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cavaliers. The lieutenant- colonel of his regiment, David
Colyear, connected with the Perthshire clan of Robertson, was
destined to win fame and a peerage in the wars of Ireland and
Flanders. His major, John Buchan, sprung from the old Aber-
deenshire family of Buchan of Auchmacoy, traditionally said to
be the only branch of the great house of Comyn spared by King
Robert Bruce, on account of personal friendship, and on condi-
tion of its changing the hated name, when he devastated the
Earldom of Buchan with fire and sword, was to bear arms
against his brother, the successor of Dundee, and serve as a
colonel in Flanders. Of his captains, his nephew, iEneas
Mackay, had left and accepted a commission in Wauchope's
Scots Foot, but was then under arrest in Edinburgh Castle,
Walter Bowie was to be promoted for good service, and
become lieutenant-colonel of Hamilton's Scots Foot, Peter
Watkins to leave the regiment as a major, and George Connock
to disappear from the lists, probably falling before the High-
land broadsword on the braes of Killiecrankie. Charles Graham
was to rise to the command of a regiment of the Brigade.
Everard Halkett, a member of a family that had given and
was to give many stout soldiers to its ranks, was to fall under
its colours at Ramillies ; and Alexander Lamy, also of a
Forfarshire name, known and to be known in its records, was
to go down in the sweep of the Highland charge. Of the
subalterns whose names are known, Campbell was to command
the victorious party in the little skirmish at Wincanton, on
the march to London, Captain-Lieutenant Mackenzie and
Angus Mackay were to be on the Killiecrankie death-roll, and



480 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE

the general's youngest nephew, Robert Mackay, to be left for
dead on the field with eight broadsword wounds, but live and
became colonel of the Scots Fusiliers.

Of the second regiment its colonel who bore the name
longest, and probably most frequently associated with the
Brigade, Barthold Balfour, was to fall in the rout in Atholl ;
and the captain of the same name (probably his son) to be
taken prisoner at Killiecrankie, to be wounded at Steinkirk,
and to die a soldier's death, as lieutenant-colonel, in the bloody
fighting; among the hedges of Landen : Sir Thomas Livingstone,
its lieutenant-colonel, whose ancient Scottish name had sent
many sons to serve under the colours of the Brigade, was to
rise to the supreme command in Scotland, to lead the Scots
Greys, and like Colyear to win a peerage : and Lauder, its.
major, was to command it through the whole course of the
later campaigns of King William and Marlborough, and
become a lieutenant-general in the service of the States,
Of the other captains, Alexander Livingstone was to succeed
his brother in their father's baronetcy, and do good service as.
a soldier ; Richard Cunningham was to go to the other arm,
become the first colonel of the Seventh Hussars, and serve as a
cavalry brigadier; and James Ferguson, son of an Aberdeen-
shire laird, whose elder brother had accompanied Montrose in
all his campaigns, and whose own eldest brother, known to
history as the ' Plotter, 1 disinherited by his father for being the
only disloyal man of his family, 1 was now one of the returning
exiles on board the same fleet, was to be intrusted with services
of difficulty and honour, to become the colonel of the Camer-
onian regiment, to actively share as a brigadier-general in the
stern strife and glory of the great days of Schellenberg and
Blenheim, and to die at the very moment when his services had
induced the Duke of Marlborough to select him to command
the British army in his absence, and with Ramillies, Oudenarde,
and Malplaquet still to come, greater opportunities were at
hand. The name of Walter Murray is found as senior captain in



1 Discharge and Renunciation, Mr. Robert Ferguson to William Ferguson of
Badifurrow, his father, of his portion and birthright, May 27th, 1658, and other
papers {Pitfour Papers).



INTRODUCTORY 481

1694, but of Thomas Erskine and William Mammy (or Nan-
ning) there is no further trace. Of the lieutenants, Arnault
was to distinguish himself, and Chambers to fall at Killie-
crankie.

Of the regiment commanded by George Ramsay, a younger
son of the chivalrous line of Dalhousie, the colonel, ' a thorough
soldier with a great deal of fire and very brave," 1 was to serve
as a general in Flanders, command the Scots Guards, and be
commander-in-chief in Scotland: the major, James Mackay,
brother of the general, to fall as lieutenant-colonel of his
brother's regiment at Killiecrankie ; Captain William Murray
was to become lieutenant-colonel 'before Namur'; Walter
Corbet was to serve in the three regiments in succession, becom-
ing major of Lauder's and lieutenant-colonel of Mackay's, and
ultimately to go, like his colonel, to the Scots Guards : John
Sommerville, a younger son of the old Scots line of the
Lords Somerville, was to become lieutenant-colonel before
Murray ; Lord Cardross, and Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchin-
breck, who were but birds of passage in the Brigade, were to
go, on arriving in Scotland, one to the command of a newly
raised regiment of dragoons, and the other to the lieutenant-
colonelcy of his chief the Earl of Argyll's regiment of High-
landers. Of William Miln, John Clerk, John Gibson, and
William Douglas, there is no further trace. One of the lieu-
tenants, James Colt, was to be taken prisoner at Killiecrankie,
and be a principal witness in the process of forfeiture against
the Jacobite leaders.

In the course of a few months the personnel of the Brigade
must have changed much, so many of the superior officers
being promoted to important commands elsewhere, and so
many having fallen at Killiecrankie. The mere perusal of the
names of those who are known to have been on its acting
strength when it landed in Torbay indicates what a school it
was for the training of men who were to lead the British arms
to victory in Flanders and in ' Hie Germanie.' But it had
also trained King James's officers. Dundee had served in
Holland, Cannon had been colonel of one of the English-
Dutch regiments, and Thomas Buchan and Wauchope had
also held honourable commands under its colours. Others

2h



482 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE

who rose to high stations in the Dutch service, Lieutenant-
General Murray of Melgum, Walter Philip Colyear, also
lieutenant-general and governor of Namur, and George
Hamilton, who was to become a Dutch major-general, and
subsequently to accompany the Earl of Mar in the rising of
1715, had either already served in it, though not on its
strength in 1688, or were soon to wear its uniform.

When the Prince of Orange's armament appeared in Torbay,
the first troops to land on English soil were the three Scots
and three English regiments. They marched to London, and
a subaltern's party of Mackay's regiment had a skirmish at
Wincanton, in which they beat off a superior party of the
Royal troops. They took up their quarters near the Tower,
and while in England the Scottish regiments were depleted of
many of their best men, sent probably to stiffen up and to
train other regiments. Much more serious service than had
fallen to their English comrades lay before them in Scotland.
On the 13th of March 1689 the three Scots regiments
* went down the river in the companies'' barges to go on board
some ships to carry them to Leith, in Scotland, to secure the
peace of that kingdom."' On the 25th the Scots Convention
granted authority to the magistrates of Edinburgh ' to quarter
two regiments, under the command of Major- General Mackay,
in Leith and the suburbs of Edinburgh.'

The commander-in-chiefs force at first consisted only of
his own brigade, the new regiment levied by the Convention,
and some small bodies of horse. Of those ' the Dutch regi-
ments 1 were the only seasoned troops, and these now only
mustered eleven hundred. Exertions were made to recruit
them, but the sudden change in their composition is probably
responsible for the fact that while they were always drawn
upon for services of special importance and hazard, they failed
to exhibit at Killiecrankie the stubborn endurance worthy of
their foreign laurels. But they formed the backbone of the
army, and supplied the officers to whom were intrusted the
most important enterprises and posts. After Mackay marched
to the north, Brigadier Balfour was left in command at Edin-
burgh, where the Duke of Gordon still held out the Castle,
till the arrival of General Lanier with reinforcements from



INTRODUCTORY 483

England. Lieutenant-Colonel Lauder was detached to secure
Stirling, and Ramsay commanded the body of six hundred
'chosen Dutch foot with officers conform,'' which Mackay
summoned to his support at Inverness. He had previously
despatched into Angus, along with his cavalry, ' two hundred
chosen firelocks of the Dutch regiments,'' and they, commanded
by Lieutenant-Colonel Buchan, were the only infantry he had
with him on his first expedition into the northern shires.
When he returned to the south, leaving garrisons at Inverness
and Aberdeen, he kept the Dutch troops for service in the
field ; and when in July he set out from Perth for Blair, the
advanced guard, pushed forward to secure the Pass of Killie-
crankie, was composed of ' two hundred fusiliers, picked men of
the Dutch Brigade,'' under Lieutenant- Colonel Lauder. The
order of march through the gloomy defile was significant.
First went the remainder of Balfour's regiment, then Ramsay's,
then the newly raised battalions of Kenmure and Leven, with
Belhaven's troop of horse, then Mackay's own veteran regi
ment, commanded by his brother, immediately in front of the
baggage, while Annandale's troop and Hastings' English regi-
ment formed the rear-guard. In the action the order was the
same, the leading battalions being on the left of the line.
The chief weight of the Highland charge was poured on
Mackay's regiment, because, says Mackay, the Jacobite officers
' who had carried arms in that regiment abroad were of opinion
if it were beat it would facilitate the rest of the work.' It
lost its lieutenant-colonel, the general's brother, who was
killed with some of the old pikemen, who stood by him when
the ' shot ' ran away, two captains, and five (or six) subalterns,
while two other captains, one of them the general's nephew,
and captain of the grenadier company, were left wounded on
the field. 1 The left wing fared no better. Brigadier Balfour,
who commanded it, was killed, and Highland tradition pre-
serves this account of his fall. He was engaged at once by two
Highlanders, one a brother of the Laird of Ballechin, but
defended himself valiantly with his back against a tree. At

1 General Mackay afterwards wrote that all the captains of his regiment
present were ' either killed or do bear the marks of their good behaviour.
Besides, I lost six very good subalterns and brisk fellows.'



484 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE

length a young clergyman, son of Alexander Stewart, who had
come out to fight along with his friends, came up, and seeing
the inequality of the combat, cried out, ' Shame ! shame ! the
like was never heard of before. Give the brave man his life.''
He at the same time addressed some friendly words to Colonel
Balfour, who, however, only replied by an expression of con-
tempt and defiance. The exact words, it is said, are not fit to
be repeated, but whatever they might have been they pro-
duced an immediate effect on the young minister. ' Earth to
my body,' he exclaimed, ' and peace to my spirit, and one fair
stroke at you. 1 Then taking the place of the two former
assailants, and flourishing his broadsword three times round
his head, he delivered such a cut on Colonel Balfour's shoulder
that he cut a complete seam across his body from the collar to
the thigh, and laid him at once dead on the ground. 1

' Balfour's regiment, 1 says Mackay, ' did not fire a shot, and
only the half of Ramsay's made some little fire. Lieutenant-
Colonel Lauder was advantageously posted on the left of all,
on a little hill wreathed with trees, but did as little as the
rest of that wing, whether by his or his men's fault it is not
well known, for the general would never make inquiry into
the failings of that business, because they were too generally
committed.' The loss of officers emphasised Sir William
Lockhart's observation : ' It is a pity to give green men to
good men, to command them, for their running was the loss
of all.' Balfour's regiment, besides its colonel, lost Lieu-
tenant Chambers, ' a resolute man, according to the testimony
of his officers,' whose name has been preserved owing to
Mackay's recommendation of his widow, ' a stranger ' ; and
Ramsay's, a captain.

Among the prisoners were Captain Lieutenant Van Best,
and Lieutenant James Colt, of Ramsay's. The Stuart Papers
mention Lieutenant-Colonel [sic] Balfour 2 and Captain Fer-

1 Chambers's History of the Rebellions of 1689 and 1715. The tradition
has this curious contemporary confirmation : ' Colonel Balfour, after he was
taken, was stabbed by a conformed minister.' — Newsletter of September 17th,.
1689, Rydal Hall Manuscripts, Hist. MS. Commission, 12 Rep., App.,
p. 263.

2 In a letter written subsequently to the king Mackay said : ' Le Lieut. -
Col. Buchan merit que votre Majeste luy donne une meilleure poste, et Fer-



INTRODUCTORY 485

guson as taken prisoners, and in Captain Crichton's Memoirs
it is stated that ' the Highlanders suffered their prisoners to
depart on parole that they would never take up arms against
King James, Colonel Ferguson only excepted, on account of
his more than ordinary zeal for the new establishment.'' This
must have been the captain of Balfour's regiment, afterwards
for many years Colonel of the Cameronians, for Fergusson of
Craigdarroch, the lieutenant-colonel of Kenmure's regiment,
was killed on the spot. 1

With great fortitude, Mackay at once set himself to repair
his defeat. He summoned to Perth ' the three battalions of
the Dutch regiments that had not been at the late encounter
in Atholl.' The death of Dundee robbed the conquerors of
the fruits of victory, and ere long the heroic resistance of the
Cameronians at Dunkeld checked the ardour of the clans.

In the spring of 1690 Mackay committed to Ferguson, now
major of Lauder's regiment (formerly Balfour's), the com-
mand of an expedition of six hundred chosen men sent from
Greenock to the Western Islands in three frigates. The
appearance of this force kept the western clans from joining
Buchan and Cannon in any considerable numbers, and had its
influence on the attitude of the Earl of Seaforth. The force
commenced the construction of Fort-William, where Mackay
arrived from Perth with the main army, of which the entire
three regiments formed a part. In the course of the summer
the final and fatal blows were given by officers trained in the
Brigade, for Ferguson defeated the Jacobites in Mull, and



guson seroit bien plus capable de commander le regiment de Lauder que Balfour
s'il y avoit moyen d'accommoder celuyci autrement qui ne pourra guere plus
suporter les fatigues de la campagne, estant incommode d'un mal qui semble
incurable depuis sa prison.'

1 Account of the Battle of Killiecrankie in the Stuart Papers. ' In this battle
there were killed of the rebels upon the place fifteen hundred, some say two
thousand, and the next morning five hundred prisoners were brought in by the
men of Athol. Those of note killed were Brigadier Balfour and Lieutenant-
Colonel Mackay, brother to the major-general, with many more officers of less
note : of the prisoners were Lieutenant-Colonel Balfour, Captain Ferguson,
Captain Donaldson, and thirteen other officers, with all their camp-tents,
baggage, artillery, and provisions, which was of great value, and also the Prince
of Orange's standard, carried by Mackay's regiment, taken by Sir Alexander
MacLean.'



486 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE

Sir Thomas Livingstone, who now commanded at Inverness,
surprised and routed Buchan and Cannon on the Haugh of
Cromdale in Strathspey. 1

In the campaign of 1691, although General Mackay was
himself employed in Ireland, his regiment and Ramsay's were
both serving in Flanders, while Lauder's was still stationed in
Scotland.

In 1692 the whole three regiments formed part of the
British army in the Low Countries. They fought with
stubborn valour on the disastrous day of Steinkirk, where they
suffered heavy losses as part of the British force that, un-
supported, and indeed it is said wilfully left to its fate, faced
the whole weight of the French attack. ' " Had Count Solms,
Trim, done the same at the battle of Steinkirk," 1 said Yorick in
Tristram Shandy, i " he had saved thee — " " Saved," 11 said Trim,
interrupting Yorick and finishing the sentence for him after
his own fashion, " he had saved five battalions, an 1 please your
reverence, every soul of them. There was Cutts's," continued
the Corporal, clapping the fore-finger of his right hand upon
the thumb of his left, and counting round his hand, " there was
Cutts's, Mackay's, Angus's, Graham's, and Leven's all cut to
pieces."' Brave old Mackay himself, ordered to a post he
knew to be untenable, after pointing out the error, had ridden
to death with the words ' the will of the Lord be done ' ; the
gallant young Earl of Angus fell at the head of his Cameronians ;
Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie was killed rescuing the colours
of the Royal Scots ; and Colonel Lauder, whose regiment was
forgotten by the Corporal, was taken prisoner. The Scots and
English regiments alone left three thousand dead upon the field,

1 In October 1689 Mackay's regiment was at Stirling, Balfour's at Perth, and
Ramsay's at Dundee. In July 1690 Mackay's was at Stirling, Lauder's at
Perth, and Ramsay's at Linlithgow. In Carleton's Memoirs is preserved an
interesting anecdote. After the defeat at Cromdale, a number of the Jacobite
officers had taken refuge in the old castle of Lethendy. After a few grenades
had been thrown into it, they prepared to surrender. Sir Thomas Livingstone,
in the presence of the Whig Highlanders who were with him, threatened stern
measures, but immediately afterwards stepped up to Carleton, who was returning
with the answer, and said quietly, ' Hark ye, sir. I believe there may be among
them some of our old acquaintance' ('for,' adds Carleton, 'we had stood
together in the service of the States in Flanders '), ' therefore tell them they shall
have good quarter.'



INTRODUCTORY 487

and the number of new commissions signed at Lembeck on 1st
August and at Gramen on 1st September, 1 bear eloquent testi-
mony to the deadly character of the prolonged struggle in which
the Scots Brigade had stood side by side with the Cameronians
and the King's Own Borderers, and in which the Royal Scots
and the Scots Fusiliers had also been hotly engaged.

The Brigade took an active part in the campaign of the
following year. At the battle of Landen, Mackay's and
Lauder's regiments, along with the Scots Fusiliers, the King's
Own Borderers, and the Cameronians, under the command of
Brigadier Ramsay, held the hedges and hollow ways on the
right of the whole army. They sustained for long the over-
whelming attack of the French, and when forced from their
original posts, rallied and stood firm till all their ammunition
was expended. The severity of the fighting is again illustrated
by the number of new commissions issued shortly after the
battle. 2

The campaign of 1694 was uneventful, but in that of 1695
the Brigade again saw hard fighting. One of the battalions
shared with Lord Lorn's Highlanders (the regiment of
Glencoe) and three English regiments in the humiliation of
the Danish General Ellenberg's surrender of Dixmuyde, and its
Colonel, Sir Charles Graham, was among the officers ' broke '
for signing the disgraceful capitulation. In the Prince of
Vaudemont's famous retreat before Villeroi's army the rear-
guard consisted of General Colyear's brigade, and at the siege
of Namur, Lauder's regiment, brigaded with Maitland's (the
King's Own Borderers), formed part of the covering force
under Major-General Ramsay, while Mackay's took part in the
hottest assaults. On 18th July an assault was made on the
counterscarp by five battalions of English, Scots, and Dutch
under General Ramsay and Lord Cutts, which drew from
the phlegmatic William the exclamation, ' See my brave
English.' On the 27th the English and Scots, under Ramsay
and Hamilton, again assaulted the counterscarp and made

1 See Dalton's English Army Lists and Commission Registers, vol. iii.
pp. 280-282.

2 Ibid. vol. iii. pp. 341-343-



488 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE

important lodgments ; and on the 4th of August the town
was surrendered, and the French retired into the citadel. At
the famous assault on the Terra Nova, on 20th August, the
supporting regiments were Courthope's and Mackay's, and the
reserve Colonel Buchan's and Colonel Hamilton's. Owing to
a miscalculation in timing the arrival of the supports, the
assailants were driven back after an apparently successful
attack, and it fell to Mackay's regiment to make practically a
new assault. Lord Cutts, who had returned to the fight after
getting his wound dressed, ordered two hundred chosen men
of Mackay's regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Cockle, to
attack the face of the salient angle next the breach, sword in
hand, while the ensigns of the same regiment were to advance
and plant their colours on the palisades. Cockle and his men
rushed forward 'with admirable intrepidity 1 : they broke
through the palisades, drove the French from the covered way,
and lodging themselves in one of the batteries, turned the
cannon on the enemy. Two thousand, men had fallen in the
assault, but a substantial lodgment had been made. A few
days later the place surrendered, and the glorious capture of
Namur consoled the allies for the honourable defeats of
Steinkirk and Landen.

On the conclusion of the Peace of Ryswick in 1697, the
English Parliament insisted upon a large reduction of the
army. The three old regiments of the Scots Brigade were
returned from a British establishment to the Dutch service,
and in place of the three English regiments which came over
in 1688, the Scottish regiments of Ferguson, Hamilton, and
Lord Strathnaver were transferred to the establishment of the
Netherlands, and, along with the old regiments, remained in
the Low Countries.



STATES OF WAR



489



STATES OF WAR.
1649

Hollandt. Ruyteren [cavalry]



Willem Hay, Curassiers
Sir Robbert Home



monthly
horsemen. pay.

60 £2291



Voetvolck [infantry]



Willem Killegrew,
Grave van Oxford,
Johan Kirckpatrick, 1
James Asking .
John Cromwell,
Ferdinando Carrey,
Edwart Stewart, 3
Thomas Ogle, .
John Levingston, 4
Thomas Dolman,
Walter Vame, .
James Balfour, 5
Francois Veer Oxfort
John Hinderson, 6
Henry Winde, 7
Payton,
Thomas Hamon,



monthly
men pay

100 £1417



70 1059



50



825



Philips d'Harrards, .
Willem Bedel, .
Robbert Saunderson,
John Amolt,
Thomas Morgan, de

yonge, .
Francois de Mackworts,
Alexander Bruce, 8
Symond Killegreuw,
Charles Gerrard,
Eduwart Bret, .
William Trete, .
James Schot, 9 .
John Sayer,
Henry Hume, 10
Robbert Hacket, 11 .
Charles Lloyd,



monthly
men pay

50 £825



3 See p. 328.
6 See p. 323.

1660 (of Walter Scott's



I Colonel Kirkpatrick. See p. 323.
a Colonel James Erskine. Seep. 318.
4 See p. 325. 5 See pp. 320, 324.

7 Henry Wylde?

8 Alexander Bruce became sergeant-major
regiment). Alexander Bruce, son of John Bruce of Airth and Margaret Elphin-
stone, who ultimately succeeded to Airth, served under Prince Rupert in
Germany, and for many years in the Low Countries in the service of the States-
General. He married a Dutch lady, Anna van Eyk. See Sc. Ant., vol. xi.p. 61.

9 See p. 333. 10 See p. 328.

II Robert Halkett, previously lieutenant of Sir James Henderson's company,
succeeded John Kirkpatrick as captain on October 25th, 1644. He was suc-
ceeded by William Sandilands in 1661.



490



THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1649



Adam Esday, •
Godefroy Lloyd,
John Ingelby, .
John Abraham,
Raph Norwood,
Willem Trogmorton,
Isacq Asteley, .
Henry Wytheral,
Broychwel Lloyd,
Henry Echlyn, 1
Christoffel Plunket,
William Riddel, 2
William Cromwel,
Johan Kirckpatrick
John Roberts, .
Herbert Trogmorton,
John Ropert, .
George Keir, 4 .
Thomas Mentis,
Waltar Murray, 5
Samuel Clarke,
Everwijn Kirkpatrick,



men
50



monthly-



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