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toute son etendue, pour estre en etat de donner une plus entiere
satisfaction a V. Ma t6 . Nous venons presentement Tasseurer
quelle nous trouvera tousjours dans une tres-parfaite disposi-
tion d'accomplir les traittez qu'elle a bien voulu passer avec
cet Etat, et que s'il arrivoit (a Dieu ne plaise) que V. Ma w se
trouvast jamais dans le moindre besoin de notre secours et de
notre assistance, Nous le luy envoierions avec la meme prompti-
tude qu'en lannee 1685, et meme avec une plus grande s'il
estoit necessoire. Nous avons, Sire, examine avec une tres-
grande application non seulement tous les d ts traittez, mais
aussi ce qui s'est passe au sujet de la levee des d ts regimens, et

2 If



546 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

nous iTavons trouve aucun article ny periode dans les d ts traittez
ou il ait convention, capitulation ou quelque autre engage-
ment que ce soit, qui nous puisse obliger d'envoyer ces regimens
a V re Ma t6 et de nous en defaire, ny en tout ny en partie.
Nous trouvons bien, Sire, que ces Regimens ont ete formes en
partie des regimens et Comp ies qui estoient en nostre service en
Tannee 1674, come regimens et comp ies de nostre nation, et en
partie des levees particulieres des Anglois et des Escossois qui
se sont volontairement mis a notre service ; que ces levees aussy
ont ete faites avec beaucoup de frais, tout en regard des
deniers d'enrollement qu'a celluy de leur transport, et que ces
frais ont ete d'autant plus grands, que nous avion s le malheur
que sa Ma t6 de glorieuse memoire ne pouvoit estre disposee a
y donner les mains et a les faciliter, de maniere que ces Anglois
et ces Ecossois ne sont venu en ces pais cy que de terns en terns
et par petit nombre, et quMls ont ete mis en des Compi es et sous
des drapeaux separez, dont en suite on a forme ces regimens.
Nous doutons encor moins, Sire, que V re Ma t6 n'ait la bonte de
considerer selon la grande prudence que la presente conjuncture
des affaires dans la Chrestiente ne nous permet pas de priver
cet etat d'un corps de milice si considerable, fait a nos depens,
recrutez de temps en temps, entretenus et dresse dans la dis-
cipline militaire avec tant de frais. Cependant, Sire, pour
mieux marquer a V re Ma t6 notre inclination, a luy complaire en
tout ce que nous est possible, nous accorderons voluntiers dez
a present conge aux Officiers qui nous les demanderont, et la
presente lettre n'estant a autre fin, Nous prions Dieu, Sire,
etc.



Diplomatic
Correspond-
ence.



Ambassador van Citters to the States-General.

Westminster, February f-£, 1688.
Your High and Mighty Lords, . . . That here the English
Brigade in the Netherlands is held in little esteem, as they are
considered to consist of persons very ill affected towards His
Majesty, and that it is still remembered how few were willing
to be of service to His Majesty against Monmouth, but that
the only object of the recall is to deprive others of the oppor-
tunity to employ them against the king, and that the opinion is



1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 547

strongly held here that their High Mightinesses, from considera-
tion for His Majesty, will dispose very lightly of the arrests
of the soldiers and officers for debts which they are alleged to
have incurred there, and whereby their coming over here is
said to have been delayed, but it is also openly said, and I have
been assured of it on good authority, that they are greatly
embarrassed by the recall, and that had it not been commenced,
it would not readily have been made in such a hurry, inasmuch
as the immoderate spirits who urged it upon His Majesty did
not foresee these difficulties.

Ambassador van Citters to the States-General.

Westminster, February fr, 1688.
My Lords, — No sooner had the Dutch letters come in last
Wednesday, than, to begin with, everybody was at first greatly
surprised that your High Mightinesses had decided to refuse
the transport of the said troops, and the displeasure of His
Majesty on account of this rebuff has since been growing more
and more evident, and the rumours of war thereupon also
seemed to be doubled at the court, also rumours about the
calling together of a Parliament, in order, as it is said here, to
expose most clearly in all their bearings the measures taken by
the Dutch, and the disrespect and injury they are daily bring-
ing upon His Majesty and the nation, and for the purpose of
maintaining and preserving their ancient glory and for resolving
to carry out along with His Majesty their just resentment, but
without in the meantime saying anything about religion.
And what concerns some still more is that all unprejudiced
persons are of opinion that their High Mightinesses are in the
right, wherefore they are fain to put another interpretation
upon the letter of His Majesty, as if he with extreme civility
had simply demanded of your High Mightinesses his born
subjects, who might be in those regiments. Mr. van Barillon
was that same night for a very long time alone with the king
in his Cabinet, where no doubt the discussion turned on this
unexpected occurrence. . . . On Wednesday evening, as
letters had come that afternoon from the Fatherland, the
Cabinet Council met, and, as I hear, the opinions expressed



548 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

were very diverse, some thinking that His Majesty would be
well advised to let the famous proclamation for the recall of
the said troops take its course, on penalty of confiscation of
life and property to those who should remain refractory, others
that the officers ought to be commanded to come over and to
brino- the soldiers under their command with them, others
again that the whole matter should be dropped. That night
no final decision was come to ; but I have not yet been able to
ascertain what was resolved last night, nor as yet have I
managed to hear.

Representation by the English Ambassador.

(Exhibitum March 1, 1688.)

The Amb r Marquis d'Albyville to the States-General.

Hauts et Puissaxts Seigxeurs, — Le refus que font V. V. S. S.
par leur lettre au Roy mon Maitre, du 19 e de mois de Fevrier,
de laisser retourner au service de Sa Maj t6 les Officiers et
soldats, ses sujets, dont la Brigade Angloise et Ecossiese est com-
posed, nf oblige de representer a V. V. S. S. quil y a un traitte,
fait avec cet Etat au regard des sujets de la Couronne d'Angle-
terre aussi ancien qui la Republicque, qui ne doit pas estre
aboli par les guerres survenues depuis, sans un act ou une
resolution particulierre des estats, et quand il n'y en auroit
point, il nest besoin que du droit des Gens, pour verifier qu'on
ne retient jamais les sujets des Roys, des Estats et des Princes
du service de leurs souverains, quand ils en sont requis. Cest
une usage receu de toutes les Nations et practique souvent mesme
entre celles qui sont en guerre ; on n*en point veu de refus-
j usque a present.

Pour faire voir combien ces droit de la couronne d'Angle-
terre sont considerables et indispensables, V. V. S. S. ne
scauroient ignorer ce qui est passe de nostre tems, quand le feu
Roy d'Angleterre de Glorieuse Memoire se trouva bannis eti
refugie a Bruxelles, durant la guerre entre TEspagne et la
France: quelques regiments de ses sujets se trouvant alors air;
service du Roy de France, le feu Roy (tout bannis et exille
qu'il etoit), les envoya demander en tems de guerre, Hauts et
Puissants Seigneurs, et pour renforcer Tarmee ennemie.



1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 549

Neanmoins ils furent congediez et envoyez au service de leur
souverain.

L'annee 1665, quand la guerre commenca entre TAngleterre
et ces Etats, au commencement de Tannee 1666, le Roy de
France declara la guerre au feu Roy d' Angleterre en leur
faveur ; il y avoit alors au service du Roy de France un regi-
ment Ecossois, commande par my Lord Douglass. Le feu Roy
d'Angleterre, de Glorieuse Memoire, envoya demander le Regi-
ment ; on le congedia et renvoya en Angleterre. Apres que la
paix avoit ete faitte, le Regiment retourna au France, et (sans
faire des nouvelles conditions) y servit diverses annees. Le
feu Roy envoya encor demander les meme Regiment et d^utres
de ses sujets, qui furent au service du Roy de France, qui les
encore fait renvoyer en Angleterre, quoy qu'en terns de paix,
mais dans Tettante d\me guerre, apres le marriage de leur
Altesses Royalles.

L'etats qui jouissent d\ine profonde paix (s'ils en desirent la
continuation) coment peuvent ils apres ces exemples refuser le
service de ses sujets a un Royallie et Garrand dela treve, qui n'a
en veue que de conserver la tranquillite de la Chretiente, a un
Roy qui a uniquement renouvelle avec ces Etats les traitez
faits avec le feu Roy son frere, et qui leur donne de terns en
terns des assurances de son amitie et de son estime ; a un Roy
enfin qui travaille incessament a la paix de ces Royaumes,
afin de se mettre en etat de pouvoir maintenir la paix de
TEurope ; car tant que f Angleterre sera en paix, il n'y aura
point de guerre a craindre.

Si ces officiers et soldats ont ete levees, transportez, entren-
tenus et instruits en Tart militaire a des grands frais, c'est de
Targent bien employe, temoigne les siege et le batailles des
dernieres guerres.

L'Roy mon Maitre, ayant perdu de compte fait 15000 sujets
au service des Etats depuis Fannee 1674. Si ces officiers et soldats
sont en partie venus se rendre volontairement au service des
Etats a Tinsceu du Roy et sans sa permission, ils ne scaurient
expier leur fautes, ni eviter les rigeureuses pienes des lois que
par leur prompt retour au service de sa Maj t6e , d'autant qu'il
n'y a pas de consideration, d'obligation ni naturalisation, qui
puissent dispenser les sujects des Roys d" 1 Angleterre en quelques



550



THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688



Resolutions
of States-
General.



Diplomatic
Correspond-
ence, Eng-
land, 1688.



endroit du monde qui se trovent, de retourner a leur service,
quand ils en sont demandez, sans subir le nom infame et les
peines de traitres ; et si le Roy ayt refuse aux Etats en quelque
terns la permission de faire des levees ouvertement, ca ete une
marque perticuliere de la bonte du Roy envers leurs S. S. de
conniver quon fist ces levees en cachet, et quasi a son insceu,
pour n'ent pas permettre aux Roys de France et d'Espagne, qui
demandoyent en meme tems de faire aussi de leveez.

Le Marquis d'Albyville, Envoye Extra du Roy de la grand
Bretagne, apres avoir representeez toutes ces choses a la pru-
dence de V. V. S. S. pour en deliberer plus meurement leur
demande, encore par ordre du Roy son Maitre, que les Officiers
et soldats, ses sujets, qui sont dans les brigades Angloises et
Ecossoises, puissent incessament retourner a son service.

Afin que Sa Maj t6 ait sujet de continuer Tamitie et Testime
qu'elle a toujours eue pour les Etats des provinces Unies.

Marquis d'^lbyville.

Donne a la Haye, le l er jour de Mars 1688.

March 1. — There was read at the meeting the petition of
the Marquis d'Albyville, Envoy-Extraordinary of His Majesty
the King of Great Britain to this State, regarding the six
English and Scottish regiments in the service of this State,
inserted hereafter as follows : ' Hauts et Puissants. . . .' x

After discussion thereanent, the deputies of the Provinces
of Holland, and West Friesland, and Friesland, took a copy of
the above petition to make it known more fully to their pro-
vinces. And it was resolved and decided accordingly, that a
copy of the above petition be placed in the hands of Mr. Baar
and the other commissioners of their High Mightinesses on
military affairs, for inspection and examination, and, after hear-
ing and taking into account the facts of the case, and the most
wise counsel of His Highness the Prince of Orange, to report
on all points to this Assembly.

The Dutch Ambassador, Van Citters, to the States-General.

Westminster, March ", 1688.
High Mightinesses, — . . . Yesterday His Majesty wa
pleased to inform me, that on the previous day the Article

1 Already printed from the Diplomatic Correspondence, see p. 548.






1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 551

of Convention made about the English troops in 1678 had

come into his hands. The Earl of Middleton also, by command

of the king, showed me the original, of which an authentic

copy has been sent over to the Marquis d\Alby ville ; in which,

inter alia, it is stipulated that whenever His Majesty shall find

fit to recall his subjects, they are to be permitted to come over

to this side, and to embark at and for such ports as His Majesty

may decide. Wherefore he said to me that he now certainly

expected that this permission would be accorded to the soldiers

his subjects.

March 13. — The report was read of Mr. Baar and the other Resolutions
. . „ ., . TT . , ,,. , .. .,.. „, . of the States

commissioners of their High Mightinesses on military affairs, G ener ai.

who in accordance with, and in execution of their resolution

commissorial of the first inst., have inspected and examined the

petition of the Marquis d'Albyville, Envoy-Extraordinary of

His Majesty the King of Great Britain to this State, regarding

the despatch of the well-known six regiments of the English

and Scottish soldiers referred to more explicitly in the minutes

of the 1st inst.

After discussion thereanent and consideration of the facts of
the case and the most wise counsel of His Highness the Prince
of Orange, and in accordance therewith, it was resolved and
decided that the following reply be sent to the Marquis of
Albyville in answer to his memorial :

'That their High Mightinesses can honestly declare that they
desire nothing so much as to retain the honour of His Majesty^
friendship and good- will towards this State, and to that end
they on their part would willingly contribute what shall
or may be required, and execute with the utmost readiness
whatever they are bound to in terms of the existing treaties
between His Majesty and this State. That their High
Mightinesses had hoped that the reasons given by them why
they could not allow the aforesaid six regiments of English and
Scottish soldiers to leave would have satisfied His Majesty, and
that their decision is so peremptory that they cannot allow
themselves to rescind the resolution they arrived at. That the
Envoy-Extraordinary above mentioned does indeed in the said
petition allege that there had been made with this State with
regard to the subjects of the Crown of England a treaty



552 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

which is as old as the Republic itself, and which enforces this
duty on the State, and that it is not to be held as annulled by
the wars which took place afterwards. That their High Mighti-
nesses have to say with regard to this that they could well have
desired that the said Envoy-Extraordinary had been pleased to
specify that treaty, and to mention and point out the obliga-
tion thereby laid upon their High Mightinesses. That they
can honestly declare that they have no knowledge of such a
treaty : that it is true that in the year 1585 a treaty was
drawn up between Queen Elizabeth of glorious memory and
this State containing several conditions on and under which
Her Majesty agreed to succour this State, but that their High
Mightinesses do not find in the said treaty anything at all to
oblige them to allow certain English troops in their service and
pay to enter Her Majesty's service at her desire. That Her
Majesty, having decided in the year 1598 to relieve herself of
the expenses of the said succour and not to bind herself any
further to it except at Her Majesty's own good pleasure, was
indeed pleased to covenant and stipulate how and in what
manner their High Mightinesses should be obliged to assist her
in case Her Majesty continued to carry on the war against the
King of Spain, and, inter alia, also by the seventh clause of the
said treaty that Her Majesty should be at liberty to discharge
the troops which she had maintained till that time, but that
their High Mightinesses should be at liberty to take into and
retain in their service all such of them as should be willing to
serve this State and as their High Mightinesses chose to
enlist. And Her Majesty was good enough at the same time to
promise and engage that their High Mightinesses should be
allowed to enlist in England as many men as, on the one hand,
they should deem requisite, and on the other hand, Her Majesty
should think she can spare, and that all the said men on enter-
ing the service should be subject to the military orders of this
State, again without making the slightest stipulation that
their High Mightinesses should be compelled to make over
the said troops to Her Majesty or allow them to enter her
service when she might desire it. That it is well known that
their High Mightinesses faithfully and fully discharged the
obligations incumbent on them according to the terms of the



1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 553

said treaty, in the time of King James, also of glorious
memory. That the succour promised by the said treaties has
been discontinued ; and that the money owing to His Majesty
by their High Mightinesses was so fully paid that His
Majesty granted a complete and absolute acquittal from the
debt, and the towns of Brielle and Flushing, which were
mortgaged to him for the payment of the said money, were
discharged from that hypothecation and mortgage and restored
to the State. That, in addition to this, when their High
Mightinesses were so unfortunate as in the years 1664 and
1665 to be plunged into a war with King Charles n., also of
glorious memory, the English and Scottish regiments, at that
time in service, were all entirely discharged from it, and the
officers who had commanded the said regiments were dismissed,
and that those of them who were again taken into service in
course of time were never again considered or regarded as
officers of English or Scotch regiments ; in short, that even if
already in the beginning of the Republic such a treaty about
letting the said troops serve His Majesty at his desire (which
yet has neither been mentioned or exhibited by the said Envoy-
Extraordinary nor found by their High Mightinesses) may
have been in existence, said treaty would have been annulled
by the times which followed, even in respect of the said
English and Scottish regiments, and would no longer continue
€xisting owing to the dismissal and discharge of the said
Euglish and Scottish regiments. But the Envoy-Extraordinary
will be unable to show that the said agreement made by Her
Majesty Queen Elizabeth of glorious memory has ever ceased
to be valid, wherein she promises to permit the levying of
English soldiers as far as the State may need them, said soldiers
to serve under the orders and in the pay of this State, especi-
ally as their High Mightinesses have not been able to discover
that this would interfere with the rights of any nation ;
although the Envoy-Extraordinary above-mentioned, and that
too without adducing any reasons or any solid foundation,
wishes to assert the contrary, for their High Mightinesses
in so far as concerns the rights of nations are of opinion that
nothing is more natural than that any free-born man should
have the right and opportunity to seek his living and settle



554 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

where he thinks, and believing he can do so with most profit
and advantage to himself. That he, consequently, has it also
in his power to have himself naturalised, or by residence or
other agreement to subject himself to those under whose
government with person and goods he settles down and consti-
tutes a family or binds himself otherwise ; and that the govern-
ment under which a person so settles or otherwise binds him-
self is at liberty either to accept or refuse such a person
coming into its jurisdiction, and should the government accept
him, either openly, by formal letters and document, or otherwise
quietly by receiving him into the country and allowing him to
live in it, or by taking him into service, the government
thereby obtains over such a resident the same rights as it
possesses over its own subjects and the natives of the country.
That the most illustrious men have acknowledged that right
from ancient times, not only as a proper and valid right,
but as a power founded on natural equity, namely, that one
who is freeborn should have the privilege to use that right
which is his by nature, to go or remain where he pleases,
according to his inclination, if he has not bound himself to
another and thus surrendered his natural right ; and that this-
privilege is also one of the strongest supports of a person's
liberty. That the maxim is still being put into practice every-
where and all around, and that in all countries, even including
England, strangers from other countries are daily received and
taken in, who have decided to settle as citizens ; and that no
kings, princes, or states have ever agreed to surrender such
citizens or residents, whom they have admitted, to those
kings, princes, or states under whose government they were
born. That, consequently, this ought the less to be required
of their High Mightinesses at this time ; because since the
aforesaid law of nations, yea, the law of nature, gave to the
said English and Scottish soldiers liberty and permission to
enlist in the service, wages, and pay of this State, and to
submit themselves further to the order and military discipline
of said State ; and as, furthermore, the treaties formed between
His Majesty and his most illustrious predecessors and this
State not only do not forbid, but rather encourage this, the
State not only having always been permitted and allowed to



1688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 555

take the said English and Scottish soldiers into service,
and the said English and Scottish soldiers to enter into the
State's service and continue subject to their orders, so that
they are not permitted, without a passport or the consent of
their High Mightinesses, to leave the military service which
they have voluntarily entered, especially as the military laws
of this State agree with a general and concordant law used by
all Christian nations, namely, that such a one as has once
entered the military service may not leave it without the per-
mission of those to whom he has bound himself, unless some
different stipulation has been expressly made. That their
High Mightinesses are glad to acknowledge that they have
received good services from the said English and Scottish
regiments, and that they, as is usual with people of their
nation, have indeed exerted themselves ; that the misfortune
of war always causes some to be left on the field, but that the
Envoy-Extraordinary makes an exceeding great mistake when
he makes the number so large. That their High Mightinesses
will make no reply to the instances mentioned by the said
Envoy-Extraordinary, as they do not know what stipulations
were made as regards them with His Majesty the King of
France, and they could easily show what a bad application was
made of what happened in the sad and unfortunate times of his
Majesty King Charles n., did not the veneration which they
have for His Majesty's most illustrious house, and the horror of
such calamitous times and misfortunes prevent them from
touching on those matters. That the whole world so well knows
the good intentions of their High Mightinesses to preserve, as
far as they can, the peace which was made, and to avoid every-
thing that might give reasonable cause or occasion for disturb-
ance, that it is unnecessary to repeat this often, and that they
wish to assure His Majesty that nothing would be more pleasing
to them than to second His Majesty's good intention to do all
in his power to preserve said peace and quiet.'

A copy of this resolution of their High Mightinesses is to
be placed, by the Agent Roseboom, in the hands of the said
Marquis d'Albyville, that he may make such use of it as he
thinks proper. And likewise, a copy of this resolution of their
High Mightinesses is to be sent to Mr. van Citters, their



556 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

High Mightinesses' ambassador at the court of His Majesty
for his information.

Van Citters to the States.

Westminster. March 3 1688.
' 13?

My Lords, — Last Saturday, on the arrival of the letters of
the ^th instant, no little commotion arose at the court on
account of the second refusal which your High Mightinesses
had given to the Marquis d'Albyville, on the presentation of
his second memorial about the recall of His Majesty's subjects,
so much so that I know His Majesty complained greatly about



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