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find cause to blame him as if he had something else going on under
cover of it. Further, he said that he had made representations about
the league to the Ambassadors of Denmark, Brunswick, and Meckelen-
burgh, and that during the winter season they could not expect any
answer, but only get their answer as time went on. Thereafter we went
to supper, namely, the King and Queen, the Ambassadors of Denmark,
Brunswick, Meckelenburgh, and we, not saying more, also the Ambas-
sador of England had been to dinner unexpectedly with His Majesty.
The supper passed off with good discourse and services, and since nothing
worth noting has happened save that the King came and spoke about the
Agent Dammen, testifying extremely well of him.

On Monday the twelfth we made ready for our departure to Lidlsho, and
there came to us my Lords the Lord Earl of Mar, the Baron of Tillieverme
[TullibardineJ, Steward to His Majesty, brother of Alexander Murray,
with other gentlemen, Keith, etc., recommending to us very specially and
particularly the said Lord Earl, as they had already several times before
done, as also along with them the Baron of Hun, the person of the fore-
said Alexander Murray their cousin, praying that the same might be
continued in the good grace of my Lords the States, and thanking them
for the favour already shown to him ; and we again repeated the offer of
all possible services and favours to His Majesty and in other respects
where the same might be for the advantage of these Lands ; and the
gentlemen aforesaid honoured us with their presence to dinner, the said
Lord Earl of Mar strongly recommending to us the case of one Peter
Douwglas that justice might be done him with despatch, according to
the law of our land.

The day previous the Earl of Orkenay did state to us that some of the
herring fishers, above a hundred in number, had been guilty of much
damage and insolence in one of his islands, requesting remedy therein,
and we desired that the complaint be pertinently in writing given to us
in order that my Lords the States might be provided with information on
the matter ; item, we had also a visit from the Lord Schineus by com-
mission of the King, recommending us (but with great protestation of
having unwillingly undertaken to do so) the case of Alexander Wichart,
as to which we said nothing but what could be known out of the last



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 167

Request (whereof a copy was given us to take with us) with the Appostille
of the Sovereign States-General in reference to it, wherewith the said
Wichart coming in was no way contented, we remitting everything to
the good discretion of my Lords. We sent the same day to the Ambas-
sadors of England, excusing ourselves for not coming to greet or say adieu
to them before our departure from Strevelingh to Edenburgh hoping to do
so better at Edenburgh, the which, the said Lords received with thanks,
etc. And so we left, being honoured with three shots of artillery from the
Castle, and so to Lidlsco on horseback, where we arrived in the evening.

The thirteenth we left Ledtsko and arrived in the evening at Eden-
burgh, where on our arrival we were greeted with three shots of artillery
from the Castle, and were in that fashion accompanied by the lords, the
Baron of Carmicle, Master of Horse to the King, the conservator as
mostly always everywhere the said Melvin, the said Morray, Captain
Dellachy.

On the sixteenth nothing happened worth telling about. The Queen
arrived in Edenburgh on the fifteenth. Nihil actum.

On the sixteenth the King came to Edenburgh, and the Chancellor
gave us to understand that on account of various considerations he had
not spoken with us until the King should be present, but that now, if we
wished it, he would proceed with our business.

On the eighteenth the Chancellor gave us to understand through the
conservator that he had begun to review the treaty of the year fifteen
hundred and fifty, and had remarked some difficulties which on the
following day in conference should be laid before us.

On the nineteenth as we had consented and asked leave to go and
compear at any place the Lord Chancellor would be pleased to designate,
his excellency was again pleased to come to us at our lodging accompanied
with the Lord Melvin, Treasurer, and the said Stewart called the Planteyre.
After reverences and greetings done, he narrated in somma the good inclina-
tion of the King His Majesty to my Lords the States, etc., and that he had
looked over the Instrument of the Ratification of the Treaties, and in par-
ticular that of the year fifteen hundred and fifty inserted finding the same
to be relative to some foregoing and in particular to that of the year
fourteen hundred eight and forty and ... which he declared that it
was not and that lie did not properly know its contents, desired to have
a look at it if we had it by us, and further if we had anything more to
lay before him we might do so. That His Majesty and the Lords of the
Council were well inclined to please us. We said, as we explained
formerly, that our commission consisted in three principal points, the
first touching the baptism of the young prince, which now by God's
grace was accomplished, the second touching the renewal of the old
treaties which were proffered on the part of His Majesty and thankfully
accepted by my Lords the States in the form shown to His Highness,
that we had no commission to do anything else or any request to make,
that as concerning relative matters, we exhibited copies we had in our
possession that they might be inspected by His Highness. And the third



168 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594

touching the Contra-League as to which we as before declared were com-
missioned to enter into conference with his Majesty or his Council along
with the Ambassadors of the Kings of France, England, and Denmark,
provided they were thereto commissioned, and that not being the case that
we could not enter into the matter singularly, but only as a conference.
And that if it pleased their excellencies to make representation concern-
ing certain points in the manner of proposals that generally their
Highnesses my Lords the States-General could well confide in their good
inclination to promote the common best of Christendom, the which their
Highnesses now during so many years] continuously had opposed in
deadly war against the King of Spain and his adherents. Their excel-
lencies testified that in this they had been well pleased, explaining that
the business might be carried through in conjunction with the other kings
and princes, especially with the consent of the Queen of England and
also of France, whose ambassador, according to the writing which he said
His Majesty had thereanent, was expected the 15th October next.
Further we discoursed on the necessity for the said League as we did
formerly, and before the breaking up of the said conference, after other
familiar talk we discoursed of the successful carrying through of their
affairs by my Lords the States, namely, concerning the taking of the town
Groningen, their equity in dealing with the vanquished, aiming at liberty
and exemption from the tyranny of the Spaniards, etc. We prayed the
said lords that a final resolution might at the first be come to as we
were very anxious to depart, etc., having promised ourselves to do so.

That evening we were invited to supper at the Earl of Orkenays and
were very royally received and entertained with demonstration of good-
will towards my Lords the States.

On the twentieth we sent the Agent Dammen to the Chancellor in order
that he might by all possible means seek a good and short leave-taking, since
now the Ambassadors of Brunswick, Meckelenburgh, and Denmark had
gone, having sailed this day in the morning, and the English one was also
preparing everything for his departure. That our waiting on was very
hindersome to us, and might possibly cause suspicions with the Queen of
England, etc. Whereupon the said Dammen reported as his answer
from the said Lord Chancellor that His Majesty had promised that we
should receive an answer at latest on Thursday the twenty-second of
September.

The twenty-first September we entertained us with the said Earl of
Orkenay, etc., Captain Jan Balfoer, and took leave of the Ambassadors
of England, who this afternoon took formal leave — I mean the Earl of
Sussex to Her Majesty — and the next day, the twenty-second September,
the Lord Ambassador the Earl of Sussex took his departure.

During this interval we were advised by the Conservator that in regard
to the expediting of the confirmation of the old alliances and friendships,
certain difficulties had come to the surface, which we, Colonel Stewart
being commissioned thereanent to explain, understood to be that the
Instrument with the Insertion held that the King through his Ambassador



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 169

Sir William Keith, etc., had made the request to the States thereanent,
which the Lord Chancellor afterwards likewise himself said was the case,
and though it was so (although these wef e affairs of long ago and charters)
regard must be had to the reputation of the King, and thereanent it was
found good in expedition of the despatches so to arrange (that the busi-
ness might not be left undone) that there should from neither side be
any request, and on that matter we were obliged to employ our commis-
sion and authorisation in order to renew, etc., without insertion and on
this followed the agreement (our original commission thereto serving us)
in accordance with the copy of it also herewith attached, and it is to be
noted in this that the Lord Chancellor had asked us in what name the
prescribed agreement had to be drawn up, whether of the whole Nether-
lands or of the United Provinces only. Whereto we, after deliberation
and conference, answered on the part of the United Provinces along with
others that in future might be willing to unite with them, which clause
we added for good reasons which my Lords the States can consider for
themselves. Also the Lord Chancellor would have liked much that in
the Instrument given by us on the part of my Lords the States there
should have on both sides been inserted mention of the Provinces that
might in future unite with them. We excused ourselves from the same
as having no special instruction for that, and his excellency expressed
himself satisfied with that answer.

During and between the foregoing conferences the King did through
the gentlemen Knight Stewart and Knight Keith appoint us an audience
on the twenty-third, then owing to other important occupations of His
Majesty the same was put off till the next day.

The twenty-fourth September we sent word to the Lord Chancellor that
we begged leave to come and say adieu to his excellency, and his excellency
let us know that he was coming to our house within a half hour, so we
went to him and he accompanied us back to our lodgings and there took
leave with very good assurances and demonstrations of his affection to
my Lords the States and understanding of their affairs. In the after-
noon the gentlemen, Baron of Levinston, Stewart, and Keith came on
the part of the King to fetch us and conduct us to the audience with His
Majesty in the palace, where after fitting reverence done, His Majesty in
the first place apologised for having been obliged to keep us so long detained
because of the despatches of the other ambassadors, and also other im-
portant businesses and occupations. He earnestly desired my Lords the
States to be assured of his good inclination towards them, highly appre-
ciating as he did their Highnesses wise and prudent conduct of affairs,
together with their upright intention of furthering, even with the sword,
the freedoms of their neighbours without other pretension in regard to
the same, he therefore wished them all good prosperity, and so as His
Majesty had brought that subject before us he earnestly desired that my
Lords the States would keep up a closer intelligence and correspondence
with him than had hitherto been the case, he having sometimes in the
course of one or two years had no news from the Netherlands, and if



170 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594

there happened to be anything secret or of importance to advise him of
they were to communicate with the said Sir William Keith. Further he
said in reference to the Contra-League that his Ambassador was now at
the Court of the Queen of England on account of it, to endeavour to
dispose her thereto, but that as yet he had been unable to get any answer
on the subject. That the Ambassador of France was expected, where
from the intention of the King might be understood and that His Majesty
at that point could not act in the matter except by making solicitations
to the said parties. Thereafter His Majesty said he had good reasons to
be opposed to the King of Spain (though he was not like my Lords the
States at war with him), that verily troubles were stirred up in his
state by his money and intriguers, and indirectly because of the religion,
on account of which, and for diverse other reasons His Majesty, said that
it was his interest and he was bound to keep good friendship with my
Lords the States. And speaking on the subject of the Queen of England
His Majesty said it might not be amiss if we (passing through England)
should take an opportunity of telling Her Majesty about our negotiations
and all that happened to us in Scotland, in order to avoid suspicions
being certain that Her Majesty was informed of everything. After this
His Majesty desired his greeting to be made to my Lord, Count Maurice
of Nassau, in the hope of becoming more closely acquainted with each
other, recommended to us the affair of the late Colonel Henry Balfour
one of whose sons being there present, and thereafter the person of
Adrian Dammen, declaring the contentment of His Majesty with the
good offices rendered by him in informing His Majesty and instructing
him of occurrences of affairs in the Netherlands in which every one was
deficient. Therefore we thanked His Majesty for the audience and con-
fidence, humbly recommending also his person, and after some more
familiar talk we took leave, with reverences to His Majesty and kissing
hands, and His Majesty having still spoken a little apart and turning
to Valcke desired that he on the part of His Majesty should thank the
Sovereign States that they had sent such a gentleman as the Lord of
Brederode to him. Therewith parting, we were conducted into the apart-
ments of the Queen, and there we humbly sought permission to take
leave of Her Majesty and having kissed hands and recommended the
affairs of the land, Her Majesty graciously thanked us recommending to
us the person of Alexander Morray uncle of one of her ladies-in-waiting
there present ; item, greetings to his excellence Count Maurice, and
then we left and were again conducted home by the foresaid gentlemen.

The twenty-fifth of September we had all our affairs disposed for the
journey so as to set out (with the help of God) the next day, item, Valcke
paid a visit to the Ambassador Ordinary of England, Boos, and took leave
with the due compliments. Afternoon the Lord Keith came with the
Secretary David Foulis and brought us the letter of His Majesty to my
Lords the States, which we deliver over, along with this, and the
despatches aforesaid, and further, His Majesty presented to each a gold
chain with the medal of His and Her Majesties, and commended us with
all possible courtesies and reverences to my Lords the States.



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 171

The twenty-sixth of September, the wind being still easterly, we set
out on our journey, leaving Edinburgh on horseback, accompanied by
the Earl of Orkney, the Knight KeitTi, the Conservator Melvin, and
specially, the before mentioned Baron of Carmicle, who, with his sons,
kept with us as far as Berwick, with a portion of our suite, the greater
portion being left to come by sea, in order that they might meet us in
London, sailing with the first favourable wind. We having, for diverse
important reasons, resolved to travel through England by land, we were
honoured, at our departure, with three shots of artillery out of the
Castle of Edinburgh, and as the affairs with the Earl of Bodwel looked
badly, and as in regard to his plots concerning the same, conjectures
were disclosed, His Majesty appointed and ordained for our security,
that we should that evening be conducted to, and treated as guests, in
the house of my Lord Sethon, who received us most heartily, and further
escorted us with his people, likewise, by order of the King, to the house
of the Baron of Bas, who, accompanied by noblemen and others, met us
on the road, and conducted us to his house, where we arrived next day,
the twenty-seventh September, and were, by him, well received and
entertained. Next day, the twenty-eighth September, he escorted us
with the same convoy, to Barwyck, where the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir
Cary, came to meet us with his cavalry, and brought us into the town
with honours of artillery, and entertained us that evening.

The twenty-ninth, we left Berwick, and arrived that evening at Aen-
wych [Alnwick], where our persons were lodged and entertained by the
Governor. Leaving Aenwych on the thirtieth, we arrived in the evening
at New-Castle, where we were very royally received by the Mayor, with
all the Magistrates in forma, and the burghers under arms. We were
entertained and lodged in the Mayor's house with great demonstration,
that our arrival was most agreeable to them, and they escorted us on the
first October to Lamberen, and we came that evening to Durham, the
second October to Noorthalerton, the third to Yorck, where we spent the
fourth resting, then on the fifth to Donckaster, the sixth to Nieuwarck,
the seventh to Stanenfort, the eighth to Hontingtone, the ninth to
Waert, the tenth to Bednagin, in the neighbourhood of London, to the
house of the Lord of Schonewal. On the eleventh we sent word to the
Grand Chamberlain, requesting that we might see Her Majesty, and that
an appointment for that purpose might be made for us.

The fourteenth to Nonsuch, where we did find Her Majesty, who, after
fitting reverences made with explanations of the reasons of our coming
thither, and thanks for her favour, declared that she, on her part,
thanked us very much for having undertaken so heavy a journey in
order to see her, and in the same way it was very agreeable to her to see
us, thereafter having entered into the subject of the affection which Her
Majesty bore to our Lands, and always would bear, and therefore she was
also confident that they would seek no new friendship, so as to forsake
the old ; that she had, with great joy, heard of the good success
of the States' affairs, in especial of the taking of Groningen, and



172 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1594

the honourable articles and conditions granted to them there ; that she
was half-jealous of the honour and reputation ; that the States conducted
their affairs wisely, more so, and better than other princes, etc. We
replied that we were glad to understand the good contentment and
pleasure Her Majesty had in the actions of the States, and their good
success, confessing that (after God) the assistance of Her Majesty had
helped greatly to bring matters to good issues, and praying that Her
Majesty would therein continue, and that from this she might mark the
upright intentions of the Sovereign States, and that we considered the
jealousy of Her Majesty as a mark of her greater favour and affection
that is the best possible. Thereon Her Majesty began to speak about
what was said of her by certain, that she wanted to be at peace with
Spain, and that she had no thoughts of the kind, nor ever should have,
and that she was too great-hearted to pay court to any one, Illaque virgo
virum ; that old though she was, she desired court to be paid to herself,
and earnestly wished us so to say, and to assure the States that she would
do nothing except with the consideration and to the pleasure of the
States, as was fitting, and dwelt forcibly and long on that article : from
that going back upon the good conduct of affairs and success of the
States, about which she laughingly said that we Royalties might well
take occasion to be jealous of such good and wise conduct, that the
doings of their Kings were a mere chronicle of follies ; that said States
were now rich and mighty, and able to second other people ; that now
they no longer needed assistance from others, sending as they had done
to Henry, King of France, three thousand infantry, and five hundred
horse : saying that she was not aware he had any enemies now, and in
the event of a peace, that people ought not to have suspicions of Her
Majesty, speaking for herself, but not wishing to be responsible for
others, for whom she would not speak. We said that we did not know
what was going on in our country (as Her Majesty said she could well
believe that, and that she knew better than we what was passing there),
and in any case it was to be hoped that assistance, such as had been
referred to, would not be displeasing to Her Majesty, as being rather
intended to bring the Walloons, our original enemies, to reason, which
might be called assisting the King of France. Upon which Her Majesty
said that a propos of this, she had made a bargain with the people for
no longer than two months, and they wished to keep them so much
longer, which was not agreeable to her.

That, as was fitting, she took care of her subjects ; that, as to that,
the Jesuits preached that she delivered over her subjects to the
shambles, and spared them not in other ways : admonishing about
Madame, the Princess of Orange being now at Paris, visiting the King,
she repeated once or twice, that she would not return thence this winter,
that she ought not to leave her own country in that way ; that she had
left her little son in the Netherlands as a pledge, that he was a fine
courageous young gentleman, etc., at school, or studying there; said
that she understood the brother of his excellency, Count Mauritz, the



1594] REPORT OF DUTCH AMBASSADORS 173

Count van Buren, had arrived out of Spain in the Netherlands : besides
this, she spoke magnanimously in honour of his excellency, of his piety,
wisdom, and other good qualities, besides also praising at length that my
Lords the States, Madame, the Princess of Orange, and in general, the
house of Nassau did themselves much credit for virtue, that thereby they
were winning for themselves a great reputation, all which, as before said,
it would be ingratitude not to appreciate. Her Majesty said ingratitude
was the peccatum in spiritum sanctum, etc. She referred also to the
subject of our journey to Scotland, saying that her Ambassador had
been there, and he recollected that a chair had been placed for the
absent King of France, that this King had tried to keep her back from
sending her Ambassador until his should have arrived ; that she would
not consent to do so, being of opinion that he would not be willing to
send one out of respect to his Holy Father. Touching the King of
Scotland, she asked whether we had not been to the hunt with him ;
that he loved hunting exceedingly, overmuch indeed, that he shunned
no labour or peril, that she had sent him many horses, as many as
twenty, that she truly wished he would spare himself in that somewhat,
vowing that she would send him no more, although he bridled them,
fearing that some accident might happen to him. Further, she inquired
about the situation of matters in Scotland, and thereafter asked us
secretly, whether the Ambassadors of Brunswick and of Meckelenberg had
not besought us for assistance in behalf of, or for the King of Scotland.
To which we declared they had not, and in order to tell Her Majesty
sincerely all that had happened in Scotland, we said that our commission
referred solely to three points, the first to assist at the baptism of the
young prince, the second to renew the foresaid old treaties of alliance
and friendship, relating particularly to commerce, and thirdly, to
negotiate about a league against the presumption of the Spaniards, but
nothing else, and only provided that the Ambassadors of Her Majesty
were specially commissioned thereto, and that concerning these matters
likewise, nothing further was treated of, the King also desiring nothing
more, but remitting the same to another opportunity. To which Her
Majesty answered nothing special, and said that she was then to under-
stand it was nothing more than a general league that had been meant :



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