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desire to have him releived, we are pleased that you shall use
ouer recomendacon of him to them, and move them to it, as a
matter much desired by us, and w ch we will take in kind part
at their handes, and require you to urge them to it, w th as
much earnestnes as reasonably you may.

Given under ouer Signet at our Mannour of Hatfeild, the
five and Twentith day of July, in the third yere of ouer raigne
of great Brytaine, ffraunce, and Irelande.

[Addressed]

To our trusty and welbeloved Raphe Wynwood, esquire,
our Agent resydent with the States of the unyted provinces
of the Lowe Countries.

Of the xiii th of August.

To the Council of State.

My Lords, — Your missive of the 24 April last was
handed to me on the last day of the following month, and
from it I am led to understand that your Honours' 1 opinion
and intention, in conformity with the note of his Excellency,
appended to the request of William Stuart, Ensign, is to the
effect, that I should receive him again into my company, and
permit him to enjoy the full effect of said note, unless I
could allege some strong reasons to the contrary. Will it
please your Honours, therefore, to accept these as reasons to
be taken into consideration that the deceased, killed by the
said remonstrant, is my cousin-german, and a near blood
relative ; obviously therefore it would be impossible for me to
endure to have the remonstrant going about before my eyes,
and more difficult still to have him serving in my company
without loss of respect, and his being in it would give rise to
divers serious inconveniences, which, owing to natural affection
for a blood relative, might supply material for more and
greater grievance to the other than what has been referred to.
Therefore, I hope your lordships, duly weighing what has
been said, will be pleased to take such action as may be most
advisable for securing quiet, peace, and tranquillity to both



1607] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 209

parties. Moreover, may it please you to order the said ensign
to keep himself anywhere else out of my sight.

Herewith I pray the Almighty to have your lordships
under the shield and protection of His grace, to whom also I
very humbly commend myself. Your honours 1 most obedient
servant,

(Signed) David Ramsay.

From Bergen on the Zoom, the first May a 1607.

Complaint from the Town qf Heusden.

Heusden, 20 May 1607. — Your lordships must already be Letters and
well acquainted, from the correspondence of our Lord Governor, ^^councii
my noble Lord of Hierez, with the miserable condition of this of State,
town, occasioned mostly by the six English and Scottish Com-
panies, who have several times been in garrison within the
town, and are still here at present, besides two other Nether-
land companies, and chiefly by the English company of Cap-
tain Konnock, wherein the greatest disorder is found. The
common soldiers complaining bitterly, because of their miser-
able rations and bad payment, and that to such a degree,
that had not the soldiers at our earnest entreaty been
provided with a weekly loan, by treasurer Bruynincx, we
should to-day be in fear of a new species of mutiny. There-
fore, along with our Lord Governor aforesaid, we pray that
your lordships may so arrange matters, that in future all such
disorders be provided against and prevented ; and that you
may be pleased to intercede with his Excellency, in order that
some companies of the said foreign nations, and in particular
that of Konnock, which has been the longest in garrison here,
may be changed, a measure which will not only contribute to
the security of this frontier place, but confirm our town and
its inhabitants in greater loyalty. Therefore we conclude this
with humble respects to your lordships, praying the Amighty
to spare the same, etc.

At Heusden, this 30th May 1607. At order of the bailiff,
the burgomasters, and rulers of the town of Heusden,

Van Haersvelt.



210 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1607

Annexa to the preceding letter.

My Loiids, — To-day certain soldiers of the company of
Captain Konnock proceeded to plunder several houses of
certain bakers and provision merchants of the bread and
victuals exposed in their shops, doing this, as I am informed,
through want of money ; and the citizens, because of this, are
in perplexity and highly dissatisfied, and truly not without
cause, since it might easily happen, particularly with the
foreigners, that, although those in the other companies are not
in such a state of destitution, they might be seduced into
taking part in a factious rising of the sort, through hope of
disorder and pillage. I pray that it may please your lord-
ships to restore matters to due order with all diligence. I
have written to his Ex y about changing the garrison. Eight
Companies are here, six of which are English and Scottish. I
hope his Ex y will send two or three Netherland companies
here, and remove again out to the country some of the strangers,
particularly the company of Captain Konnock, which from
the first has continually been in bad order — more so than
proper officers ought to tolerate, as the whole city can testify.

Meantime I shall continue to do my duty in everything, as
God knows ; to whom I pray that He may maintain your
lordships in a long, prosperous, and blessed government.

At Heusden this 30th May 1607, Y. H. M. humble and
faithful servant, Maximilian de Hormes.

July 21. — Alexander Stuart, cuirassier in the company of
cavalry of the late Colonel Edmond, was continued in his pay-
ment of fifty guilders a month, being what he had under the
said colonel, and the company of the Count of de Broucke.

September 4. — On the request of Colonel Brogh, he having
received into his company 37 soldiers from the disbanded
company of Captain Cranston, and 18 soldiers of Captain
Robbert, also out of said disbanded company, an under-
standing was come to that the said soldiers shall be accounted
as the petitioner's from the date when it shall be proved he
received them.

December 13. — On the request of Alexander Stuart, it was
agreed that, inasmuch as the petitioner actually went into ser-



i6o8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 211

vice under Cavalry Captain Areskeyn, the pay of fifty guilders
a month of forty-two days, allowed him by the Council of
State, shall be paid him.

December 15. — To the surviving son of the late Captain
Barkly, who fell in the battle of Flanders, was granted a place
in any similar company, such as the said captain's surviving
widow, married to Bartholomew de Donder, may choose ; and
to the said widow, out of commiseration, a grant of fifty
guilders in all.

1608, January 19. — Jaques Douglas, sometime Ensign in
the company of Captain Cathcart, in consideration of certain
things, was granted eighteen guilders, provided that he do not
pester the States further.

March 18. — The request of Colonel Stuart was read, and it
was resolved, and on the said request decided, that since the
petitioner by particular favour, on the recommendation of the
Earl of Orkney, got a commission to bring from Scotland, for
the service of the Land, a company of infantry, of one hundred
and forty men, the States-General, in order to show still
greater favour to the petitioner, permit the same, and consent
by these presents, to the said company being again transported
out of these Lands to Sweden, in the king's service and by his
request.

June 30. — On the request of Jacques Bruce, Scotsman, late
ensign of Captain Sinclair, praying for the post of officer of
artillery, in the place of Peter Stuart, also a Scotsman, said
request is refused.

July 1. — It was agreed that the Receiver pay the monthly
payments due to the late Peter Stuart, Scotsman, officer of
artillery, in which Stuart died, in order to cover therewith
the expenses of his funeral. 1

Proposals of Captain Bruce.

July 24. — The Advocate of Holland has forwarded certain
information, received by him from Calais, from the agent
Digart, touching a certain plan, which one of the Scots
captains named Bruce offers to carry out, and which would in
the highest degree be of advantage to the Land, on condition

1 See pp. 187 and 188.



212 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1608

that he be recompensed, namely, either as he may engage, or
on a pay of three hundred guilders a month, or that he should
be given command of one-half of the Scottish regiment of the
Baron of Buccleuch. Otherwise he shall withhold the said
information and depart with it to Italy.

After consultation, an understanding was come to that it
be ascertained from his Ex y whether he has any particular
advice or explanation regarding the above mentioned com-
munication, and if not, no attention is to be paid to it.

July 25. — In a report of the Advocate of Holland, heard of
his Exc y1s approval of the plan which Captain Herman Bruce
offers to carry out, on terms proposed by him, as to certain
matters, touching in the highest degree the security of the
government of the Land.

It was thought good to write to the Agents Aerssen and
Digart to test the foresaid captain, and try to draw out of
him what the service really is that he offers to do, and to that
end to assure the same that in so far as the matters which he
offers to carry out are, as he says, important to the government
of the Land, he is to be given to understand that in regard to
them the States shall recognise his services according to their
usual discretion and the demands of the service which he may
therein do to the Land.

Sept ir 25. — A letter was read from Captain Bruce, of
7 September, enclosing certain advices, regarding which he has
given more particular information, for the service of the
Land, to the Agent Aerssen, in the full confidence that he
will obtain from the States due recognition for this.

After deliberation, it was resolved and agreed to write to the
said Agent Aerssen that they have seen the explanation which
the said captain has made to him ; for which, on their part, he
is to thank the same, and assure him that their Highnesses, and
his Ex y have been perfectly informed about the said design
for more than fifteen years ; and with such certainty, that his
Ex y . has always had it in view, as among other things was
apparent when the Admiral of Arragon entered the territory
of Cleves, and passed the Rhine with a powerful army, and
made an attempt on the fortifications of Gravenweert, and at
last, the enemy having besieged the city of Groll, at the time



i6o8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 213

when his Ex y , to prevent the design on Graven weert and their
quarters, allowed a flying column to stay in that locality.
Afterwards he led there a large fleet, with pontoons and ships,
against the advance of the enemy. Nevertheless the States
agree to satisfy the said Captain Bruce with two or three
hundred crowns, or at the utmost with a thousand guilders in
all, and he, Aerssen, is to furnish him with said sum ; or make
him the offer, that should he desire to come here to await his
fortune, he shall be recommended as occasion presents itself.

December 1. — The Messrs. van Loenen, Oldenbarneveld, and
van der Aa are commissioned to converse more particularly,
and hear from Captain Bruce, what more he has to communcate
in the service of the Lands than what he has done.

December 10. — The Messrs. v. Loenen, Oldenbarneveld, and
van der Aa, gave in a report of their conference with Captain
Bruce, arrived from France, as to certain communications of
his made in the service of the Land. And having deliberated
thereon, it was agreed, that an order for five hundred guilders
in all be despatched to the said Captain Bruce for his main-
tenance ; that meanwhile it shall be decided later about his
departure, and the recognition of any good services performed
by him to the Land, and known to the States.

January 3, 1609. — The request of Henry Bruce was read,
but in the meantime a decision was postponed.

June 10. — There was granted to Henry Bruce, formerly
captain, for all his claims of services, and beyond the sum
accorded him before, five hundred guilders, provided there
be deducted from it the sum that the agent Aerssen credited
him with in France.

July 17. — To Captain Henry Bruce, on account of certain
good considerations, and for all his claims on the Land, beyond
the five hundred guilders last accorded him, is still added
three hundred guilders. And it is agreed to despatch him an
order for both, together amounting to eight hundred guilders,
it being understood that the first five hundred guilders granted
the petitioner, for some special services, are not included
therein.

August 10. — To Captain Henry Bruce were granted letters
of recommendation to the Margrave of Ansbach, containing in



214



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE



[1608



substance : Seeing the petitioner has served very long and
faithfully in these Lands, and that he is a man who could be
of service to His Serene Highness, the States do therefore
recommend His Serene Highness that he be pleased, in so far
as he may find it prudent to have in his service people of the
Scottish nation, to employ the same.

Recommendation by the Burgomasters and Aldermen of the
City of Breda.

My Lords, — We humbly recommend ourselves to your good
graces. Jacques Lawson, Scotsman, burgher of this town, has
begged us, in a written request here enclosed, to grant him
letters favourably recommending him to your lordships for
the post of cannoneer of this city. Which request we have
the more willingly had written on his behalf as we are aware
that the said Jacques has served the Land for a long time
well and faithfully, and that afterwards, as a burgher of this
city, he conducted himself as a reputable and respectable man,
and we never heard any other report of him ; and in addition,
Thomas Wymerbeeck, commander of the cannoneers, has
certified, by mark of hand, that Jacques Lawson would be
found highly qualified for said post. We therefore pray your
lordships that this our recommendation be serviceable to the
said Lawson. Wherewith concluding, we shall ever pray, etc.
— Your lordships obedient,

Burgomasters and Aldermen of the City Breda.

This 26 July 1608.



The Company oj Captain Mackenzie at Aardenburg.

My Lords, — We have received your lordships 1 missive,
together with the enclosed request from the clerk Johan
Bogaert. From which we learn that the substance of his
complaint to you refers to a certain building, on which, he
asserts, he has expended something by way of repairs. Let it
suffice for an answer, that at the capture of the town the
said house was found to be an old building, and Captain
Elderen, then major here, put a certain smith into it, and
after he left, the said clerk affirms that he made certain repairs



1606] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 215

on it. Then the company of Captain Mackingi [?] arrived
as a garrison, and difficulty was found in securing accommoda-
tion, and the lieutenant of the said company and some of
his soldiers were quartered in the building, and still lodge
there. He went accordingly on the understanding that the
house being abandoned, and no proprietor living in it, it was
quite at the service of the Land. Further, we submit these
repairs or claims to the discretion of your lordships, etc. —
Your mighty Honours 1 obedient servant,

Frans Haseman.

At Aerdenburch, the 1 September 1608.

1608, September 19. — There was read the request of Captain Resolutions
William Balfour, 1 recommended by the King of Great Britain, {£^jjj 8 "
both by His Majesty's letters and orally by the ambassadors
who had been in England. And it was agreed that the States-
General, being at present so occupied with matters of extreme
importance in regard to the Land, their High Mightinesses
cannot attend to the request of the petitioner ; but that this
shall be done at a more convenient opportunity, and be then
disposed of as may be found proper.

The Magistracy of Zwolle re Capt. Erskine's Cavalry Company.

1608, Dec r 3. — My Lords, — Since the decease of Captain Letters and
Arch. Arskin, it has been found that he owed to our burghers th^Council
here, and to others, a considerable sum of money. Moreover, of State,
some members of the said captain's family took upon them to
remove by unlawful methods from this place, and retain the
horses and other goods left by the captain. We have ordered
the same to be apprehended, and did all in our power to cause
the horses and other goods to be brought back, and stored
beside the rest, to be kept for the benefit of the deceased's
heir, or otherwise for the benefit of the creditors, to whom he
is deeply indebted. And seeing that the pay of the troopers,
due to them from said captain, is almost two months in
arrear, and in supporting themselves they have naturally run
into debt with our burghers, who have presented a petition,
wherein they beg us to use our influence with your lordships,

1 See p. 69, note 3.



216 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1609

in order that they may obtain payment; also particularly
requesting that the money be forwarded to us, in order that
payment may be made in presence of some of our number, and
that a due liquidation be effected between them and our
burghers, according to the wants of each one as occasion serves.
Seeing then that your lordships have sent the Commissary
Doubblet here, to muster the company in presence of our
deputies, and to account with each of the troopers as to his
arrears, and make liquidation, we cannot refrain from writing
to you, and sending a friendly request, that an arrangement
be made by your lordships, by which those who pay this
money to the company, may be particularly charged to make
such payments in presence of our deputies. And that as
regards the captain's pay, and the horses of his own he had in
the company, an account be left and delivered into our hands,
and kept beside the other goods, in the interest of the heirs or
creditors. — Your lordships 1 good friends,

The Burgomasters, Aldermen, and Council

OF THE TOWN ZwOLLE.

Dated at Zwolle, the 3rd December 1608.

Annexa to the request sent by the Magistrates of Zwolle.
(Presented 28 Nov. 1608.)

To the Worshipful Burgomasters, Aldermen and Council
of the City of Zwolle. — In all submission, this is pre-
sented by the common troopers of the deceased Captain
Arch. Arreskyne in garrison here in the city; who on
their part were engaged on monthly wage or pay, and now
on Thursday next, the first December of this year 1608,
they will be two months in arrear, and in addition all
previous reckonings are in arrear. Against these arrears, the
remonstrants owe large sums of money to the burghers, who
can in no way be satisfied, till payment be made to them of
their arrears. Accordingly the remonstrants most humbly
and submissively entreat and request that it may please you
graciously to further the promotion of their request to their
Highnesses the States, that payment may be made of their
arrears, so that your burghers may afterwards be paid in full



i6o8] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS AND PETITIONS 217



and satisfied, as they ought to be. And this with the further
request, that the money to be paid be delivered to none,
except to your worships alone, so that it be honestly handled,
and nobody, whether burgher or soldier, be defrauded, or have
deductions made from his account.

[Here follow forty-two signatures (in many cases difficult to
decipher).]



Jck Wil Wrayt.
Jan Wi Hem sen van Zwolle.
Thomas Nicholles.
Saunder van Haltringe.
Archblde Lonide.
Edward Lawraince, Trumelter.
John Greene, Trumpeter.
A. T. Grae.
James Fozzeringam. [?]
James flenne.
Gel Mitsiel.
Jan Nickles.
Thomas Oxanfired.
Thamas Kilpatrick.
Mai. M. R. Kilpatrick.
Andris A. H. Call.
James Cox.
[Illegible name here.]
Andreis Kinnarie.
Bartollemeus von Guetelberg,
trumpeter.
llo* Glen.



Patrick Innes.

Michell Gigel, Krieger.

Tomas Bigge.

Gorge Davidsone.

CrystofFel X Citon merck.

George X Glind merck.

David x Lang merck.

Tomas Patton.

Andrew Rouke.

Tomas Haldan.

Raff Ffensty.

Gabriel Colbraith.

Henri Bonare.

Andrea Stobhil.

David Fflint.

Alexander Pringill.

Patrick Bruce.

Sam x Semmes merck.

All. Bartholomew Cykis

Grinda.
Hendrik x Stockdyck merck.
Raeff x Ensleip merck. 1



Complaint of the Governor of ' Heusden.

My Lords, — I am much astonished that your lordships
charged the Lieutenant-Provost of the State to deliver your
missive to the lieutenant of Captain Hamilton here, where-
through he passed secretly out of the town before the Com-
missary Van den Broucke left this, and thus said lieutenant



See also p. 275.



218 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1609

disobeyed my orders and broke his parole. For (as I wrote
you before from here), I gave him his lodgings for a prison, and
said lieutenant promised to regard them as such. — Herewith,
etc., your honours' 1 humble servant,

Maximilian de Hornes.
In Huesden, the 25th January 1609.

Resolutions 1609, January 8. — In reference to the request of John Blaire,

General. 8 formerly ensign, and John Stuart, sergeant of the disbanded

company of Captain Archibald Arskin, it was decided to place
the same in the hands of the Council of State, in order to treat
the petitioners according to the general resolution passed in
regard to such matters.



DIVISION II

THE TIME OF THE TWELVE YEARS'

TRUCE

1609-1621



THE TWELVE YEARS 1 TRUCE 221



INTRODUCTORY

During the period of theTwelve Years 1 Truce, the Scottish troops
in the service of the Netherlands consisted of the two infantry
regiments, commanded respectively by Sir William Brog and
by Lord Buccleuch, who was succeeded in 1612 by Sir Robert
Henderson, and apparently of two or three companies of
cavalry. One was the company commanded by the veteran
cavalry captain Alexander Wishart, who seems to have been
succeeded by Sir William Balfour, with whom he was in
negotiation in 1615, and with whom he had a,Jracas at Leith
in 1616. The other was that commanded at one time by
Thomas Erskine and at another by Robert Irvine, and was
probably the company formerly commanded by Sir William
Edmond and subsequently by his son. In 1618 Sir William
Brog described his regiment as ' the first and oldest regiment
of foreign nationality in these Netherlands, 1 and it undoubtedly
represented the Scottish companies which first came over to
the aid of William the Silent. Buccleuch's regiment had
arrived in the latter part of 1603. 1 But although the country
was not at war, and although the documents present frequent



1 The appearance of officers' names in the ' States of War ' does not always
correspond with the date of entry of their commissions, and of their being
regarded as having taken the oath. The appointment seems frequently, even
when the original appointment is not noted as made by the commander-in-chief
to supply death vacancies in the field, to have preceded by some time the formal
commission and oath, and in many cases to have been originally made by the
provincial authorities. See case of George Coutts, July 19th, 1615, p. 280.

The Resolutions of Holland contain the following, dated November 10th,
1618 : ' H. Ex y appearing in the assembly mentions the custom heretofore always
adhered to in filling vacancies in the Captaincies of the Comp ies on Reparti-
tion Holland ; and many Comp ies , as well foreign as native, being now vacant, H.
Ex y desires to be told what the intentions are. Res. : H. Ex y shall continue to
have the right to fill the vacancies in foreign comp ies and all those occurring in
the field, in home comp ies after consulting the col. and commanding officers of
the respective Reg t3 .'



222 THE TWELVE YEARS' TRUCE

illustrations that the soldiers of certain companies were living
in the ' piping times of peace, 1 there were some opportunities
of special service, and with the active Spinola on their frontiers,
and their own suspicions of Spanish faith, the States had to
keep their house as a strong man armed. Indeed, when the
first rumblings of the Thirty Years' War were felt in close
proximity to their eastern fortresses, Prince Maurice took the
field in a campaign of guarded reserve, in which Spinola and
he mutually passed each other by on the other side, while
practically aiding antagonists who were their respective allies.
In 1610, when the succession to the Duchies of Juliers and
Cleves was contested between Leopold of Austria on the one
side and the Elector of Brandenburgh and the Elector



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