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and Zealand, were equally instrumental in securing the liberty
and independence of the Dutch Republic. His claims and
those of Sir William Balfour alike ended in a compromise;
and the system of liquidating liabilities and securing fidelity
by a large balance of deferred pay was fruitful of similar
claims and compromises with others, such as the heir of Lord
Buccleuch, who compounded his father's arrears, as to the
liability for which there had been no question, for a pension,
the promise of a regiment, and at least temporary freedom
from the maintenance of a near though unacknowledged
relative, who ultimately took her place among the Scott clan
as ' Holland's Jean.' Among the papers relating to Colonel
Stuarfs claims will be found two most interesting reports by
Dutch ambassadors of their visits to England and Scotland,
containing passages delightfully illustrative of the character of
' Queen Bess, 1 of the court and conduct of King James, and of
the general relations between the Protestant powers. 1 One of
the most valuable documents in a historical sense, and most
interesting to the student of character and manners, is the
graphic narrative of the Dutch ambassadors who attended the
baptism of King James's son, Prince Henry. 2


A word should be added as to the special authorities for the
History of the Brigade, which are frequently referred to in
1 Pp. 121 and 132. 2 P. 154.


this and the narratives prefixed to each period into which the
papers have been assorted. In 1774 there was published
4 Strictures on Military Discipline; in a series of letters, with a
Military Discourse : in which is interspersed some account of
the Scotch Brigade in the Dutch Service, by an Officer.'' This
officer is said to have been Colonel James Cunningham ; x and
the book advocates reforms in the equipment and pay of the
Brigade, the restoration of complete recruiting in Scotland,
and, indeed, the enlargement of the force and the association
with its infantry battalions of a proportion of the other arms.

In 1794, this was followed by ' An Historical Account of
the British Regiments employed since the Reign of Queen
Elizabeth and King James i. in the Formation and Defence of
the Dutch Republic, particularly of the Scotch Brigade.'' It
was written just at the time when King George 'had been
pleased to order that these regiments should be embodied
anew," 1 and gives, in about a hundred pages, a concise and
fairly complete account of the services of the Brigade. The
information contained in the Dutch papers, however, corrects
it in some points, and the writer has fallen into the common
mistake of not observing that King William handed over six
and not merely three Scots regiments to the Dutch Govern-
ment in 1697, and of confounding the three old regiments with
the three temporarily in the Dutch service at that time and
during the war of the Spanish Succession. The error is a
natural one, for when the Brigade returned at the Peace of
Ryswick Walter Philip Colyear commanded one of the old
regiments, while his brother Sir David Colyear, raised to the
peerage as Lord Portmore, was colonel of one of the addi-
tional ones, taken into service in 1701.

In 1795 there was also published ' An Exhortation to the
Officers and Men of the First Battalion of the Scotch Brigade.
Delivered at the Castle of Edinburgh on the 7th of June 1795,

1 See Steven's History of the Scotch Church at Rotterdam, p. 261.


a few days before the battalion received their colours, to which
is added a Short Account of the Brigade by William Porteous,
D.D., chaplain to the battalion. 1 The author of the ' Historical
Account' had compared the position of the officers of the
Brigade in Holland after the war with Great Britain began
to that of officers who had, in the execution of their duty and
without any fault or error on their part, fallen into the hands
of the enemy, and had contended that ' whatever the means
may have been by which a British regiment has fallen into the
enemy's hands, it cannot be in the power of that enemy to
extinguish or abolish it.' In addressing the newly-formed
battalion, the chaplain used words which indicate that its-
embodiment was regarded in Great Britain not as the creation
of a new but as the resurrection of an old regiment. ' Our
ears,' said Dr. Porteous, ' have been accustomed to hear of the
fame of the Scotch Brigade ; of the moderation, sobriety, and
honesty, as well as of the courage and patience of this corps ;
you have not to erect a new fabric, but to build on the reputa-
tion of your predecessors, and I am confident you will not
disgrace them.' His ' Short Account,' while covering much the
same ground as the ' Historical Account,' contains some ad-
ditional particulars. There is also a short notice of the Brigade
appended to Grose's Military Antiquities •, and a note upon it
in Steven's History qf the Scotch Church at Rotterdam.

Among the papers of Mrs. Stopford Sackville, at Drayton
House, Nottinghamshire, is a copy of a document (after 1772) r
' Facts relative to the Scotch Brigade in the Service of Holland.'

There are of course allusions to the services of the Scots in
the many English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Italian histories
of the War of Independence. For the time of Prince Maurice,,
the best authority is Orler's Lauriers de Nassau, and for that
of his brother the Memoires de Frederick Henry Prince
cVOrange. For the campaigns of William Henry, the Memoirs
of Bernardi and of Carleton, the Life qf William III., and the
History qf Holland supply a limited amount of information.


The Editor has to record his sense of the assistance he has
received from Dr. Mendels and M, d'Engelbronner who tran-
scribed the documents at the Hague, and whose intelligent
researches have greatly aided the work of annotation, and par-
ticularly from Colonel de Bas, the keeper of the Archives of the
Royal House of Orange at the Hague, who supplied valuable
information as to the succession of the regiments in the
eighteenth century ; and also to express his grateful thanks
to many friends and correspondents in Scotland and elsewhere,
too numerous to enumerate, who, by supplying particulars as
to their ancestors who served in the Brigade, or otherwise,
have enabled him in many cases to identify the individuals
whose names appear in the States of War. Similar acknow-
ledgments are due to Mr. J. Rudolff Hugo, and to the
Rev. J. Ballingall, Rhynd, Perthshire, who have undertaken
the labours of carrying out and revising the translation of
the Dutch documents.

It had originally been intended to print the Dutch text as
well as the English translation of the Dutch documents, but
the volume of material was so great that on careful considera-
tion the Council were satisfied that they must confine them-
selves to printing the English translation of Dutch originals,
and the French text alone of documents in French. For the
j convenience of scholars the complete transcripts of the original
Dutch here translated, and of other documents, including the
\ lists from the Commission and Oath Books, which the Editor
( has used in the preparation and annotation of these volumes,
will be deposited and preserved in the Advocates' Library,
Edinburgh. J. F.

Kinmundy, Aberdeenshire,
lit A Novr. il





A — The Three Old Regiments of the Scots Brigade
I. 1572-1688. »


[Ormiston] 2


Sir Henry Balfour 3


[Cunningham] 4


Barthold Balfour 5


Alexander Murray


Sir William Edmond


Lord Buccleuch


Sir William Brog


Sir Robert Henderson


Sir Francis Henderson


Sir John Halkett


Sir David Balfour

Earl of Buccleuch


Sir James Livingston
Lord Almond


Sir James Sandilands


James Erskine

Sir Archibald Douglas


John Kirkpatrick


Sir Philip Balfour


Sir William Drummoni


Walter Scott


John Henderson


Louis Erskine


Henry Graham


Sir Alex. Colyear


Hugh Mackay


James Douglas


Barthold Balfour

I68 5

John Wauchope


II. 1688-1697.

George Ramsay


George Lauder


/Eneas Mackay

Sir Charles Graham

1 The dates from 1594 are those of the commissions, and the lines below the names of
Sir William Drummond (Earl of Roxburgh) and Louis Erskine denote a break in the con-
tinuity of the regiments, which otherwise is complete. In 1655 the three regiments were
formed into two. In 1675 Colyear was appointed first colonel of a new regiment raised
during the preceding year to replace Louis Erskine's, which under de Fariaux had be-
come wholly Dutch.

2 Appears as colonel in the Pay Lists of Holland.

3 Appears in Pay Lists of Holland.

4 Referred to in the Resolutions of Holland.

5 The date 1586 is that of the first mention as colonel.



III. 1698-1782. »


Robert Murray

George Lauder

Walter Philip Colyear.


A. Halkett


John Cunninghame.


James Cunninghame






D. Mackay




Charles Wm. Stewart


C. Halkett.


J. Stuart


J. Gordon.


H. Mackay


J. Houston


R. Dundas.

B — Regiments temporarily in the Service of the States








William Stuart
Aristotle Patton.

Earl of Morton's
(commanded by Lord
Hay of Kinfauns)

James Ferguson

John, Lord Strathnaver

George Hamilton.

Sir David Colyear,

Lord Portmore 2
John Dalrymple 4
William Borthwick
John Hepburn
James Douglas

John, Lord Strathnaver 3

John, Marquis of Lorn 5
John, Marquis of Tulli-

James Wood

George Hamilton.

Henry Douglas, Earl
of Drumlanrig

1 From a list kindly supplied by Colonel F. de Bas, and compared with one made by
M. d'Engelbronner.

The three regiments were subsequently (1786-89) respectively numbered 22, 23, and
24. Twenty-two being the regiment commanded by Sir Henry Balfour, Sir William
Brog, and General Mackay ; 23 Lord Buccleuch's, and 24 the Earl of Buccleuch's and
|Lord Almond's.

2 Lord Portmore 1699, Earl of Portmore 1703. Cf. p. 507, n. 4.

3 Afterwards 19th Earl of Sutherland.

Afterwards Earl of Stair. ° Afterwards Duke of Argyll.




In the year 1572 the landing of the Sea Gueux at the Brill
proved that the Netherlands, though lying crushed and bleed-
ing under the iron heel of the Duke of Alva, had been stunned
but not conquered. It was followed by a widespread uprising,
and by the influx of English aid. At what precise moment
the first Scottish company disembarked upon Dutch soil it is
impossible to say, but it would seem that the Scots were not
behind their southern neighbours. Count Louis of Nassau was
beleaguered in Mons by the veterans of Alva, Kirkcaldy of
Grange was holding Edinburgh for Queen Mary. 'Le Prince
d'Orange,' says Le Petit, ' pour venir seconder le Comte
Ludovic son frere estant dans Mons en Hainaut ne manquoit
de devoir a lever gens de toutes partes tant en Allemagne,
Angleterre qu 1 Ecosse et France. 1 On the 21st of June, the
Scottish Privy Council, on account of the famine in Edinburgh,
' detenit aganis our Sovereign Lord," 1 and in order that ' the idle
men and soldiers be not drawn to any desperate necessity, but
may have commodity to serve and live either within the realm,
or to pass to the wars in Flanders or other foreign countries, 1
issued a proclamation ordering all such to quit the city by the
evening of the 23rd. Before the first year of the long struggle
that was to be crowned with success closed, Scots were fighting
side by side with the Dutch burghers on the ramparts of
beleaguered Haarlem.

After the first assault on 20th December, the Prince of
Orange threw reliefs with supplies into the town, including
some Scots. 1 Again, in the end of January 1573, the Scots,
under the command of Balfour, 2 were among the force of

1 Mendoza and Meteren.

2 On i6th September 1572, the Regent Mar, in the name of King James, had
granted a passport and recommendation to ' Henricus Balfourius noster civis,
nobili loco natus, et qui in statu rerum domi turbulento semper meliores partes
est secutus' . . . 'cum cohortemfereducentorum militumad clarissimumAuranise
principem ducturus esset.' — P. C. Reg.


four hundred who cut their way over the frozen lake, with
eighty sledges laden with munitions and food. 1 It was to
John Cuningham, a Scotsman, that the besieged committed
the command of the battery which they directed upon the
great cavalier which the Spaniards had constructed, and so well
did he work his guns that in half a day he ' put this cavalier to
the ground, for which, 1 says the historian, 2 ' he acquired great
honour in the town. 1 The Spaniards endeavoured to restore it
and brought up artillery, but Cuningham each time destroyed
it completely. On the 15th of April, Captain Balfour with
his Scots made a ' camisade 1 or night attack on the Spanish
lines at Russemburch, forced them, defeated a large body of
troops, and carried back four standards. Towards the close of
the siege, when the Spaniards were debating whether to renew
an assault that had been repulsed, a Scottish sergeant threw
himself from the wall and staved off' the attack, by assuring
Don Frederick, on pain of his life, that the town could not
hold out long on account of the want of food. Scots also
took part in the last unsuccessful attempt at relief. When
finally the day of capitulation came, the fate of the Scots
was at first uncertain. The French were beyond the pale
of mercy, for they had already been spared at Mons ; the
Germans were recognised as ' neutrals, and free to serve
any prince they pleased, 1 and, according to Le Petit, it had
been declared to the Scots that mercy had been given them.
Meteren says that they and the English held themselves
assured ' des belles promesses. 1 But the Spaniards, once in
possession, held that the Scots and English as well as the
French, were subjects of princes with whom the king was in
peace and confederation, and, therefore, they were ' tous
justiciez, les gentilhommes par Tespee, les autres par la corde,
ou plongez en mer. 13 More than eighteen captains and ensigns
with all the rest of the Walloon, Scottish, and English troops,
to the number of 500, thus perished. ' En la ville, 1 says
Meteren, ' furent tues plus de 2000 hommes, outre quelque
peu qui eschapperent secretement et le Capitaine Ecossois
Balfour, qui eschappa sous promesse d'attenter quelque chose
contre la vie et personne du Prince d'Orange comme il le
1 Mendoza. 2 Le Petit. 3 Renom de France.


declarat luymeme au dit Prince, disant aussi, que puis qu'il en
avoit un remords de conscience, qifil estimoit n'etre pas tenu en
une si mauvaise promesse. 1 For the remorse he carried with
him for a feigned compliance with a dishonourable proposal,
Balfour was to atone by a record of distinguished service, and
eight years later by an honourable death fighting against great
odds. 1

The Spaniards entered Haarlem on the 14th of June. On
the 6th, the Scottish Privy Council had granted a licence to
'Captain Thomas Robesoun , to levy 300 men for the 'defence
of Goddis trew religioun aganis the persecutiouris thairof ' in
the Low Countries. He was obliged to give a bond that he
would comply with certain conditions, his cautioner being
John Monteith of Kerse. The conditions were: ' That he shall
not lift or transport any captains, members of bands, or soldiers
presently in the king's service without special licence from the
Regent ; that he cause the like number of culverins, hagbuts,
and other hand-guns, morions, and corselets to be brought
again into the realm before 1st February next to come ; that
he shall cause his men live upon their own charges without
oppression till they are transported, and that he and they
shall not be partakers with any Scottish subjects against

1 There is some authority for the view that the vehicle of this proposal was
James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, the assassin of the Regent Murray, who is
said to have scouted a suggestion made to him to deal similarly with Admiral
Coligny, but whose name appears in connection with Spanish intrigues for the
removal of the Prince of Orange. De Lettenhove says : — ' Lorsque James
Hamilton s'etait rendu a Amsterdam pres du Due d'Albe e'etait pour conferer
avec Alboinos et lui indiquer un capitaine ecossais, fort courageux et propre a cette
entreprise, qui se trouvait avec les Gueux a Harlem et qui se rendit a Delft,
peut etre pour prendre part aux troubles et pour y profiter du desordre. A
defaut de ce Capitaine Hamilton eut recours et sans plus de succes a un autre
Ecossais qui ramait a Nantes sur les galeres de Charles ix.' And on January 14th,
I 577> Wilson wrote to Lord Burghley (St. Pap. For.), ' Hamilton who escaped
out of prison from Brussels, and with whom Don John promised Mr. Harvey
that he would not deal, has received money of him to persuade the Scots to
revolt by whom he was delivered out of prison, and for whom, especially for
Balfour, the Colonel, and some others, he got pardon of the Duke of Alva at the
taking of Haarlem, with condition that the said Balfour should then kill the
Prince of Orange by one means or another.' On 1st May, Wilson reported to
Walsingham that Colonel Balfour had promised to ' work the feat ' of getting a
Scot into England with letters from Don John to the Scottish Queen.


others ; that they shall not in passing to the Low Countries
invade or pillage any subjects or friends and confederates of
this realm ; that they shall noways serve with any Papists
against the Protestant professors of the Evangel of Jesus
Christ ; that he shall not muster his men within sixteen miles
of Stirling Castle under a penalty of 5000 merks ; and that he
should be answerable for the full redress of all plundered goods." 1

On 16th July similar licences were granted to Captain John
Adamson, whose cautioner was John Adamson, burgess, Edin-
burgh, and to Captain Diones Pentland, whose cautioner was
James Sandelandis of Calder, who were also taken bound not
to enrol on the south side of the Forth. The English agents
in reporting Captain Robeson's licence to their own Govern-
ment drew attention l to it as an illustration of ' how the
nation is given to stray abroad, some into Sweden and some
into Flanders, whither more will to the Prince of Orange if
they had comfort given them.*'

The fall of Edinburgh and the Peace of Perth had now
deprived many Scotsmen, ' both King's men ' and ' Queen's
men, 1 of employment at home, and the Spaniards were to find
that the methods exemplified at Haarlem were the most
injudicious that could be employed against the Scots. They
would have been wiser if they had followed, as the Dutch
were to do, the policy of the Emperor Charles v., ' qui ne
vouloit pas qu'on irritast les Escossois, sachant bien que les
Escossois estoient pauvres mais gens vai Hants qui n'avoient
pas beaucoup a perdre. 1 2

The arrival of 500 Scots was indeed reported to England
along with the news of the fall of Haarlem, and an anonymous
letter from Stirling, of July 26th, depicts the state of feeling,
which soon bore fruit in substantial succours. ' The calamity
of that good country (Flanders) is not only lamented by them,
but goodwill borne to relieve part of their burden. Some
number of men of war are already repaired thither, others
upon the arriving of his ' (the Prince of Orange's) ' servant,
Captain Ormiston, are in preparation, but the third sort are
desirous to hazard themselves if they were certain of his plea-
sure and what assured entreatment they might look for. They

1 State Papers, Foreign. - Meteren, fol. 310.


are not such as have been hired by wages in former wars, but
rather some in the rank of nobility who have done valiant
service in the cause of religion anel repressing civil sedition
here. 1 For that purpose is Captain Montgomery, a gentleman
of approved truth and good credit, directed towards him to
understand the condition of their affairs, and to return speedily
with resolution of his pleasure."'

On 2nd August, Robert Montgomery wrote to Killigrew
thanking him for his good offices, stating that he was ' directed
by the Regent to go towards Flanders to offer the Prince of
Orange 1000 horsemen and 2000 footmen to assist him in the
general cause under Lord Cathcart, and praying that he would
inform the Queen, so that if they should arrive upon any of her
coasts in their voyage they might find her favour and goodwill.*

On September 12th, Thomas Morgan wrote to Lord Burghley
from Zealand that ' 400 Scots had arrived at Zierickzee who
made an attempt on Barrow, but the Dutch, who should have
backed them, having fled away, they had to retire. 1 Next day, he
reported that ' Montgomery of Scotland is come to the Prince
to make offer of service with 2000 light horse. Two hundred
Scots have arrived in Zealand, who say that seven ensigns
more are coming. 12 The arrival was reported to the enemy at
Bruges, with the information that their leader was 4 ung
homme de belle taille avec la barbe quelque peu rossette. 13
This was probably Ormiston, who appears in the pay-lists of

1 Although from the tone of some authors, it would seem that Englishmen
serving in foreign armies were always ' volunteers ' and Scotsmen ' mercenaries,'
the position of both was the same, except in regard to the English troops sent
over by Queen Elizabeth under the treaty by which she obtained possession of the
cautionary towns. Otherwise both nations sent spontaneous help, troops of
both received Dutch pay, and in later years both the English and Scots Brigades
were on the same footing. If King James was unsuccessful in asserting, in 1594,
his claim to give his own commission to the Commander-in-Chief of the Scots,
this was no doubt owing to the experience the States retained of the Earl of
Leicester. The parallelism in other respects is curiously complete. As Stanley
and Rowland Yorke betrayed Deventer and the Zutphen Sconces, and the
English garrisons delivered Gertruydenberg and Alost, so Patton and Sempill
betrayed Gelder and Lier, and Boyd joined with the Prince of Chimay in
handing over Bruges to the Prince of Parma.

2 State Papers, Foreign.

3 For the earliest recorded names of Scottish officers, see the Pay-lists of
Holland, infra.

Report from Flushing, made at Bruges, 8th September 1573 : — ' Le rappor-


Holland as colonel in 1573-74. In 1575 he had been suc-
ceeded by Colonel Henry Balfour, among the chequered
incidents of whose career appears to have been the slaughter
of his predecessor in a duel. 1 A month later, Bingham
reported from Delft, ' 1600 Scots have arrived in Holland and
Zealand, and the Lord of Caker is bruited to be coming with
1000 horsemen. The league between the Prince and the Scots
grows very great, and there is motion of marriage for the
voung King of Scotland to the Prince's daughter.''

The principal event of 157-1 was the famous siege and relief
of Leyden. From Delft the Prince of Orange was organising
succour, and the Grand Commander Requesens massed large
forces in the vicinity of Bommel, Gorcum, and Louwensteyn
to threaten the Dutch from that side. But all the places
were well provided, and seven companies of Scots under
Colonel Balfour were so stationed round them to hinder his
enterprises by piercing the dykes, and otherwise, that he
accomplished nothing. 2 Nor although Spanish intrigue was
busy did it succeed in doing more than disclosing its de-
signs to the Scottish colonel, 3 while other Scots companies

teur dit en premier lieu que Samedi dernier, entre huict et neuf heures du
matin il est arrive de Flessinghe. La oil il ait veu descendre quelque quantite
d'Escochois mesme que depuis vendredi et samedy il en seroit bien arrive, que

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