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before. That we, therefore, and for many other reasons, which we
mentioned, prayed that His Majesty would be pleased to give us final
dismission, and that the said Lord would be pleased to do his best to
obtain it. To which the said Chancellor replied that, as we declared
that we had no further instructions, he also thought that any further
audience or conference was unnecessary ; and that, accordingly, he
would report everything to the King, and obtain for us our final
dismission as soon as the King, who was gone for one or two days'
hunting, should return.

In the interval there was delivered to us the writing of Stuart, as well
as various documents which he thinks serve his purpose ; of which, on
the one hand, he gave us a memorandum in his own handwriting, and,
on the other hand, we made a certain inventory.

And as some of the said documents are original, we acknowledged
faithfully that they had emanated from the States-General ; but declared
that they were irrelevant, for reasons stated by us at length.

The said Colonel Stuart founded greatly on certain contracts of the
22nd and 23rd, made in Delft in the year 1580 ; and said that in virtue
of them he had been drawn from a very good garrison of the State of
Brussels, through remaining in which he would certainly have received
his payment, and that he was quartered in a vile place, viz., at
Vilvoorden.

That in these United Netherlands were many rich and powerful
merchants, and that this was a greater reason that each of them should
give something to pay his valid arrears rather than that he and his
regiment, and many widows and orphans, should any longer be dis-



1 John Lindsay, parson of Menmuir, a Senator of the College of Justice, father
of first Lord Lindsay of Balcarras.



140 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1589

appointed. That he would not like to take up arms against those whom
he had so long helped to protect ; and that he hoped that no cause
would be given him to do so ; with other reasons of the same kind.

The King having returned did through Mr. Melville recommend to us
the widow and orphans of Henry Balfour ; and the present husband of
the said widow and a brother of the said Balfour, 1 with his two children,
came to us, and delivered to us a copy of the record of their claims. We
replied to them that we had no instructions with regard to those and
other similar matters, but that, nevertheless, in order to please His
Majesty, and in consideration of the faithful services rendered by the
said late Henry Balfour to the country, we would be very willing to
make a favourable report.

Thereafter, namely on the 17th of the said month, after several solici-
tations, and after the Ambassador of the Queen of England had spoken
to the King in reference to our business and recommended to him a
speedy settlement thereof, the King sent for us, to give us our reply and
final dismission. On that occasion we appeared before the King in the
Presence-Chamber, in the afternoon at two o'clock ; and after due
homage and reverence, we summarily recounted what had up to the
present been done by us, and said that we were expecting nothing else
from His Majesty than a gracious reply, in accordance with the proposi-
tion made by us and what was just and reasonable, and as was expected by
us from our firm confidence in His Majesty's wisdom and prudence. We
also added the recommendation of the State of this country, and the
offer of every possible and humble service.

To which His Majesty gave us a reply and dismission in the form
recorded in writing. But as we found a grievance in the period of two
months, we explained to His Majesty that we hoped, notwithstanding,
that it was not His Majesty's intention to bind our principals to it
strictly. His Majesty furthered declared that he would not make a
point of that, and he desired to be advised of further resolutions as soon
as possible after the expiry of said time, wind and weather serving.

The said Stuart having been informed of this answer, complained that
His Majesty had granted two months, after we should have given in our
report and been discharged from our commission. And this, when His
Majesty, to please the said Stuart, as we also took care to do in the
missive written to their Highnesses the Estates, and which we take back
with us, altered many things, as is plain from the tenour of the said
missive and from said verbal answers and dismission.

On the following day we took leave of the Chancellor, commanding to
him the affairs of these lands.

And seeing that, during all the time that we were in Scotland, we had
received no tidings of the six horses which we had been ordered to
present to His Majesty, and that, nevertheless, everywhere at Edinburgh

1 Duncan Balfour, formerly an archer of the Scots Guard in France, and
younger brother of Colonel Henry Balfour, was in 1582 tutor to his sons William
and Henry. He is described in 1592 as ' bailie in St. Andrews, brother to
Colonel Bartilmo Balfour.'



1589] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 141

as well as Leith, there was a report that we were commissioned to present
His Majesty with some horses., and that the King and all the Court had
information about it, we saw fit to explain the circumstances briefly to
the Lord Chancellor, namely that the horses had been shipped in another
quarter, and that the orders about them had been given to Captain
Balfour, in order that the said Lord Chancellor might kindly excuse us
to the King, as we did not doubt that the horses would (save for possible
accident at sea or otherwise) arrive very soon. The Lord Chancellor
replied that he would always hold the affairs of these lands in favourable
recommendation, and that the King, his lord and master, would also be
pleased to do the same in all conceivable circumstances, not only on
account of the common trade and religion, as well as their relations as
neighbours, but also on account of the treaty which the Queen of
England had made with our Lands, taken in connection with the claim
which he had to the succession to the Crown of England. The Lord
Chancellor made no remark about what we had said regarding the
horses ; and we then took our leave.

Thereafter, we went to Leith on the following day, to embark with
the first favourable wind.

There the Deputies of the city of Edinburgh came to see us, and
explained that they had been charged to bid us farewell in Edinburgh ;
but as we had left, they had followed us up chiefly to assure us that the
city of Edinburgh had no other wish than, along with the other towns
of the kingdom, to maintain good relations with the United Netherlands ;
and to preserve free navigation and traffic. Further, that some grievances
had been laid before them by their citizens, whose goods had been seized
at sea, as related in the declaration which they handed to us, and they
besought that, at the earliest convenience of the country, the matter
might be attended to, in such a way as to lead to the reparation of the
damage suffered by their citizens. We replied that they might be
assured that on the part of the United Provinces the most cordial
relations would always be maintained, and that, further, we would not
be unwilling to report about the said grievances ; but that we were not
authorised to receive any complaints or grievances, as we had only been
sent to point out the great wrong which Colonel Stuart was seeking to
do to the Confederated Provinces, in virtue of certain pretended letters
of marque of his, not only to the prejudice of the said lands but also of
the citizens of the said kingdom, as the free mutual intercourse and
traffic would thereby be entirely hindered and ruined ; desiring, as had
been promised us before by the said city of Edinburgh and other towns,
that they would always do their utmost to prevent it, and that the
inconveniences, which would thence arise, might be averted.

And, as the wind became favourable, we embarked on the same day
about ten o'clock, and, with favourable wind and weather, arrived on the
26th, early in the morning, at nine o'clock, in the harbour of Flushing.

(s.) Jan van de Warck.
Leonard Vooght.



142



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE



[1593



Resolutions
of the Council
of State.



Visit of William Stewart, as Ambassador from the King of
Scotland, to the States- General.

1593, April 19. — Mr. Stuart having come as Ambassador
with credentials from the King of Scotland, both to the States-
General and to the Council of State, and having delivered
them, and communicated orally the substance of his charge,
it was thereon replied to him, that they were sorry to hear of
difficulties in the affairs of Scotland and of the King, but were
glad to know that things are now better ; that they begged to
thank him for the trouble he took to communicate this to
them ; that they will commit his proposal to writing, in order
the better to attend to what he says should be done in refer-
ence to his principal instruction ; then they requested from
him a copy of it alone.

1593, June 17. — Having deliberated on what was done
yesterday, in the business of Ambassador Stuart, it was re-
solved, that the said Stuart be induced to come to the
Council, in order that his more extended knowledge may be
at their service. Whereupon, having come to the Council, he
declared, that in so far as the foresaid troubles in Scotland are
concerned, that the same will appear clearer, from the deposi-
tion of a nobleman in Scotland, lately executed ; which
deposition translated, he handed over some time ago, to the
Advocate of Holland, Barneveldt. And as to the affairs of
Germany, he declares, that the King of Scotland being in
Denmark, had proposed there, that peace might be made
between the King of Spain and other Kings and Potentates
and Republics, having an interest in the religion. But should
such not be achieved, that as a counterpoise to the King of
Spain's ambition for monarchy, a counter-league made with
the Princes of Germany was needed, to whom he, Stuart, says
that he has been sent. He says that he found the said Princes
very favourably disposed, and that being sent chiefly to the
Elector of Saxony, he also showed himself very favourable, but
persisted in the opinion that the Elected Princes were by their



! 1593] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 143

oath prohibited from entering into any league without the
Emperor ; but that he, as well as the other Princes, would
I give every assistance to the league existing between the King
! of Scotland and Denmark, and also at need stand by the King
of France, and help in action. Further, offering to hand over
the deposition of the executed nobleman to the Council, if
they could not get that of the Advocate of Holland. After-
wards he gave in writing the names of the Princes of Germany,
; to whom he had been sent — the King of Denmark, the Elector
I of Saxony, of Brandenburg, the Pfaltz, Count of Brunswick,
j of Wiirtemberg, of Pommeren, of Hesse, of Mecklenburg
; d'Anhalt, of Luneburgh, the Administrator of Magdenburg,
l the Duke Jan Casimir.

1593, July 3. — Stuart delivered his credentials, in which Resolutions
I much was written about the intrigues of the Jesuits in Scot- General

land, with a proposal for forming a Protestant counter-league
j against Spain and the Pope.

[The ' Instruction pour le loial et bien ayme Conseiller
! Guillaume [Stuart] Commandeur de Pettywane, dirige a M rs
I les Estats Generaux et Conseillers d'Estats des Provinces
j Unies, 1 and the Answer of the States to the King, dated 7th
' July 1593, contain nothing directly relating to the Scots

troops, except the following references to Colonel Stuart's

claims.]

Extract from the Instructions.

'Quant a son particulier nous esperons que tant pour le

regard de noz requestes que a cause de ses merites vous y don-

I nerez si bon ordre que tout en sortira a son contentement :

I que nous sera tant agreable que daultant plus vous accroisterez

jnostre affection a ladvanchement de voz affaires dont vous avez

I particulierement preuve en la permission de faire levee et

i transport de noz subiectz soubz la charge et conduite de nostre

conseillier pour vous en servir par dela selon vostre requeste,

;que ne octroierions point si amplement voluntiers a daultres

sans son advis. 1



144 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593

Extract from the Reply of the States

* Pour aultant que touche le particulier dudict Sieur Ambas-
sadeur, lesditz Estats ne veuillent pas doubter, ou sa Ma te
considerant meurement les raisons continues en leur responce,
et lettres escriptes a sa Ma te le douziesme de Novembre qualtre
vingtz et dix, s'en contentera et acceptera lune ou lautre pre-
sentation. 1

19 July. — On the request of the States- General to have
advice touching the private claims of the M r Ambassador
Stuart; the Council has declared as their advice that their
Highnesses should account the business and request of the
said Stuart of very great importance, and of peculiar conse-
quence ; and therefore the Council find it difficult to come to
a resolution thereanent. But since a beginning of negotiations
with the said Steuart has already been made, the Council
would advise that it might not be inexpedient, if they could
make an agreement with him, for fifty or sixty thousand
pounds (to be assigned to him on the income of Brabant at
long terms, said contribution, however, would, on account
of its being garrisoned by the enemy, be likely to come in
even very sparely. Provided it take place as secretly as could
possibly be managed, as, for instance, through a third person ;
and that he, Mr. Stuart, should promise on oath to keep the
same secret, and not reveal it, should also deliver up the
letters of marque, and bind himself and promise not to annoy
or oppress the inhabitants of the Province, in any way, because
of this.

July 21. — The Messieurs van Oldenbarnevelt, Vooght, and
van de Warck report, that according to the resolution of the
States, they have again been in conference and communication
with Colonel Stuart, Ambassador of the King of Scotland.
And, finally, after many troubles and difficulties, have come to
an agreement with the same, to pay him the sum of 56,000
guilders in all — 14,000 of it in ready money, and thenceforth
from year to year — likewise 14,000 guilders; the conditions to
be drawn up later in writing, and afterwards inserted ; and,
further, the said Lords Deputes have told him, that his hotel



1593] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 145

expenses are to be defrayed at the Lands 1 expense, to the
extent of i?2400 ; and over and above he is to be complimented
with a gold chain.

1593, July 21. — Read and fixed the act of transaction made
between the Lords General States and the Colonel Stuart,
Ambassador of the King of Scotland.

* Comme il ait pleu au Roy d'Escosse, d'envoier par decha vers
Messieurs les Estats Generaux des Provinces Unies des Pays-
bas, le S r Guillaume Stouart, son Conseiller et Commandataire
de Pettewie pour son Ambassadeur, afin de leur faire ouverture
de sa part de certaine pointz concernants Festat publicq qu'il
luy avoit donne en charge. Aiant sa d e Maj t6 aussy recom-
mande aux d ts Sieurs Estats les pretensions particulieres du dit
S r Ambassadeur, au regard desquelles les deputez des dits
Estats avoient par plusieurs fois estez en communication et
conference avecq luy et sont finalement, apres plusieurs diffi-
cultez representees de part et d'aultre, tombez d'accord en la
maniere que s^nsuit. Sea voir, que le dit S r Guillaume Stouart
promettra, comme il promet par cestes, pour le regard que les
dites provinces unies, scavoir Gueldres, Hollande, Zelande,
Utrecht, Frise et Overyssel, ont tousjours soustenu qu'elles ne
sont aucunement obligees pour les services faictz par dela la
Meuse, qu , il ne demandera rien aux provinces unies pour soy,
ses capitaines, officiers et soldats du service par eux faict es pays
bas avant le premier de Mars xv c soixante dix noeuff, mais en
reservera son action contre les aultres provinces qui se sont
separees et tiennent presentement encores le partie de Tennemy,
tenant les dites provinces deschargees pour aultant que besoing
soit de tout ce que pour luy ses haultz Officiers et aultres de
sa Compagnie Colonelle pourroit estre pretendu du dit service
et des obligations qui en ont este pour ce donner et oultre ce
le dit S r Stuart a faict transport irrevocable aux S rs Estats et
a leur prouffict propre, comme il le faict encores par cestes, les
sommes cy dessoubz expressees, afin qu'ilz les pourroient re-
couvrer des dites aultres Provinces separees par telles voies
qu'ilz trouveront convenir assavoir les arrierages de son traicte-
ment de colonel et de ces haultz officiers montantes quarante-
ung mille six cens septante deux florins :

K



146 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1593

' Item de sa Compagnie Colonnelle soixante six mille cent et
seize florins.

' De celle du Cap n Jacques Stuart mille huit cent quarante
huict florins : et

' d'Andrieu Stuart mille huict cents cinquante neuf florins.

' Du Cap n Tamson dix noeuff mille noeuff cens trente neuff
florins.

i et du Cap" Anstruches quinze mille cinq cens soixante deux
florins.

' Revenant ensemble a la somme de Cent soixante trois mille
florins respectivement pour tout le temps de leur service depuis
le premier de Mars 1579 jusques au jour qu^lz ont ete licenties.
Aiant a ceste fin Iceluy S r Stuart promis comme il promet par
cestes de faire tenir aux S rs Estats et de laisser en leurs mains
les originelles lettres de represaille contenants la somme de
six cens et quatre vingtz mile florins qu^l a obtenus sur son
nom et les Capitaines de son Regiment de Sa Ma t<5 d'Escosse
avecq tous les aultres enseignemens aux dites lettres servantes,
dedans le terme de six mois prochainement venants, les tenant
des a present pour cassees et annullees, sans que en vertu
d'Icelles ou aultres semblables on pourra pretendre aucune
chose desdits s rs Estats ou les manans et inhabitans des dites
provinces unies en aucune maniere. Comme de faict aussy le
S r Stuart est tenu de delivrer aux Estats l'accord faict a Delff
au mois de Janvier Fan quatre vingtz et ung avec tous les
escomptes qu'il a des debtes et services y dessus specificiees.
Promestant par cestes ulterieurement de tenir la main vers le
Roy d'Escosse que nulles lettres de represaille soient doresna-
vant accordees au prouffit de qui que ce soit et qu'il aura
tousiours les affaires des dites provinces en bonne recommenda-
tion. Et movemant ce que dessus ont les ditz S rs Estats pour
le respect qu'ilz portent a sa dite Ma t6 d'Escosse et le desir
qu'ilz ont a luy faire service, ensemble de complaire a la nation
Escossoise et de traicter avecz le dit S r Guill e Stuart raisonable-
ment, estez contens de promettre comme ilz promettent par
cestes de furnir et faire compter a iceluy S r Guillaume Stuart
ou a ses aians cause sans aucune defalcation et francq de tous
arrestz pour le regard des personnes qui demeurent et se
trouvent presentement hors desdites provinces unies et aultres



1593] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 147

de la nation Escossaise qui ont fait service soubz sa charge,
la somme de cinq six mille florins de quarante gros pieces, les
quastorze mille contant et d'an en an encores quartorze mille
florins jusques a la parpaie de la somme de 56,000 florins, la-
quelle ils ont assignee et assignent par ces presentes sur leur
Receveur general Philippe Doublet et tel aultre qui pourroit
succeder en sa place afin de faire le d* paiement aux termes que
dessus, selon les quatre ordonnances qui en seront depesches
et delivres au S r Stuart. Obligeans les ditz S rs Estats pour
Taccomplissement et furnissement de ce que dessus tous et
chacuns les biens et revenus des dites provinces unies, et le S r
Guillaume Stuart sa personne et tous ses biens presens et ad-
venir. Remercians respectivement a toutes exceptions et subter-
fuges au contraire, et generalement a Texeption partante que
generale exeption n'a poinct de lieu si la speciale ne precede.
En tesmoing de ce ont les dits S rs Estats ceste faict signer par
leur Greffier et cacheter de leur cachet ordinaire et a luy S r
Guillaume Stuart signe et cachete la presente de son nom et
armes. La vingtiesme de Juillet Tan mil cincz cens quatre
vingt et treize. Soubzcript par ordonnance des ditz S rs Estats,
signe C. Aerssens, et cachette de leur cachet. Etoit aussy
signe William Stuart et cachete de son cachet. 1

July 28. — It is found expedient that there be sent to the
Agent Caron, the copy of the proposal made by Colonel Stuart,
Ambassador of the King of Scotland ; also of the replies made
to the said Stuart. Also as to the transaction, which was
entered into with his Ex cy , regarding his private pretensions.
And he be told by letter, that he must hear how the said
replies shall taste there and be taken up and endured. And
it being understood that the said Stuart desires to journey
through England to Scotland, his Ex cy shall (on being re-
quested) direct further and assist, so far as lies in his power,
the business on which his Ex cy was sent hither by the king ;
and shall further assist himself with the arguments inserted in
the foresaid transaction, and so far as he may understand that
in England this transaction is likely to be used as a precedent in
respect to others who likewise may have served these Lands.

July 29. — Mr. Ambassador Stuart came to take leave of
the Council, thanking them for the good resolution which the



148



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE



[1593



Council had come to by the States- General, as well as in refer-
ence to what he proposed, on the part of the King of Scotland,
as to his own private affairs ; promising to give a good report
of all, and to commend the affairs of these Lands very strongly
to His Majesty. And as to his person, he proffered all good
affection and service. He was thanked for the trouble he
took, and the affairs of these Lands were commended to him,
and he was also requested to make good report on everything
to His Majesty ; with the offer to be good neighbours with His
Majesty, and hold his Person in good commendation.



From the ' Second and Secret Instructions for Adrian Damman.''

[In January 1594 Adrian Damman x was appointed Agent
for the States at the Scottish Court. In his Secret Instruc-
tions occurs the following passage, illustrating the value of the
Scottish troops, and the conditions of their earlier service :]

1 It having been the case for some time that proposals have
to be made in regard to the service of the soldiers of the
Scottish nation in these lands, you are to endeavour to give good
information on their employment here, being every way pro-
fitable to His Majesty and the kingdom of Scotland, and that
they have voluntarily entered the service of these Lands, and
that no proposal shall be directly or indirectly entertained by
which they shall in any way be led into anything against
their will, or anywise be hindered in their service, which would
be to the great disadvantage of the common Christian interests,
and to the lessening of the honour of the Scottish nation, as
well as of the favour in which it is held in these Lands. You
are to assure them that not only the foreign nations, who are
in the service of these lands, but even the inhabitants of this
land are not better treated here than the Scotch have been
treated during recent years, but that it is impossible during
the troublesome and difficult wars to satisfy everybody accord-
ing to his desire.



1 Damman made himself most agreeable to King James, and not only to him,
for, the usual order of things in the incidental alliances which accompanied the
national co-operation being reversed, there occurs among the list of pensions in
1609, ' Lady Margaret Stuard, widow of Agent Damman.'



1594] CLAIMS OF STEWART AND OTHERS 149

' You are further to endeavour to make them clearly under-
stand over there the difference that exists between the States-
General of the United Provinces who are at present carrying
on war with the common enemy, and the States-General of the
Netherlands who on the Pacification of Ghent carried on war
for some years with the common enemy, in order that it may be
clearly understood that the United Provinces are not implicated
in the debts of the States-General of the Netherlands for
services rendered in Brabant, Flanders, Artois, and Hene-
gouwe. That the confederated or United Provinces after the
Union effected at Utrecht divided their government on the
east side of the Maas, and have kept it separate from the



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