luy et que luy
mesme par diverses fois depens n'aguerres s'y est trouve'.

Et sans aulcung respect et honneur, avance a demander entre aultres
la debte du Cap ne Paton, lequel (contre le serment preste au d l pays) a
meschamment trahy et rendu es mains de l'ennemy la bonne ville de
Geldre.

Pareillement sera a considerer que la citation n'aguerres faicte de la
part du Roy d'Escosse a l'instance du diet Stuart par certain herault n'a
este exploicte si debuement comme il appartient.

A cause qu'icelle debvroit estre faicte aulx Estats generaulx, avecq
lesquels le S r Stouart principalement avoit traicte, lesquels estats au
temps de la d te citation n'estoyent assemblez.

Que le diet herault au moins eut deu attendre l'assemblee des d s S rs
Estats et a eulx mesmes debuement faire l'exploicte de la d e execution.

San proceder par affichement de d te citation a la chambre du Conseil,
ou d'user aultres voyes extraordinaires, soubs praetexte du nom et Cou-
verture du Roy, pour causer esmotion emmy le peuple.

Qu'aussy le d l herault desalors debvroit exhiber le contrait ou obliga-
tion praetendue par le d* Stouart ou pour le moins copie authentique
d'icelle, afin que les S re Estats les ayant veus y eussent peu prendre telle
re'solution qu'ilz trouveroynt convenir selon l'exigence du faict.

Specialement d'aultant que ceulx du pays declarent qu'ilz ne scavent
parler d'aulcun contract ny obligation gene'rale ny particuliere, ou bien
qu' avecq le d k Stouart on aye faicte contract ou passe obligation a son
proufit, et encores qu'il n'en pourroit avoir, que les memoires et papier
sont demeurez au pays de Brabant.

Si que sur les raisons sus dictes et signament qu'il n'est en la puissance
du A 1 pays de payer tels praetenses extroyues, sans ruiner totalement le
praesent Estat d'iceulx, il plaira a voz S ieB d'y prendre tel regard, que par






1588] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 129

intercession et authorite de sa Ma te les d s repressailles comminatoires
decernees sur la requisition subiective du d* Stouart soyent du tout
divertiz, si bien des Estats Ge'neraulx,- que espe'cialement de ceulx
d'Hollande, Zelande et leurs inhabitans en particulier.



B

C'opie de la lettre de sa Maieste, envoyeau S. Roy d'Ecosse le 10 de Kouembre,

stylo Angl.

My deere care for yd hond and good estate (my deere brother) per-

mittes me not to overslip anie cause wherein I suppose anie deminution

to fall to either and driven by a good grounde it will not dislike yd (I

make me suer) if I write to yo my mynde in such a case. And this it

is the States of the Lowe Countries, whom you are not ignorant I have

and do aide to keepe them in breathe from the extreame ruyii that is

ment them, finde themselves sorly agreeved that at this tyme of theire

greate neede to releive their owne danger theire countries losse and

theire continuwall well nighe importable charges, yo that professe the free

religion and proteste such inwarde affection to advance that cause cannot

finde in your harte so greate neglecte of them and their wantes as at

this season so out of season for them to make claime of debts owinge to

yo subiectes which when I hearde I could do no lesse then make it knowen

into yd (my deere brother) how sory I was to heare of such a preposition

togeither with the menace of Ires of marc if not spedeler it were not

answered. Consider I beseeche you of yo dealinges in this sorte how

yo shall wound yo frendes glad yo foes and wronge your self; who

will believe that yd passe of religion that suffer the professd to perrisse ;

who will suppose that your amitie is founde to me when yd afflirte my

parte ; nay I praie God the enemy who careth for neither of us, maketh

not skorne of our frendship as thinckinge it full faint and feeble. I

meane not herby that it is not reason for a Kinge to righte his subiectes

wronge and to procuer in time conveniant suche seemelike remedies as

maie fitt his place and helpe his vassails losse. But the moste of this

consists in the time and for the persons. Ffor as yd shall perceive a

great some of this greate valewe is not theire debte, but of other countries

and captaines whom theie rule not, according as at length my seruant

hathe in charge to tell you with my moste affectuous desier and earnest

request that you more regarde the cause and time then anie private sub fc

sute. And that it maie please you alle theise thinges well waighed to

surceaste anie preparation that might make shewe to anndye. Albeit I

doubt not but theie mighte defende themselves againste a farre greater

force. Yett lett no man say that by yd hande theie be afflicted that have

miserie enough. And this I ende with my moste affectionate petition,

that theise lynes maie be considered accordinge to the harte that writes

them, who never ceaseth to praie for your beste, as God is witness. By

yd moste affeconate sister and cosen. Elizabeth Regina.

I



130 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1588



Copie de la lettre envoye au Ser. Roy de Ecosse, le 14 Dec. S. A. 1588

Sire, — Nous ne faisons doubte que V. Ma w soit plus que suffisamment
informe taut par les Ires des S rs du Conseil d'Estat des Provinces unies du
pais bas, que par les memoires quelques jours passez par nous envoyez, par
le moyen du S r Ambassadeur de Votre Ma w Mr. Duglas, avecq quel tort
le Colonnel Stuart, si bien en son nom prive comme aultres (praetendants
arrierages des services faictes aulx S rs Estats gnralx des dits provinces)
avoit obtenu de vre Ma M Ires de represailles pour non seulement par
icelles executer leurs injustes praetenses, mais aussij particulierement
susciter des malentenduz entre votre Royalle Ma te et ceulx du d k pays,
qu'oncques n'ont desire aultre chose, qu'en temps et lieu convenable
faire paraistre a vre Ma w l'envie qu'ilz out de faire a icelle et son Estat
tous humbles et fideles services.

Et combien qu'avions (suyvant la charge a eu nous donnee) expresse- j
ment delibere voire appreste et aller trouver et baiser les mains de vre
Royale Ma w , si bien au nom de noz dits superieurs qu'en nre particulier
ensemble plus spe'cificquement l'informer si bien de l'Estat des dits
affaires comme aussi de faire oulterieur ouverture de nre charge.

Si estre toutefois que nre dicte venue et singulier de'sir a este' differe
iusques a ceste heure contraire toute expectation pour des causes que
nous ne scaurions repeter, mais vre Ma w pourra entendre si bien par Ires
de la Reyne d'Angleterre, comme particulierement par le d cfc S r
Ambassadeur.

Tout nonobstant n'avons obmis d'aduerter les d ts S rs Estats en toute
diligence du succes de noz affaires, comme aussy particulierement de la
retenue le leur messagier et Ires a Berwyck, si que pour le pre'sent ne
pourions que suppleer vre Ma w tres humblement (qu'ayant esgard a
l'acquite de la cause principale et pre'sent estat des d s pays, ensemble a
la singuliere affection qu'ils ont tousjours porte et portent envers son
service, comme aussy a notre d s retardement ; II luy plaise de sa grace
effectuelement et absolument faire descharger et annuchiller les d s re-
presailles avecq l'execution d'icelles, pour le moins pour tel terme de six
ou huict mois que les d s S rs Estat y pouvans mestre ordre convenable
d'ung coste et vre Ma t& estre plus suffisamment informe'e de la verite de
l'aultre, tous malentenduz puissent estre assarejuz et d'icy en avant
estre vre Ma w et le diet pays toute bonne et inviolable union, corre-
spondance et amitie, taut plus aussy que les d s S ies par ceste faveur
puissent tant mieulx estre encouragez en temps et lieu (et quand quelque
bonne occasion se pourroit presenter) de faire a vre Ma te en son par-
ticulier et a son Estat en genal des bous et signalz services, nullement a
comparer a iceulx de personnes particulieres.

Au reste, ayants entendu par le diet S r Ambassadeur le bon plaisir de
vre Ma K touchant le batteau de guerre du comte d' Orcnay ne fauldrons
iucontinent procurer des d s S rs Estats la restitution d'iceluy, ensemble



1589] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 131

le renvoy des prisonniers, soubs ferme confiance que vre Ma t,s mesme
disposera d'iceulx comme icelle par les circumstances du faict et de la
teneur de leur confession en acquite et justice trouvera couvenir, mo-
yennant que par le d l S r Comte soit premierement donne' acte de descharge
qu'a cause de la prinse du d* batteau il ne fera ny consentira estre faicte
aulx d tB pays ou a leurs inhabitans aulcune oulterieure recherche moins
d'aulcunes petites meubles si quelques ungs a la prinse du d l batteau
pourroyent defaillir Estans baisans tres humblement les mains de vre
Royale Ma te et attendans etc.



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