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avons monstre a toutes bonnes occasions, selon Testroite auntie



1 620] RESOLUTIONS, REQUESTS, ETC. 303

que vous porte nostre treshonore Seigneur et Roy, et le devoir
et respect des tresassurez et bien humbles amis de vos tres-
illustres Seig nes pour vous servir.

Le Chancelier et Conseillers de sa Majeste au Conseil
et Estat de son Royaume d'Escosse.

DUNFERMLIN. MaR.

Cancell. Sanctandrew

Ja. Clasgow.

WlNTOUN. LoTHIOME.

WlGTOUNS. MELROS.

Arskyne.
Lislebourg, ce premier jour de Fevrier 1620.



DIVISION III

THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR

1621-1648



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR 307



INTRODUCTORY

' The gold and treasure of the Indies, 1 wrote Sir Thomas
Urquhart of Cromarty, ' not being able to purchase all the
affections of Scotland to the furtherance of Castilian designs,
there have been of late several Scottish colonels under the
command of the Prince of Orange in opposition of the Spa-
gniard, viz., Colonel Edmond, who took the valiant Count de
Buccoy twice prisoner in the field ; Sir Henry Balfour, Sir
David Balfour, Colonel Brog, who took a Spanish general in
the field upon the head of his army ; Sir Francis Henderson,
Colonel Scot, Earl of Bucliugh, Sir James Livistoun, now Earl
of Callendar, and lately in these our turmoyles at home, lieu-
tenant-general of both horse and foot ; besides a great many
other worthy colonels, amongst which I will only commemorate
one Colonel Dowglas, who to the States of Holland was often
serviceable in discharging the office and duty of general
engineer.'' Of the worthy colonels specified by the Knight of
Cromarty, some had closed their service by honourable deaths
in the preceding war, and the others were to be equally illus-
trious in the long struggle which recommenced in 1621.

When hostilities were resumed, the Scottish Infantry con-
sisted of two regiments, the old one under Sir William Brog,
and Lord Buccleuch's, to the command of which Sir Robert
Henderson had succeeded. The son of Lord Buccleuch,
Walter Scott, created Earl of Buccleuch in 1619, had obtained
an i Act Expectative ' from the States- General in 1615, pro-
mising him the command of the first regiment that should fall
vacant, or of any new one that might be formed. When, how-
ever, Sir Robert Henderson died in 1622, Prince Maurice
insisted upon the command passing to his brother, Sir Francis,
the lieutenant-colonel, and when Sir Francis died in 1628, the
condition of affairs in the field was such that Prince Frederick



308 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR

Henry, who regarded the Scottish troops in his own famous
phrase as ' the Bulwark of the Republic, 1 again thought it
inadvisable to pass over the experienced lieutenant-colonels, in
favour of a nobleman from Britain, who, however brave, had not
yet had practical training in Low Country campaigning. The
States-General therefore resolved to divide the two regiments
into three. Sir John Halkett was promptly appointed to
succeed Sir Francis Henderson, with Sir David Balfour as his
lieutenant-colonel, and Archibald Bethune as his sergeant-major,
while the Earl of Buccleuch was in 1629 given the command of
the newly organised third regiment, with Sir William Balfour as
lieutenant-colonel, and George Coutts as sergeant-major. In
a very short time, however, there was a considerable change in
the personnel of the field officers. Halkett was killed at Bois-
le-Duc, and succeeded by Sir David Balfour. Sir William
Balfour left the service of the States, and was succeeded by
George Coutts, who received promotion, and the Earl of Buc-
cleuch having died in 1633, the higher officers of the three
regiments in 1634 were :

1. Colonel, Sir William Brog ; lieutenant-colonel, Sir James

Sandilands (in succession to Allan Coutts) ; sergeant-
major, James Erskine.

2. Colonel, Sir David Balfour; lieutenant-colonel, James

Henderson ; sergeant-major, Archibald Douglas.

3. Colonel, Sir James Livingstone, Lord Almond (formerly

lieutenant-colonel of Sir David Balfour's regiment) ;

lieutenant-colonel, George Coutts ; sergeant-major, Sir

Philip Balfour.
It will be convenient, therefore, to refer to the three regi-
ments for purposes of identification as Sir William Brog's (or
Sir Henry Balfour's and Brog's) old regiment, Lord Buccleuch 's
regiment, and Lord Almond's regiment, it being remembered
that the Earl of Buccleuch was the first colonel of the third
regiment, and was succeeded by Lord Almond.

In August 1621 the war was resumed, and Spinola promptly
laid siege to Juliers, which surrendered in February 1622.
The Dutch camp at Emmerick was surprised one night by the
Spaniards, and among the prisoners taken was ' Sir William
Balfour, a Scoche man whoe is returned upon his ransom.'



INTRODUCTORY 309

The army of the Estates was formed in three brigades, the
first under the Prince of Orange, consisting of English and
Dutch ; the second under Count Henry of Nassau, of Walloons
and French, and the third under Count Ernest of Nassau, of
Dutch and Scotch. ' They (the Dutch)," 1 remarks an English
observer, ' mingle and blend the Scottish among them, which
are like Beans and Peas among chaff. These (the Scots) are
sure men, hardy and resolute, and their example holds up the
Dutch. 1 »

Concealing his intentions by a feint on the borders of Cleves,
Spinola sent Velasco to seize Steenbergen, and following with
the mass of his army laid strenuous siege to Bergen-op-Zoom.
But the fall of Steenbergen having unveiled his intentions,
Prince Maurice sent Colonel Sir Robert Henderson with a con-
siderable body of troops to reinforce and command the garrison.
A gallant defence was made. ' Colonel Henderson, 1 says the
English eyewitness, ' being a discreet and valiant gentleman,
conferred with General Cecil, who was his great friend and his
general at Gulick. 1 In one great sally of three or four
thousand men, the English and Scots had the van, the Dutch
the battle, and the French the rear, and Colonel Henderson
was subsequently killed ' in a terrible fight which lasted a night
and a whole morning. 1

' I will say nothing, 1 says the chronicler of the siege, * in
commendation of Colonel Henderson ; his own actions commend
him in the highest degree, for he stood all the fight in as great
danger as any common soldier, still encouraging, directing,
and acting with his Pike in his hand. At length he was shot
in the thigh : he received his wound at the front, or, as most
say, being over earnest he stepped into his enemy^ trenches. 2
So he was nothing but spirit and courage. He shewed it
chiefly in his devotion, and in his earnest calling upon God in



1 Account of siege and relief of Bergen-op-Zoom, 1622, by an English eye-
witness, in Royal mss. — Dalton's Cecil.

In 1624 ' Colonel Sir Andrew Gray, and one, Ramsay, were spoken of to
command Scots regiments for the Palatinate.'

2 In the Memoirs of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, it is stated that
■ entre autres le Coronel Henderson fut blesse dont il mourut peu de temps
apres combattant valeureusement a la deffence d'un ouvrage qu'il avoit commence,
que l'ennemi ne put emporter, quelque effort qu'il fist.'



310 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR

his time of sickness, and he was so willing to die that he made
but a recreation of it, for after he had received the Sacrament
he remembered his friends very cheerfully, and being extremely
hot, he asked his physician [for leave] to drink some water ; so
his Physician, seeing he was but a dead man, let him have his
will. He drank five healths ; the first was to the King, the
second to the Prince, the third to the Queen of Bohemia, the
fourth to the Prince of Orange, and the last to the Earl of
Marre. When he had done he desired his brother to thrust
him down into his bed, and so took his leave of this miserable
life. 1

On the 2nd October Spinola reluctantly raised the siege,
having lost 10,000 men, and the reduction of Fort Papenmuitz
on the western frontier was but a small success to set against
so great a failure.

In 1624, Spinola laid siege to Breda. The Scots and Dutch
are recorded as having held the Antwerp Gate. The defence
was gallant, but unsuccessful, and the fall of the place hastened
the death of Prince Maurice. His mantle fell upon his brother,
Prince Frederick Henry, born a few months before the murder
of their father, William the Silent. In 1626, the Dutch took
Oldenzeel, after a siege of eight days, 1 and in July 1627, Prince
Frederick Henry laid siege to Groll, on the confines of Zutphen.
Before the lines of the besiegers were finished, they were
furiously attacked by the enemy in an attempt to relieve the
place, but after a sharp action ' the Spaniards were at length
repulsed by some companies of Scots who were there on guard. 1 2
Sergeant-major Drummond of the Scots was killed before the
city, 3 which surrendered after a siege of one month.

In 1628 Spinola was recalled, and Prince Frederick Henry
began a series of triumphs. 4 On the 30th of April 1629, he



1 The notes of promotion in succession to officers • deceased ' supply some
indication, although not in all cases a reliable one, of the losses in the field. In
1623, Captain Home ; in 1625, Captain William Hudson, and in 1626, Captains
Mowbray and Sir Henry Livingstone had their places filled upon their decease.

2 ' Historical Account,' Memoirs of Prince Frederick Henry.

3 The death-roll of 1627 also included Captains Scott, Donaldson, and Sir
Walter Bruce.

4 Colonel Sir Francis Henderson died, or was killed, in 1628.



INTRODUCTORY 311

laid siege to Bois-le-Duc, a famous fortress, and the capital of
North Brabant, the three Scots regiments forming part of his
army when assembled on the heath of Mook, and their conduct
in that famous siege, where Sir John Halkett, one of the
colonels, was killed, 1 was such that the Prince of Orange
publicly described them as the ' Bulwark of the Republic,' and
ever afterwards ' shewed them many marks of his favour and
esteem. 1 In the month of June Count Ernest Casimir, lately
reinforced by two thousand Scots, carried on his trenches
against the Horn-work before the gate leading to Hintem. A
formidable irruption of strong Spanish forces into the Betuwe,
to cope with which the Prince had to detach a large part of his
force, under Count Ernest, including the new Scottish regiment
of Lord Hay of Kinfauns, temporarily taken into service, was,
however, checked by the surprise of Wesel, where their maga-
zines and stores were, by the garrison of Emmerick ; and the
result of this stroke, and the jealousies between the Spanish
leaders, and those of the Imperial army under Montecuculi, was
that the efforts of an army of fifty thousand men were rendered
fruitless, and the city being reduced to a two days' supply of
gunpowder surrendered on 14th September on honourable
terms. The siege took rank with those of Ostend, Breda, and
Rochelle among the military achievements of the age ; and
Prince Frederick Henry was henceforth regarded as equal in
conduct and courage to his father, William the Silent, and his
brother, Prince Maurice. A fourth Scottish regiment, that of
the Earl of Morton, commanded by Lord Kinfauns, was tem-
porarily employed for five months during this campaign. 2

The Dutch were also successful on the Lower Rhine ; in the
following year in the country of Juliers, and in various
encounters in 1631 . 3 In 1632, an alliance having been con-
cluded between the States and Gustavus Adolphus, then in the



1 There also fell in 1629, Sergeant-Major Archibald Bethune, Lieut.-
Colonel James Haddon, and Captain William Douglas, an officer of inventive
genius. See pp. 358-368.

2 See pp. 396-405.

3 In 1630, Captain Kinninmond, and in 163 1, Lieut. -Colonel Allan
Coutts, Captain Bellenden, and Captain Brock were succeeded upon their
decease.



312 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR

midst of that career of victory in Germany, which owed so
much of its success to the hardy valour of his Scottish brigades,
Prince Frederick Henry made another great effort to per-
manently increase the dominions of the United Provinces.
Venlo, Stralen, and Ruremonde successively surrendered, and
on the 10th of June he invested Maestricht, the three Scots
regiments forming part of his army. In vain did the fiery
Pappenheim, at the head of an Imperial army, again and again
assault the besiegers"' lines, in the attempt to relieve the place,
and in vain did the besieged make furious sallies, in repelling
which gallant English lives were lost. The city surrendered
on 22nd August, and its fall was followed by those of Limburg,
and of Orsoy. Rheinberg also fell in the following year,
one of the two approaches having been intrusted to the
English and Scots, and the other to the French, Germans,
Walloons, and Dutch. In the campaign of 1635, in which a
French army co-operated with the Dutch, the Scots troops
formed the vanguard, and the left next to the cavalry when
encamped before Louvain, the Germans being in the centre,
and the English on the right or in the rear. The combined
forces, however, failed to reduce Louvain. The Fort of Schenck
was taken by the Spaniards, and the only successes were the cap-
ture of several small towns. The Fort of Schenck was recovered
in the following spring. In 1637 the Prince of Orange laid
formal siege to Breda, which in spite of frequent sallies was
forced to surrender on 6th October, the garrison receiving the
same terms as had been granted by Spinola twelve years
before. 2

In 1638 the Scots Brigade experienced the greatest disaster
they had suffered since the morning on which so many brave
men fell on the Flemish Downs. Groll, Hertogen-Bosch, and
Maestricht had in succession fallen before Prince Frederick



1 Captain Elphinstone is noted as dead in 1632, and Sergeant-Major M.
Hamilton in 1632.

1 In 1635 Captain Patrick and Captain William Brog, in 1636 Colonel Sir
William Brog, and Captain Marjoribanks, and in 1637 Lieut. -Colonel George
Coutts and Captain Williamson were succeeded upon their decease.

The position of the three Scots regiments (Balfour's, Sandilands', and
Almond's) at the siege of Breda, under Count William of Nassau, was at La Hage,
a village on the Antwerp road.



INTRODUCTORY 313

Henry's victorious arms, and he burned to crown his triumphs
by the capture of Antwerp. It was necessary to get posses-
sion of the Flanders side of the Scheldt to prevent the enemy
succouring the city, and the plan adjudged most practicable,
though very difficult, was to pass through the inundations of
the island of Doel to the dike of Fort Calloo. The Prince
ordered Count William of Nassau, with six thousand men, on
this expedition. The troops selected were ' part of the three
Scots regiments of Balfour, Sandilands, and Hammond (Lord
Almond), of the three German regiments of Count Henry, of
Eerenruy ter, and his own, a Walloon regiment, and two national
Dutch, those of Brederode and North Holland, with six half
cannons and twelve field pieces. 1 1

Count William met with greater difficulties than were
expected, the water of the inundations being much deeper
than had been represented, and the bottom almost a mire.
These inundations had to be waded through for six or
seven miles before Fort Calloo was reached, ' but the soldiers
having overcome all these difficulties by their labour, patience,
and valour, the fort was taken."' The Spaniards, however,
collected a strong army of twenty thousand men, among whose
chiefs was the famous Piccolomini, who attacked the Dutch in
their lines in five places at once, on the 20th of June. The
Spaniards were repulsed after an engagement of eleven hours,
eighteen hundred of their troops and five hundred of the Dutch
being killed. Before, however, reinforcements sent by the
Prince of Orange could arrive, the Spaniards renewed the fight,
and took some forts which covered the Dutch lines. ' Count
William, not thinking himself any longer in a condition to
maintain his ground, retreated in the night-time, the 22nd of
June, in order to rejoin the Prince of Orange on the side of
the Schelde, but was charged so furiously by the Spaniards
that the Scotch, who marched in the rear, were for the most
part cut off, which caused such a consternation in the whole
army that they retired in great confusion, and with so much
precipitation that many, who could not soon enough get
aboard the ships, were drowned in the river." The Dutch lost



1 Memoirs of Prince Frederick Henry, ' Hist. Acct.,' Hist, of Holland.



314 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR

fifteen hundred killed and drowned, and twenty-two hundred
taken prisoners, 1 and the Scots captives, consisting of four
officers and six hundred soldiers, were sent to the Fort of Lillo.

A sharp but indecisive action subsequently took place near
Bergen-op-Zoom, where the Prince of Orange was collecting
the remains of Count William's army, and the Prince of Orange
was subsequently forced to raise the siege of Gueldres. The
campaign of 1639 was also without definite result. 2 In 1640 the
Prince of Orange besieged Hulst, and a severe battle was fought
with a relieving force, which drove the Dutch into their lines
with the loss of many brave officers, and the Prince was ultimately
compelled to raise the siege. 3 In 1641 he took Gennep, and
his son was married to Princess Mary of England. In 1642
the whole of the States army, nearly one-half of which were
British and French, were reviewed by Queen Henrietta Maria,
and in 1643 the young Prince William distinguished himself
in a hot skirmish near Antwerp. 4

In 1644 Prince Frederick Henry transported his army to
Flanders, his first operation being the passage of the Lys, to
which the troops advanced in the following order. 'The



1 On June 25th the Prince, when with ' the army on the Noortgeest,' gave
a commission in succession to Lieut. -Colonel Henderson, deceased, whose
funeral was attended by representatives of the States-General. On 13th Sep-
tember, by a commission given at Velp, near Grave, Captain James Halkett,
deceased, was succeeded. On October 25th Colonel Sir James Sandilands,
deceased, and on December 4th Colonel Sir David Balfour, deceased, were
succeeded in command of their companies. For King Charles's interposition on
behalf of the Scottish prisoners, see p. 449, and for a complete list of their names,
pp. 450-455. They included Sergeant-Major Caddell, and Captain Patrick
Stewart, of Sandiland's regiment (formerly Colonel Brog's), as well as several
subalterns of all three regiments.

2 Colonel Sir Archibald Douglas died in this year, who had succeeded Sir
David Balfour in command of Lord Buccleuch's regiment. He was succeeded
by Colonel John Kirkpatrick. Colonel James Erskinehad succeeded Sandilands
in command of Sir William Brog's old regiment, and Lord Almond being engaged
in the Covenanting troubles in Scotland, his regiment was given to his lieut.-
colonel, Sir Philip Balfour.

3 Lieut. -Colonel A. Caddell died in 1640.

4 This review was in a great plain near Voorne. ' The infantry,' says the
' Historical Account,' • was drawn up in three lines, at the distance of 100 yards
from each other ; the cavalry in rear of the third line of infantry. The Queen
passed along each line in her coach, the Prince of Orange accompanying her on
horseback, and telling her the names of the colonels and officers as they dropped



INTRODUCTORY 315

Prince of Orange's Horse Guards ; the three regiments of the
Scots Brigade, whose colonels were Erskine, Kirkpatrick, and
Balfour ; * four French regiments, the colonels of which were
Hauterive, d'Estrades, Douchant, and Coligny ; four English
regiments commanded by Craven, Herbert, Goring, and Crom-
well. The national Dutch regiment of Count Hoorn and nine
regiments of horse in the rear.' During the construction of a
bridge of boats over the Lys, ' Colonel Erskine, not having
the patience to wait till it should be finished, passed upon the
bridge of reeds with his regiment, and seeing some troops of
the enemy near a fort named St. Angel, marched up to them :
they put on the appearance of waiting an engagement, but
upon seeing that instead of halting he still advanced against
them, they retired. Erskine pursued them, took the fort,
killed some, and made prisoners of the rest, whom he sent to
the Prince. The bridge being finished, the Prince led over the
whole army, and drew them up in order of battle/ 2 The



their pikes and colours to salute her. Near one-half of the infantry being British
and French, saw in Her Majesty, these their own Queen, and those, their late
heroic monarch's daughter. After passing along the front of the lines, the Queen
stood in a tent while the whole army passed in review.' Queen Henrietta Maria
had brought with her the most precious jewels of the Crown, which she pledged
or sold to obtain military stores for the King, her husband, to whose service several
of the officers of the Brigade went. ' Le Prince d'Orange,' records Cerisier,
' engagea plusieurs officiers et soldats a. passer en Angleterre pour le secourir.'

The Resolutions of Holland contain the following :

' 1643, January 15M.— The committee, through the Grand Pensionary, repre-
sents the difficulties arising from the Resolution of the States of December 19th,
1642, respecting captains and other officers of war, and also soldiers, who went
from here to England, the committee not being able to judge who of them entered
foreign service, otherwise than from a list sent into this Assembly by the Envoy6
of the English Parliament. Resolution : The committee to obtain a list of absent
officers and soldiers from the Council of State, or from His Highnesses' secretaries,
or from the English and Scottish colonels ; the pay-orders for officers found to be
absent not to be forwarded until it is known whether they entered foreign service
or not, and in the first case the parties to be prosecuted. The pay-orders for
those that are not absent, of either nation, to be forwarded as heretofore.'

The Records of the House of Lords [1641] contain a copy of a petition to
the King of the Scottish officers taken on by the Marquis of Hamilton for his
Majesty's service, in which they, inter alia, asked compensation for the loss
incurred by quitting their settled employments abroad. — Hist. MS. Com., App.
to 4th Rep. 112.

1 The seniority of the regiments and the colonels then coincided.

2 Memoirs of Prince Frederick Henry, 'Historical Account.'



316 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR

Prince took some small forts, and laid siege to Sas-van-Ghent.
His fortified lines extended from Asseneeden, where the
English were posted, to Selsaten, where the Scots were
stationed, and resembling the outworks of a fortified town,
were so strong that Don Francisco de Melo, who commanded a
powerful Spanish army, after several fruitless attacks, saw the
city, in spite of Don Andrea de Parado's vigorous defence,
taken in his presence after five weeks' 1 siege. 1

Owing to the slow movements of the Dutch Government, and
the jealousies of the Provinces, it was late in the season of 1645 2
before the Prince could take the field. Marching as they did
along with the French troops, the superior discipline of his
soldiers was conspicuous. Obliged again to give up his favourite
object of taking Antwerp, the Prince laid siege to Hulst.
After pushing his approaches to the counterscarp, and erecting
three batteries to flank the place he had selected for passing
the ditch, ' he gave orders to Colonel Kirkpatrick, who com-
manded the guard, that an hour before break of day he should
throw over a bridge of reeds, and make a hundred men pass
upon it to take post at the foot of the rampart, which suc-
ceeded so well that, an hour before daylight, the Prince coming
to visit the works, found that " by the diligence of the colonel
and the valour of the soldiers the bridge was already finished
and the troops passed over." A few days after the town,
regarded as the key of Flanders and Brabant, surrendered.

The campaign of 1646 was ineffective, Holland and Zeeland
being averse to the recovery of Antwerp, the commercial com-
petition of which they feared. Indeed, ' long before the year
1648 Prince Frederick Henry said, "There is already peace
between the Republic and Spain."'' On 14th March 1647 the
Prince of Orange died, having, says Cerisier, ' finished the roof
of that edifice of which his father had laid the foundation, and
his brother built up the walls.' 1 He left the territories of the
United Provinces substantially the same as those of the present



1 Captain John Riddell and Captain Sir James Henderson were succeeded
upon decease in 1644, and Capt. Thomas Livingstone in 1645.



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