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state of these Provinces, also regarding the claims of Lord
Kinfaunes, son of the Chancellor of Scotland, who in the year
1629 was in the service of their High Mightinesses. It was



420



THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR



[1632



resolved and decided, after discussion, on the first point, to
write back to Mr. Joachimi to take an opportunity of thank-
ing the most highly esteemed king, on behalf of their High
Mightinesses, for his said consent to the levying of recruits.
Second point . . . Regarding the third point, their High
Mightinesses declare that, as far as the enterprise is concerned,
it be allowed to proceed ; and, as far as the claims are con-
cerned, that more detailed information be obtained from the
Council of State regarding how these stand.



Diplomatic
Correspond-
ence.



The States to Joachimi.

We have received your missive of the last day of August
last, and these few lines will serve as answer to it, that you
are to take an opportunity of thanking the King of Great
Britain, in our name and on our behalf, for the ready consent
of His Majesty to the levy of recruits ; and we hope that it
will still take place on the former conditions. Nevertheless,
we have in the meantime requested the Lords of Holland to
revise the said conditions, and come to a definite resolution
about them.

Actum, 20th September 1632.

»

Extract Jrom the Report of' Joachimi to the States-General.

1633, November 19. — Point five. Your High Mightinesses
are aware that in the spring some difficulty was made about
the carrying out of the recruiting done by some officers for
certain English companies in your service, notwithstanding
the fact that last year a licence was obtained from the king
to allow seven times five hundred men to be raised for your
High Mightinesses, in England and Scotland, by beat of drum,
for recruiting or reinforcing the English and Scottish regiments,
and that documents [acts authorising this] can be shown ; but
the levy has not been carried out. And as a prohibition has
been made in England against taking men out of the country
for the service of other princes ; but yet the lords of the council
of the king have said that their Excellencies will examine
further whether their prohibition extends to the recruits of
the old regiments in the service of your High Mightinesses.



1634] RECRUITING IN GREAT BRITAIN 421

It is a matter to be looked into whether (under correction) it
were better to demand on the part of your High Mightinesses
a resolution from the Council, or that the matter be left to be
gone on with by the English sergeants who are in England to
levy recruits.

[The following declaration of the States is inserted in the
margin :]

Regarding the fifth point, their High Mightinesses declare
that Mr. Joachimi is to take every measure to ensure the
preservation of the rights of this State to levy recruits in
England for the English regiments in the service of this State,
and that all levies of soldiers by our enemy may be forbidden
and prohibited.

1634, January 10. — Inasmuch as the companies of the Resolutions
English and Scottish nations in the service of this State will J^JJJjjJ*"
have to be reinforced by additional men in room of those who
have died, so that the companies may by next spring be in
a fit condition for service, it was resolved, after foregoing
deliberation, to write to the Ambassador, Mr. Joachimi, to
use and employ every endeavour with the King of Great
Britain and his councillors, and if need be in other quarters,
in order that His Majesty may consent to the officers of the
companies enlisting recruits in His Majesty's kingdoms, and
bringing them hither to reinforce said companies.

February 11. — After discussion, it was resolved and decided
hereby to request and commission Messrs. Noortwijck and
Vosbergen to go and call on the Resident, Mr. Boswell, and
induce him by every argument possible to put himself to the
trouble of doing his very utmost with His Majesty the King
of Great Britain to persuade him to be pleased to allow the
levies of English and Scottish soldiers to be carried out by the
captains in the service of this State, for the reinforcement of
their respective subordinate companies.

February 13. — Messrs. van Noortwijck and Vosbergen
having reported to the meeting of their High Mightinesses that,
in accordance with their resolution of the 11th inst., they had
recommended Mr. Boswell, Resident of the King of Great
Britain, to use his influence with His Majesty to persuade him



422 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1634

to be pleased to consent to the levies for the English and
Scottish companies in the service of this State, and that the
said Resident had undertaken to perform this office.

After discussion thereanent, it was resolved and decided to
thank the said deputies of their High Mightinesses for the
trouble they had taken, and further, to write to the most
highly esteemed king, in order that he may give his consent
as before, and their High Mightinesses 1 Ministers in England
are to be instructed to second this.

February 24. — Received a despatch from Messrs. Joachimi
and Brasser, written at London on the 12th inst., notifying
that they had obtained from His Majesty of Great Britain
permission to enlist recruits for strengthening the English and
Scottish regiments in the service of this State. After discussion
thereanent, it was resolved and decided to thank his most
highly esteemed Majesty for the above-mentioned concession,
and to lay aside the letter, which was ordered to be sent to
His Majesty to induce him to give his permission.

From the Register of Instructions given by the States-General,

1632-1639.
1636, March 8. — Instructions, from their High Mightinesses
the States-General of the United Netherlands, for Mr. Cornells
van Beveren, Lord of Strevelshouck and West Isselmonde,
Councillor and Treasurer-General of South Holland, and ex-
Burgomaster of the town of Dordrecht, now Ambassador-
Extraordinary from their High Mightinesses to His Majesty
the King of Great Britain, in conjunction with Mr. Albert
Joachimi, knight, Lord of Oostende in Oedekenskercke, their
High Mightinesses 1 Ordinary Ambassador to His Majesty the
king aforesaid, to discharge in pursuance hereof the duties
hereinafter set forth :

39. Their Excellencies their High Mightinesses 1 Ambas-
sadors are in especial to see to it that levies of soldiers for
reinforcing the English and Scottish companies in the service
of this State, as well as the export of ammunition of war, and
other requirements serviceable to the country, may proceed as
before without difficulty made.



1 637J RECRUITING IN GREAT BRITAIN 423

Letters from van JBeveren, Ambassador-Extraordinary of their
High Mightinesses at the English Court.

November U-.— . . . The difficulty in regard to the Diplomatic
, . „ J . . , i Correspond-

recruits comes to this once for all, that information has been ence

received here that your High Mightinesses grant soldiers of
the English regiments to the East and West -Indian Com-
panies, and that their places are filled up with the soldiers
who are fetched from here under the pretext of recruits being
wanted, and that thus His Majesty's subjects, so they say, are
misused, contrary to his intention ; otherwise it could well be
agreed to that the English regiments, for supplying the places
of those deceased, injured, maimed, or discharged, should be
provided with suitable recruits, and that this ought not to be
refused.

(Jan. 1, 1637.)

High and Mighty Lords, — When His Majesty was getting
ready to depart, I requested that I might be permitted to
speak another word in support of my foregoing proposal and
request with regard to the recruits. Mr. Cooke was retiring,
when His Majesty said : ' Secretary, they are speaking to me
again about the recruits.'' To which Cooke replied that, before
the matter could be disposed of, some better satisfaction
regarding it should be given to His Majesty ; that they had
received certain information that eight hundred Englishmen
had accompanied Count Maurits on the last ships to the West
Indies ; and His Majesty added that his people were being
used contrary to his intentions, by being sent to the Indies.
I replied thereto that I hoped they did not believe everything
that this one or the other alleged ; that it was seldom seen
that one who served on land took service at sea ; and that His
Majesty would surely not wish that any one going from here
to Holland to make his fortune at sea, should be refused on
account of being an Englishman. 'No,' said His Majesty,
' my infantry soldiers in your country often take service at
sea, and the captains profit by it, as they give them a pass-
port for it.*' And I replied that the fault of the captains
could not be imputed to your High Mightinesses, and that
the regiments must have necessary support. His Majesty



424 THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR [1637

answered, ' I make no objections in the case of vacancies caused
by death ; for supplying these you may come for as many men
as you like. But I speak only of those who leave their com-
pany for somewhere else.' Mr. Cooke added, ' Some satisfac-
tion must be given His Majesty in this matter ' ; and I thought
it unadvisable to contend much, the more so because His
Majesty was again getting ready to go ; but said in conclu-
sion that I hoped indeed that some plan would be devised to
remove all difficulties once for all, and that His Majesty might
be pleased to instruct Mr. Cooke to consider the matter with
me, and enter into a conference about it. To which His
Majesty replied, 'Very well, that's good; see what plan you
can find out together."' And so I took my leave.

Calling upon Mr. Cooke in his room after the audience . . .
coming to the recruits, I requested the said Secretary that he
might please to think of some plan whereby to remove all
difficulties in the said matter once for all, and that, in the
first place, he might enter into a conference about it. He
said that he would be delighted to do so, and that I should
also bethink me how reasonable it was that some satisfaction
should be given to His Majesty in this matter, and some
regulation about it should be made, and that to that end
something should be put in writing- ; that I should have time
enough for writing, as the winter was not nearly past. To
which I replied that His Honour might well consider how
much time would slip by us before I could give my advice,
get a reply, the captains be informed of it, the sergeants cross
the sea, the men be enlisted and recross ; that in the mean-
time the army would be in the field ; and therefore I requested
that we might take the business in hand at the earliest oppor-
tunity, and asked if the last day of next week would not suit
His Honour ; but perhaps it might not be convenient to him
owing to the Holy Week (as in the said week it is not usual
here to do business). To which he replied, that if I liked to
come and visit him at his house on the other side of London,
he would make arrangements. As I understood that His
Honour had to go to the council, I therewith took my leave,
and he went out with me.

If the West Indian Company were to adopt a resolution, as



1637] RECRUITING IN GREAT BRITAIN 425

the East Indian one has done, not to take any Englishmen into
their service, perhaps people here would be more reasonable,
instead of, as now, placing difficulties in the way of the recruit-
ing; or, perhaps, your High Mightinesses, by adopting a
resolution, might give satisfaction. May it please your High
Mightinesses to confer with His Excellency the prince about such
or some other measures, as I undertook this business at his special
command and instructions, besides the charge laid on me by
the instructions from your High Mightinesses, and put into
action in regard to the recruits of last year. ... In the mean-
time I shall, nevertheless, see if I can discover, by conference
with Mr. Cooke, any expedient which may not prejudice your
High Mightinesses, or arrange that some written agreement
be drawn up with the consent of His Majesty and your High
Mightinesses; always labouring to discover what will give
them satisfaction here. C. van Beveren.

Battersey, 1st January 1637.

January 16. — Received a missive from Mr. Beveren, their Resolutions
High Mightinesses' Extraordinary Ambassador to the King of GeneraJ-
Great Britain, written at Battersey on the 1st inst, intimating
that he had spoken with respect to the recruits for the English
and Scottish regiments in the service of this State, and that
his most highly esteemed Majesty, in regard to that matter,
requires security that men of the said nations shall not be
employed, contrary to His Majesty's intention, at sea in the
service of the West Indian Company. After discussion there-
anent, it was resolved to draw up a draft placard, forbidding
any Englishmen or Scotsmen to enter the service of the East
or West Indian Company, and that the authorities, or others
in the service of the said Companies, respectively, shall not
take any one of the aforesaid nationalities into their service,
on penalty of forfeiting a certain large sum.



(Jan. 9, 1637.)

High and Mighty Lords, — I had a conference yesterday Diplomatic
with Mr. Secretary Cooke, in order that, in accordance with ence>



426 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1637

the parting [words] of His Majesty, to see what expedient we
could devise to remove, once for all, all the difficulties made
here about the said matter some time ago (and now urged with
the greatest vehemence). My duty was to put the matter in
the best liffht so far as concerned us : and I said that I had
understood in my last three audiences, from the mouth of His
Majesty, that he had no objection to the necessary recruits for
maintaining the English and Scottish regiments, that he even
saw the necessity of the levies being carried out here, and, in
addition, that this was what he intended ; but that the diffi-
culty consisted in these two points : firstly, that the sergeants
coming here not only enlisted the number of men required to
maintain the strength of the said regiment, but in addition,
under pretence of recruits, also took away men who were used
elsewhere. Secondly, that captains granted passports too
easily to the soldiers, and, indeed, made a profit out of doing
so ; and these men then taking service elsewhere, other new
men are sent for to this country. That, indeed, I thought, if
indeed these things were true, that some expedient could be
devised thereanent : that your High Mightinesses could make
an order with regard to the first, that sergeants coming over
here are to bring with them an attestation from their colonel,
specifying the number of vacancies in their respective companies,
and that the colonel shall not pass stich attestation before and
until the captain (on oath made to the country), declares that
the number specified are actually vacant ; and on the said certifi-
cate being shown au premier secretaire d'Etat, that thereupon
permission shall at once be given for recruiting the number
specified. Regarding the second, that the captains are not to
be allowed to issue passports without the consent of the
colonels, and accordingly that no passport is to be considered
valid unless signed by the colonel as well. And with this I
concluded, hoping that without doubt His Honour would
clearly comprehend how by such measures the difficulties raised
might be cleared away ; but that I made these suggestions
without authority, in a loose form, and in conversational style,
not knowing whether they would please or be acceptable to
your High Mightinesses.



1637] RECRUITING IN GREAT BRITAIN 427

Whereupon His Honour l replied that I was right as far as
the two points mentioned were concerned, and that he did not
know of anything he could add to it ; but that there was yet
a third difficulty, which was the principal one, namely, that
the officers of the new naval levies (denoting thereby chiefly
those of the West Indian Company), go into the places where
the English companies are garrisoned, and debauching the
soldiers, entice them away to them, while the English officers
do not know how to get them back again, or what action to
take in the matter ; and herein lay the principal grievance of
His Majesty ; and to this was also added that certain infor-
mation had been received that Count Maurice, lying at anchor
lately at Falmouth, had on his few ships above eight hundred
Englishmen. If as to this a suitable remedy could be pro-
posed, recruits would not always be refused ; that, of course,
everything could not, one knew, go on quite smoothly, still it
was rather strong to employ so many people as naval recruits,
aud that too under pretext of filling certain vacancies [in the
army]. Provided His Majesty was in a measure recognised in
such proceedings, there might not at times be any difficulty
made, but for people to do this without any intimation given,
was what His Majesty could not put up with, although he
would otherwise assuredly be willing to allow the aforesaid
regiments to obtain from time to time, without any difficulty,
the recruits they required. I replied thereupon that I did
not quite understand all this ; that in your High Mightinesses 1
State there was a stringent regulation against those who were
enticed away, and who had broken their allegiance ; there were
heavy penalties against them, including the gallows. So I
suggested, in an off-hand manner, as before, to His Honour,
to consider whether His Majesty could not be satisfied with
this, that said regulation be renewed with beat of drum all
about the places where English regiments are in garrison, and
that the Council of War be instructed to put it into force
without any connivance, 2 and that also those who deserted



1 ' His Honour is the literal Dutch translation of ' zijn Edele.' But it scarcely
has the meaning here that is generally implied by it now. ' Zijn Edele' is only
a more respectful way of referring to a person than using the mere pronoun ' he. '

2 Or 'indulgence,' i.e. very stringently.



428 THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR [1637

their companies to serve in the companies of other nations be
held as men who had broken their allegiance. (I considered
that therein there was no innovation in regard to the old
regulation.) His Honour replied that he was not adverse to
this, if it were clearly understood and put into practice as
well against those who deserted their companies to serve at
sea as on land. But that His Majesty did not insist on
such rigour; but only that the commissaries, when reviewing
the new naval levies, should, on finding among them such
persons, not pass them, but expel them. He repeated if they
would do this all difficulties would thereby be removed. On
my insisting that by my proposals sufficient satisfaction and
ways of settling matters would always be given, he still said
the same. In this way the matter chiefly, yea almost entirely,
turns upon those who are enticed to desert their companies in
order to serve the West Indian Company; and this comes
from the complaints of the English officers themselves, who
bring these tales to the ears of the king, and also from some
who make it their business to write such things to the court,
in the hope of thereby winning or keeping the good graces of
the king. If the West Indian Company could take a resolu-
tion like the East Indian, to take no Englishmen into their
service, perhaps even here many might wonder at it, and reflect
on it ; but in any case the difficulty would thereby be removed ;
and it must be considered if, nevertheless, sufficient soldiers
may not be obtained, and if, consequently, it would be to
their advantage either that their commissaries, 1 when inspect-
ing new recruits, should do as before, or that your High
Mightinesses should yourselves be pleased to take such a
resolution and write to them ; or at least cause a commissary
in the service of your High Mightinesses to assist at the said
inspection, and on the complaints of the English officers, let
such persons return to them as have left them without pass-
port. May it please your High Mightinesses to discuss this
question with the Prince of Orange, inasmuch as His 2 High-
ness earnestly enjoined on me to do my best to have every



1 i.e. Of the West India Company.
There is an abbreviation here in Dutch, of whose import I am not sure, viz.



1637] RECRUITING IN GREAT BRITAIN 429

difficulty removed out of the way ; and as it is necessary,
before this can be effected, to have a reply directing my course
of action, I shall expect a rescript at the earliest opportunity
from your High Mightinesses of His Highness the prince.
Should, however, your High Mightinesses and His Highness
the prince not see fit to meet His Majesty still further in the
difficulties put forward, it might be considered if it would not
be best to leave the matter in the hands of the officers them-
selves ; as, perhaps, the more we persist, the more they shall
deem themselves indispensable to our State, and I already
notice some signs of this. As far as regards the filling up of
the places of the dead and maimed, no difficulty is made on
the certificate of the colonels ; and they must further see how
to remove their own complaints, or patiently submit to having
their numbers reduced ; as we, indeed, remind other companies,
and specially our newest Dutch companies.

C. v. Beveren.
Battersey, 9th January 1637, new style.

January 19. — A missive received from Mr. Beveren, written Resolutions

• of Sta/fcss

at Battersea on the 9th instant, touching for the most part GeneraL "

the matter of the recruits for the English and Scottish regi-
ments in the service of this State.

After discussion thereanent, it was resolved that the said
missive be placed in the hands of Mr. Vosbergen, in order that
he may communicate regarding the above matter with the
Prince of Orange, and give in a report about it.

C. v. Beveren to the States. (Jan. 16, 1637.)
High and Mighty Lords, — Regarding the recruits, I do not Diplomatic
see that anything further can be done profitably, before and g°cg espond "
until your High Mightinesses or his Princely Excellency please
to honour me with a small reply to my last letter.

The first two difficulties can easily be remedied ; the third



' zijn (his) furst. Gen.' This I have read ' furstelyke Genade,' literally ' princely
Grace,' translated 'his Grace the Prince.' It may also be 'furstelyke Generaal
or Generaalschap,' i.e. 'princely General or Generalship.' My conjecture,
'Zijn furstelyk Genade,' is confirmed on p. 23 of the Dutch manuscript. — {Note
by translator. )



430



THE THIRTY YEARS 1 WAR



[1637



Resolutions
}f the States -

General.



and almost only one would also be removed if the West
Indian Company were pleased to do as the East Indian, and
in that case such a course would be thought well of here ;
and, at all events, this point can also be settled by the
other proposals in my last letter aforesaid ; or possibly
by a courteous letter written to His Majesty by your High
Mightinesses or his Princely Excellency, to the effect that it
is your intention, and you will take all fitting measures to
prevent the English and Scottish soldiers from deserting from
their companies and going into service in others, whether at
sea or on land. Nevertheless there is some anxiety as to
whether the complaints of the captains and colonels will cease,
unless your High Mightinesses be specially pleased to agree
that the inspections of new levies [for service] at sea take place
with the assistance of a commissary of your High Mightinesses,
who, at the complaints of the captains, may cause such as have
deserted or escaped without passport to return to them ; of
whom, those who come from there, a considerable number
have already been seen here. C. ven Beveuen.

Battersey, January 7 6 th, 1637.

January 21. — The report of Mr. Vosbergen having been
heard, he having according to their High Mightinesses 1 resolu-
tion of the 19th instant, communicated with the Prince of
Orange about the letter of Mr. Beveren, written on the 9th
instant to their High Mightinesses, regarding the business of
recruiting for the English and Scottish regiments in the ser-
vice of this State, and about the carrying out of which the King
of Great Britain makes some difficulty on account of certain
considerations urged by His Majesty with respect to this
matter, that to all appearance the said recruits, or the persons



Online LibraryScottish History Society. cnPublications of the Scottish History Society (Volume 32) → online text (page 42 of 59)