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it to the Swedish ambassador, saying that he did not know in
what sort of way your High Mightinesses appeared to wish to
treat him ; yea, the talk of most tended all this way, that war
was now certain ; and much confirmation was given to this by
the fact that the Duke of Barwyck being asked by the young
Earl of Steweml whether he, the duke, would again be present
at the next campaign in Hungary, replied, ' If nothing happens
here 1 ; but after I casually commenced to reason with the Earl
of Middleton and some others about the grounds of your High
Mightinesses' resolution of the 13th instant, the vehemence
seems to have already considerably abated. His Majesty has
promised to grant me an audience to-night, or at least at mid-
day to-morrow, if he should return too late and tired from the
chase. I shall advise your High Mightinesses very humbly by
the following post what I may gather in that conversation.
It might easily happen, if it has not been done already, that
after this second refusal the said marquis will request of your
High Mightinesses the execution of the known 'project of
the capitulation,' which is here considered a perfect and
complete treaty, and, consequently, the expectation seems
to be held that in accordance with it the king's subjects at
least will be permitted to return to this country, and to embark
at such a place as His Majesty shall see good to appoint.

Appeal by the English Ambassador to the Capitulation of 1678.

(Exhibitum April 5, 1688.)

Le Marquis d'Albyville aux Etats-Generaux.

Hauts et Puissaxts Seigneurs, — Le Sousigne Envoye Extra-
ordinaire de sa Ma t6 le Roy de la Grande Bretagne a receu






1688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 557

ordres exprez de representer aVSS. que Sa Ma t6 a este fort
surprise de voir par leur resolution du ^ du Courant qu'Elles
persistent encore a refuser permission a ses sujets qui sont
au service de vostre Etat, de s'en retourner en Angleterre ;
alleguant pour cela des raisons tirees de la Loy de la Nature
et du Droit des Gens, lesquelles comme Sa Ma t6 est persuadee,
paroitront assez mal fondees aux sentiments des desinteressez.

Le dit Envoye ne pretend pas de raisonner icy sur Torigine
et Texcellence des Gouvernements, ce que quelques uns de ces
plus scavans aux quels V S S. dans leur dite Resolution se
rapportent ont deja fait ; qui de plus sont d'avis que la subiec-
tion d'un sujet, ne sous Fobeissance d'un Monarque, oblige
plus etroittement que celle d'aucun autre Gouvernement.

II ne s'etendra pas non plus, sur les Loix des Royaumes de
sa Ma t6 qui defendent bien expressement a tous ses sujets
naturels de se mettre au service des autres Princes ou Etats,
sans la permission de sa Ma t6 , et en cas qu'ils y contreviennent,
sa Ma u les peut rappeller quand il le trouvera a propos, par sa
proclamation ou par des lettres sous son sceau prive ; et ses
dits sujets sont obligez d'obeir aux tells ordres sous des peines
tres rigoreuses, aux quelles le dit Envoye ne scauroit croire
que V S S. voudroient exposer des personnes qui, comme Elles
avouent, ont rendu depuis tant d'annees des services si con-
siderables a Vostre Etat, en les detenant contre les ordres de
sa Ma* 6 et leur propre volonte.

Ce que le dit Envoye voudroit faire scavoir a V S S. et a
tout le monde est, que les dits sujets du Roy, qui sont au
service de vostre Etat, n"ayant este aucunement contraints a
leur premier levee de sortir de ses Royaumes, Sa Majeste
demande de V S S. qu'Elles les laissent en pleine liberte de s'en
retourner.

Mais comme dans la dite resolution de V S S. il s'y trouvent
des assertions qui tendent non seulement a dissoudre les biens
de Fobeissance a laquelle chaque sujet est oblige par sa nais-
sance, et dont il ne scauroit se defaire, mais qui sont aussy
contraires aux sentiments et a la practique de la plus part des
autres Nations, le dit Envoye trouve a propos de fair voir que
les dites assertions ont peu de fondement, et sont aussi peu
applicables a la question dont il s'agit.



558 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

Quant a ce que V S S. alleguent . . . ' Qu'il n'est rien de si
conforme a la nature, que celuy qui est ne libre, ait la faculte
et le droit de s'etablir partout 011 il juge luy estre le plus
avantageux . . . et qnrl est en son pouvoir de se fair natu-
ralizer et s'assuj ettir a ceux, sous la souverainte de quels il
vient soumettre sa personne . . . et que Tacceptant acquiert
par la sur un tel le mesme droit qull a sur ses sujets propres
et naturels.' On peu repliquer avec plus de raison que la dite
pretendue liberte naturelle ne peut subsister apres que la
domination et Tobeissance ont este introduites, tellement que
les droits de la souverainete et de Tobeissance doivent estre
uniquement considered. Et en vertu de ces droits, le senti-
ment commun a este en tout terns, que un sujet naturel ne
scauroit se defaire de Tobeissance qu^l doit a son Prince.

Et c^est de la que la plus part des Gouvernements, et parti-
culierement les Roys de la Grande Bretagne, ont en tout tems
defendu a leur sujets de s'engager au service des Souverains
etrangers, et les en ont rappeles, et quantes fois qu'ils Font
trouve a propos ; et il ^y a peut-estre aucune example jusques
a present, qu'on ait refuse aux tels sujets la permission de s'en
retourner, et V S S. mesme avouent de Tavoir acorde en Tan
1665.

Et suppose que les sujets auroient une liberte telle que
Vostre resolution marque, de se transferer a un Gouvernement
etranger, on ne peut pas pourtant comprendre pourquoy une
pareille liberte doit estre refusee aux mesmes sujets, quand ils
la demandent a se remettre sous leur souverain naturel.

Mais sans entrer plus avant dans la discussion de la dite
Resolution de V S S., le dit Envoye est ordonne de faire scavoir
a VSS. que le Roy ayant remarque par leur lettre du ~ du
mois passe, qu'Elles fondent leur refus de congedier ses sujets
sur ce qu'il n'estoit pas stipule par aucune convention ou
capitulation ; sa Ma t6 luy a commande de dire a VSS, qu'une
capitulation solemnelle fut faite en Tan 1678 avec le feu Comte
d'Ossory par S. A. Mons r le Prince d'Orange en qualite de
Capitaine General de vostre Etat, signee de sa main, cachetee
de son sceau et contresignee par son secretaire, dont il y a une
copie cy-jointe par laquelle entre autres choses il est arreste.
. . . Qu'au cas que Sa Ma t6 Britanique vint a rappeler ses



1688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 559

snjets, qui seront au service de TEtat, il leur sera permis de se
retirer et de se rendre en tel Port de mer qu'il plair a sa dite
Ma t<§ de choisir pour leur Embarquement. Laquelle capitula-
tion doit sans doute obliger V S S. puisque elle fut conclue en
bonne et deue forme, par sa dite Altesse Mon r le Prince
d'Orange, comme un Act de vostre Etat, et Ton ne scauroit
croire qu'Elle ne fut faite du consentement de V S S. ; puisqu 1
Elles ne Font jusques a present desavoue, et puisque les autres
articles de la dite capitulation ont este accomplis, de quels
il y an a quelques uns, particulierement sur Taugmentation
de la solde, qui ne pouvoient estre executez que par vostre
authorite.

Cest pourquoy le dit Envoye Ex re vient de recevoir des
ordres precis du Roy son Maitre de renouveller ses instances
aupres de vostres S. S. et de demander en vertu de la dite Capi-
tulation, aussi bien que pour les raisons alleguees, que ses sujets
qui voudroient retourner au service de Sa Ma t6 soient d'abord
congedies. Sa Ma t6 ne peut jamais se relascher de cette de-
mande ny douter que V S S. ne Taccordent, comme estant si
juste et raisonable, et qui contribuera a Taffermissement de
Tamitie et de la bonne correspondance entre les deux Nations.

Le Marquis d'Albyville.

Fait a la Haye le 5 me d'Avril 1688.



Annexa to the letter of April 5th, 1688, sent by the Marquis
cTAlbyville to the States-General.

Copy.

Capitulation faite par son Altesse Monsieur le Prince d'Orange
avec M r le Comte d'Ossery en qualite de General des
sujets de sa Majeste de la Grande Bretagne au service des
Seigneurs Estats des Provinces Unies, soubs approbation
des d ts Seigneurs Estats.

Premierement : il est convenu que celuy qui commandera les
sujets de sa d te Majeste sera son sujet naturel.

Que le d* General n'obeira qua sa d te Altesse, aux Mareschaux
de Camp Generaux et au General de la Cavallerie.



560 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

Que le d fc General commandera toute l'armee de FEstat, s'il
venoit faute de sa d te Altesse et des Generaux susnommes.

Que les soldats de sujets de sa Ma t6 dans le d* service auront
leurs gages ou paye augmente d'un sous de plus par jour qu'ils
n'ont presentement.

QiFau cas que sa Majeste Britannique vint a rappeller ses
sujets qui seront au service de FEstat, il leur sera permis de se
retirer et de se rendre en tel port de Mer qu'il plaira a sa d te
Majeste de choisir pour leur embarquement.

Que le nombre des Compagnies aux Regiments composes de
sujets de sa d te Ma te ne sera point diminue.

Que le General sus d* jouira des mesmes gages, profits et
avantages en terns de guerre et de paise, dont a jouy de son
vivant feu Monsieur de Zuylesteyn, General de FInfanterie de
cet Estat.

Que les recreues qui seront envoyees de temps en temps des
Royaumes du d* Seigneur Roy, au cas qu'elles viennent a perir
par naufrage ou a estre prises par les ennemys, seront passees
en moustre, et que Fon en fera bon les soldats aux Captaines,
pouveu qu^l apparoisse deiiement qu'ils auront este leves.

Que le dit General aura un Adjudant de mesme que les
autres officiers Generaux.

G. Prince d'Orange.

L.S



Fait a la Haye, le 29 Janvier 1678.

Pour son Altesse, Huygens.

April 5. — To the meeting was read the later memorial
of the Marquis d'Albyville, Envoy-Extraordinary of His
Majesty the King of Great Britain to this State, with re-
ference to the discharge of the English and Scottish troops in
the service of this State from said service ; the said memorial
being inserted verbatim as follows :

' Hauts, etc. Le sousigne Envoye, . . . ,1

After discussion thereanent, it was resolved and agreed that



1 Already printed from the Diplomatic Correspondence, see p. 556.



1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 561

a copy of the above petition be placed in the hands of
Mr. Schimmelpenningh van der Oye and the other commis-
sioners of their High Mightinesses on foreign affairs, for in-
spection, examination, and report of everything to this
meeting.

April 9. — The deputies of the province of Friesland
being present presented to the meeting the resolution of the
States of the said province, their principals, with respect to
their High Mightinesses'' resolution about sending back the
English and Scottish regiments in the service of this State, the
resolution being inserted verbatim as follows :

' Extracted from the Resolution-book of the States of Fries-
land.

' A missive was read and examined from Mr. Stansius, deputy
of this province, in the assembly of their High Mightinesses,
intimating that the Envoy-Extraordinary of the King of Eng-
land had requested by petition that the three English and
three Scottish regiments in the service of this State be sent back
to His Majesty, and asking them to give him, Mr. Stansius,
their opinion [in the matter].

'After discussion thereanent, and after reading over the
resolutions adopted by the other provinces, in which the send-
ing back of the said English and Scottish regiments was refused
in polite terms, the states of Friesland resolved to agree to and
approve of the resolution of their High Mightinesses above-
mentioned, as they hereby do, and charge the deputy of this
province to the union to take an early opportunity of com-
municating this at a meeting of their High Mightinesses.
This resolution was taken at the Provincial Government House,
on the 24th February 1688, and was signed

'For Oostergoo: F. v. Alyva; J. Bentingha.

'For Westergoo: S. v. Goslinga.

'For the Zevenwolden: Hessel Vegelin van Claerbergen, M.
van Scheltinga.

' For the towns : A. van Schuurman, Wjbrandt Douwes.' 1

No resolution was taken in regard to the above.

April 23. — The report was heard of Mr. Everwijn and
the other commissioners of their High Mightinesses on

2n



56% THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

foreign affairs, who, in accordance with, and in execution of,
their resolution-commissorial of the 5th inst., have inspected
and examined the second memorial of the Marquis d'Albyville,
Envoy-Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of Great Britain
to this State, regarding the discharge of the English and
Scottish troops in the service of the State, set forth more
explicitly in the minutes of the 5th inst.

After discussion thereanent, it was resolved and decided
that the following be sent to the said Marquis d'Albyville in
reply to his said memorial.

That their High Mightinesses much regret to observe with
what disfavour His Majesty choses to regard the resolutions
they were compelled to take to excuse themselves from sending
over the well-known six regiments, and that they would have
liked to dispense with a reply which they fear His Majesty
will consider unpleasant, had not the said Envoy-Extraordinary
urgently pressed for an answer. That their High Mightinesses
neither can nor will enter into any dispute with His Majesty
about the laws of His Majesty's kingdoms, much less presume
to absolve or acquit any one who has offended against or for-
feited anything according to those laws.

That they have only said that the law of nature and of
nations permits all who are free-born and not expressly bound
to any service to seek their living outside the place of their
birth and to become subjects of that sovereign under whom
they wish to settle, and to enter the service of the sovereign
and bind themselves in such a way as they are at liberty to do
according to the common principles of the law of nations, and
that this is so well known that it is and has been the practice
everywhere, even in England. That their High Mightinesses
have never forbidden any subject of His Majesty to return to
His Majesty's countries and kingdoms when they may choose to
go thither, except only those who, having come as free men to
this country, voluntarily entered the service, and thereby pur-
posely bound and subjected themselves not to leave that service
before they had received leave and permission to do so from, or
on behalf of, the State. That it is an abuse of facts to allege
that their High Mightinesses gave permission, in the year
1665, to the English and Scots to retire from the service of



1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 563

this country ; that it is true, however, that when at the end of
the year 1664 and at the beginning of the year 1665 their
High Mightinesses had the misfortune to be plunged into war
with His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Charles u., of
glorious memory, they found fit at that time to change the
English and Scottish regiments into Dutch, to discharge the
officers of all of them, and enlist none of them again except
those who would take a particular oath to the State, which
was effected at the time. But not the least proof can be
adduced that this was done either at the request of the officers
in the service or at the request of His Majesty. And, as
regards the agreement mentioned in the said memorial, that
their High Mightinesses are greatly surprised that the said
Envoy-Extraordinary, having in his first memorial referred to
an agreement as old as the Republic itself, now comes forward
with articles of convention of the year 1678, thereby making
it the plainer that such said old convention or agreement is
not to be found.

That they can sincerely declare they never knew anything
about said agreement, and were greatly astonished that the
Envoy-Extraordinary was pleased to mention it, just as if
their High Mightinesses were obliged thereby to allow the
said soldiers to enter His Majesty's service ; for it is clearly
seen, by the mere reading of the heading of the said agree-
ment, that it was entered into on approval by their High
Mightinesses, and that it does not appear that His Majesty
of glorious memory, Charles n., before this, or His Majesty,
the present king, ever insisted on the approbation of the
said agreement, not even when His Majesty was pleased to
renew the treaties between His Majesty of glorious memory,
Charles n., and this State. That it is also true that His
Highness the Prince of Orange never showed the said agree-
ment to their High Mightinesses, much less presented it to be
approved of by them, and that not a single clause of the said
agreement has ever been put into practice ; for although the
said Envoy-Extraordinary strongly asserts this, yet he has not
adduced the slightest evidence to verify his statement, except
that, it being stipulated in the said agreement that the soldiers
who were subiects of His Majesty should receive a stiver more



564 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688

daily than thev were receiving then for their wages or pay, the
said pay was consequently increased. As. however, it appears
from that same clause, firstly, that the said increase was not
drawn bv anv of the said English or Scottish regiments in the
whole of the year 1678, when the companies of the said regi-
ments were composed of eighty-nine men ; that when the
peace was made in the year 1678 aforesaid, and the new state
of war was framed, the said English companies, along with
the other ordinary companies, were reduced to fifty-five men,
and that onlv in the year 1679 the said increase took effect,
and was then only enjoyed by three regiments on the reparti-
tion of the province of Holland, and one regiment on the
repartition of the province of Zeeland, and that the regiment
of Colonel Macquey, on the repartition of the province of
Gelderland. and the regiment then belonging to Sergeant-

C ©Do

Major and Colonel Kirkpatrick, and now to Colonel Balfour,
did not participate in the said increase ; as, however, if the
agreement had actually been formed, not only the aforesaid
four, but also the aforesaid two regiments ought to have
drawn the said increase of salary, not from the year 1679, but
from the year 1678, as the said treaty was made at the end of
January 1678 ; but the said increase was no more than a
gratuity, which His Highness, having noticed the trouble
which the said officers had in recruiting and maintaining their
companies, procured from the State, for the said English and
Scottish regiments, instead of the higher pay which had for-
merly been drawn by. and thereafter withdrawn from, the
companies of marines, divided out among the provinces of
Holland and Zeeland, to as great an extent as this larger pav
could be spread ; and therefore it was given to onlv the said
four, and not to the said six regiments, as the said higher pav
which was taken from the said companies of marines could not
go further than the said four regiments. And inasmuch as
the critical juncture of time and affairs, not only does not
make it advisable or warrant their High Mightinesses in
dismissing, but on the contrary makes it absolutely necessary
to retain the soldiers got together bv them at such great
expense ; and that they do not find themselves bound by any
convention or agreement to make these over to His Majesty,



1 688] THE RECALL OF THE BRIGADE 565

or allow them to serve him : that, accordingly, they cannot
do otherwise than adhere to their resolution repeatedly taken
on the above matter.

And a copy of this resolution of their High Mightinesses is
to be placed by the agent Roseboom in the hands of the
aforesaid Marquis dlAlbyville for his use ; likewise an extract
of this resolution of their High Mightinesses is to be sent to
Mr. van Citters, their High Mightinesses" Ambassador at the
Court of His Majesty, for his information.

Van Citters to the States- General.

Westminster, -^SP, 1688.

" April 27'

High axd Mighty Lords, — Yesterday I again had a con- Diplomatic

versation with the Earl of Middleton, when, among other ^" e8pond "

. . . ence,

things, we discussed the later reply of your High Mightinesses England,

about the recall and despatch of the Scottish and English troops. 1689,

His Lordship gave me indirectly to understand that His

Majesty was exceedingly displeased at this reply, and that I

need not expect yet, at least for some time, a reply to my

memorial, because His Majesty, as he said, wished to deliberate

about it thoroughly ; but, as I hear further on good authority,

they are resolved not to reply at all.



566



THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1688



lecret

Resolutions.



Coil, of

Holland.



VI

THE REVOLUTION OF 1688, AND THE PERIOD IN
BRITISH SERVICE TO THE PEACE OF RYSWICK.

1689-1697.

Extract from the Resolutions of Holland.

1G88, Sept. 29. — The Grand Pensionary, in the name of H. H.,
makes a (lengthy) communication on H. H.'s desire to go over to Eng-
land with a sufficient force, not to obtain possession of that country, nor
to dethrone the king, but in the interest of the Protestant religion, and
to prevent a coalition of the kings of England and France for invading
this country.

Res. : To thank H. H. for the communication, also for his decision to
make this attempt on his own responsibility, though with the assistance
of the States ; to make all possible and the strongest efforts to secure
the consent of the other provinces ; that all members "present shall
promise under oath not to divulge this communication to anybody, only
absent members excepted. Further, to earnestly request H. H. to take
all possible precautions for his personal safety, to keep away from his
presence all persons not well known, or suspicious from their religious
tendencies, and not to expose himself to any danger, except in case of
most urgent necessity.

Oct. 26. — H. H. takes leave on his departure for England.

Expedition 0/IG88 1
Ships on which the Scots Brigade sailed

The transports are to be divided in three fleets, and again each fleet
in three squadrons.

First squadron

To the first squadron belong the following vessels, with Infantry ; the
commander (the chief officer) to carry a red flag from the main.



De Boom,
Gortmolen, .
's Gravenhage,
Yonge Ruyter,
d'Eendragt, .
.fuffrouw Hester, .
'tWapen van Amsterdan



for Major-Gen. Macquay.
Regt Major Macquay.

-Balfour.



1 Collection Holland. Archives Wassenaer, 1891, No. 2S, 2 a-d. Bundle lib.
Fleet. (A printed order.)



1 689] THE REVOLUTION 567

De blaeuwe Pot, . . . . \

De Koog in de Saen, . . j-Wacop.

De Trouw, . . . . )

The Dutch Ambassador, A. Van Otters, to the States-General.

December f-f , 1688.
High and Mighty Lokds, — . . . This afternoon the three Diplomatic
Scottish regiments took up their quarters at Southwark, and e n^ espon<i "
the three English round about the Tower, which one of them England,
will enter to-night still. 6 *

1689, January x -. — . . . What regiments are destined for
Ii-eland and Holland, the accompanying list clearly shows,
except the half of your High Mightinesses 1 cavalry, which is
not mentioned there, but are also on the point of returning
home.

r Les Regiments qui doivent aller en Hollande :

1. Un Bataillon du premier regiment des gardes.

2. Deux Bataillons du second regiment des gardes.
2. Deux Bataillons de Dumbarton Ecossois. 1
1. Littleton.
1. Churchill.
1. Hastings.
1. Sir David Colyer. 2



23



The Dutch Ambassadors-Extraordinary, N. Witsen, W. de
Nassau, and Evrard van Weede, to the States-General.

London, March z j, 1689.

High Mightinesses, — Following upon what we in our last,
with proper respect, informed your High Mightinesses of, the
king was pleased again to-day to assure us that next Saturday
six, and on the following Monday four or five, English regi-
ments will embark, to sail for Holland with the first favourable
wind, and that the remaining three or four regiments will
shortly follow.



1 The Royal Scots, afterwards the 1st of the Line.

2 This was the regiment raised by King James in 1688, largely officered by
officers from the Scots Brigade, who had returned on his summons, and previously
commanded by Colonel Wauchope.



568 THE AGE OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE [1689

To the Council of State. (April 16, 1689.)

itlons Noble and Mighty Lords, — In expectation of further infor-

Soundl mation from His Majesty the King of England regarding the
English regiments promised some time ago for the protection
of the territories of this State, and having waited till I had
received notice of the arrival of all the regiments, in order



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