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the relief of Coevorden and the siege of Groningen in that year.
In March, Captains Brogh and Egger of the Scottish regiment
had taken part, along with four Dutch captains, in an enterprise
on Maestricht. They were to go to the suburb of Wyck in large
boats, and after embarkation cut their pikes short, having been
afraid to do so before lest cavalry should be encountered on the
march. The ends of the staves were thrown overboard, and soon
after the captains were alarmed by hearing a fisherman say there
must be some of the enemy about, as pikestaffs were floating
down the Meuse. They then heard from the town that the
guard had been doubled, and resolved to abandon the enter-
prise, Captain Brogh saying that he was not going to lead his
men to certain butchery. The captains were blamed for
their decision, but Brogh by a long course of good service
showed that, whether he judged rightly or wrongly on this
occasion, the decision was due to no want of courage. Two of
his fellow-officers, Captains Robert Waddell and Melville met
a soldier's death on 16th July under the walls of Groningen. 4
The Scottish regiment was in October 1595 again one of two
sent to assist Henry iv., under Justinus of Nassau. A Captain
Balfour also took part with Heraugiere (the officer who had
so cleverly surprised Breda in 1589) in the defence of Huy,
and Scots troops shared in the obstinate defence of Hulst in
1596, Captains Balfour and Egger being both killed in repuls-
ing one of the assaults. In January 1597, Murray's regiment of
ten companies formed part of the force under Prince Maurice
at the victory of Turnhout ; and though the infantry did not
arrive in time to share in the fight, Edmond led three cornets
of cavalry in their charge on the regiments of Barlotte and



1 See infra, p. 114. "- See infra, p. 154.

3 Strictures on Military Discipline, p. 7 1 ; Hist. Account.

4 Bor, iii. 832.



INTRODUCTORY 29

Hachicourt, met the Spanish cavalry when they returned to

the charge, and distinguished himself ' notablement. 1 Two

additional ensigns of Scots were raised ; and at the sieges of

Rheinberg, Meurs, Groll, Brevoort, Entscheiden, and Lingen, 1

Murray had twelve companies under his command. At Meurs

four companies of Scots were stationed before the Kerckporte,

and on the evening of 28th August, Captain Waddell was

killed in the trenches. At Brevoort the Scots forced the

Meesterporte, at Lingen they chased back a sortie of the

; garrison into the town, while the pictorial representation of

; the place bears the note, ' Ici faisoient les soldats de Morreau

des mines et combattoient la ville. 1 In 1598 half the Scots

i were left in the force detailed by Prince Maurice to guard the

Betuwe. In 1599 the foot companies were again filled up, so

! that each company consisted of 150 men, and the colonel's

; company of 200, while among new cornets of cavalry was one

! of ' Hamilton Escossois. 1 An attempt was made in that year

to secure Nimeguen for the Spaniards by the exiled Earl of

! Bothwell, who was at Brussels. He had secured two agents,

j one of them at least apparently a Scot, Robert Lungden

! (Lundin), and they relied upon corrupting Captain Masterton,

j who was in the town with four companies of Scots, and who

had ' been of the faction of the Earl of Bothwell in Scotland. '

But Masterton discovered the affair, and Lungden was de-

: capitated at the Hague, ' regretting much to have undertaken

i such a design. 1

The cavalry captain, Edmond, took the Count Bucquoy
\ prisoner in an action near Sevenaer. At the siege of Bommel
the Scots were at first lodged upon the Isle of Voorn ; on the
19th of May, Colonel Murray being on the ramparts 2 (' sur le
boulevard de Hohenlo 1 ), and not stooping sufficiently when the
j besiegers' artillery fired, was struck on the top of the head
I'tellement que le test fut rompu dont il mourut. 1 'Cestoit, 1
(says Meteren, ' un fort habile homme, et qui avoit acquis beau-
Icoup d'honneur par ses services. 1 Two days later an assault
was made on the trenches, which did not succeed on account

1 Orlers. In the cases of Meurs and Groll, the twelve ensigns are (certainly by
! inadvertence) described as under Balfour, in all the other cases as under Murray.
j 2 The spot is marked in Orlers's illustration.



30 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

of some misunderstanding between the Scots, French, and
English. But Captain Brogh, who commanded the Scots,
brought back a Spanish captain prisoner, and the English
captain, Aldena, another. 1 On 8th July a bridge was thrown
from Voorn to Herwarden, and on the same day ten Scots
companies crossed it. They were followed by others, and a
fortification thrown up, which was fiercely attacked by the
Spaniards, who were repulsed by the Sieur de la Noue, Horace
Vere, and Edmond, who was then ' Colonel of the Scots/ In
November Prince Maurice sent some troops to Emmerick,
where, admission being refused, Colonel Edmond came to the
Craenporte, and with the help of some Germans within, burst
the gate, entered with little loss, and passed to the Steenporte,
which he opened to admit the rest of the force.

In January 1600, Count Louis of Nassau and Colonel
Edmond took Wachtendonc in Gelderland, while the Scots
also took part in the reduction of the fort of St. Andrew.

A dark day for the Scottish regiment, though an honourable
one for the cause of the United Provinces, was near at hand.
In the summer of 1600 Prince Maurice led a well-equipped
army into Flanders. He had just settled down to the siege of
Nieuport, when news came that the Archduke Albert was
advancing with all his forces. The Spaniards rapidly reduced
certain forts into which Prince Maurice had thrown garrisons,
and contrary to the terms of the surrender, massacred those
who had held Snaeskerke. The expeditious advance of the
Archduke with his well-appointed army astonished Prince
Maurice, who received the news after midnight. He at once
despatched Count Ernest of Nassau towards Ostend with
Edmond's Scottish regiment of twelve companies, the Zealand
regiment of seven companies, four companies of cavalry, and
two guns, to seize and hold the bridge of Leffingen, near the
fort of Albert, which was still held by his troops. The little
force found the bridge already occupied by the Archduke^
troops, who were in too great strength to be assailed, and were
increasing in numbers every moment. They resolved, however,
to endeavour to hold their ground. As to what exactly

1 Meteren.



INTRODUCTORY 31

occurred accounts differ. The Spaniards attacked in over-
whelming force, and according to Meteren, the cavalry at once
took to flight, and the infantry, seeing this, were equally
alarmed, and commenced to flee, throwing down their arms. 1
Le Petit, on the other hand, says that the Count, having fought
valiantly for a long time, and not being able to hold his
ground longer, was constrained to yield, after having lost his
two guns and 800 men, of whom the most were Scots. Benti-
voglio's account is, 'These soldiers of the enemy gave at
unawares upon the Catholics, who, finding themselves so much
superior in numbers, and with the advantage of such fresh
success, soon routed the adversary and made a bloody slaughter
among them. 1 Broken and ridden down by the pitiless Spanish
lancers and the cruel Italian horse, the Scots were driven into
the sandhills and the sea, and the regiment lost no less than
600 men. All were killed, for the prisoners taken were, in
breach of the faith pledged, miserably massacred. Of the
twelve captains of companies who had marched in the early
hours of the summer morning along the downs, Arthur
Stewart, John Kilpatrick, John Mitchell, Hugh Nisbet, and
John Strachan lay dead on the field ; Robert Barclay and
Andrew Murray ' being prisoners, and having received the
faith of those who held them,'' were massacred in cold blood.
Colonel Edmond, Sergeant-Major Brogh, and Captains Caddel,
Henderson, and Ker alone remained to gather the wrecks of a
gallant regiment. Count Ernest and Colonel Edmond were
pursued to Fort Albert, and the fugitives who fled inland were
slaughtered up to the very palisades of the fort. 2

After their victory and massacre the troops of the Archduke
halted, while the question of further advance was discussed,
and Prince Maurice had time to transport his whole force

1 Orlers (who was present according to the Hist. Account) says that ' after having
bravely defended themselves as good soldiers, they were put to flight, all the loss
having fallen on the side of the Scots, so that well-nigh 800 were left on the ground,
among whom were eleven captains, and many lieutenants and other officers.'
These figures tally with the others if the Dutch are included.

2 It is curious that all the four Zealand captains killed were murdered in the
! same way as Barclay and Murray, after having surrendered. The fact that five
I Scottish captains were killed in the fight suggests that their regiment stood its
; ground longer.



32 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

across the haven of Nieuport and array it in order of battle
before the attack was delivered. 1 In the great fight that
followed, in which the English troops so distinguished them-
selves, Captain Hamilton's cornet of cavalry was in the rear-
guard, and probably took part in the charges that finally
decided the fate of the battle. Captain Hamilton himself was
killed. 2 When the army of the Archduke was finally driven
back in rout, a stern revenge was taken for the slaughter of
the morning. ' Car de la part des Escossois, 1 says Le Petit,
' pour expiation de la mort de leurs compagnons qui le meme
jour avoient este tues corame nous avons dit, il n'y avoit nulle
mercy/ ' Le lendemain, 1 says Meteren, ' les Escossois en
tuerent encores quelque trente ou quarante de sang froid, pour se
venger des Zelandois et Escossois qu"on avoit tues contre la
prom esse et Taccord de PArcheduc tant en Forts de Snaeskercke
que des Escossois qui furent tues sur le rivage.''

The great struggle at Nieuport practically exhausted the
operations of the year, and the Estates sent Colonel Edmond
to Scotland ' to remake his regiment.'

In the famous siege of Ostend, which lasted from 5th July
1601 to 20th September 1604, the Scottish troops bore their
own part in the defence. One of the principal works was



1 Cette defaite,' says Cerisier, ' qui devait perdre Maurice, fut ce qui le sauva
. . . cette bataille en retardant la marche des ennemis luy laissa le terns pour
choisir les postes les plus avantageux, et faire les dispositions les plus sages.'
Tableaux de VHistoire Generate des Pays Bas.

2 In his Life of Lord Wimbledon, Dalton states, ' Among the British officers
killed at Newport was a cavalry officer who rode with Edward Cecil in the last
charge, and was slain in Cecil's sight when they were both pursuing the enemy.
This officer was Captain Hamilton, a gallant Scot, who once made, to use Cecil's
own words, "the gallantest retreat I ever heard of." Hamilton had been sent
out with some Dutch cavalry under Count Louis of Nassau. . . . The Spaniards
came down on them in force . . . and they retreated skirmishing, the officers
taking in turns to keep the enemy at bay with a few of their men, while the rest
of their body retreated. "At last," says Cecil, "it came to Captain Hamilton's
turn to make the last retreat, always most difficult and dangerous (which the
Dutch loveth not, therefore left it to him), and because the horses were weary
and the enemy was gaining ground upon them, Hamilton fell into the rear of
his men, and so long maintained the skirmish with the pursuing Spaniards that
the States horse had time t© make their retreat far enough. In the end his horse
was killed under him, notwithstanding which he, leaping over a body, made his
retreat on foot and so escaped." '






INTRODUCTORY 33

known as the Schottenberg. When the gallant Comte de
Chatillon, son of the great Coligny, standing on the top of
the Sandhill on 10th September, along with Colonel Van der
Noot, Colonel Uchtenbrook, and Brogh, now Lieut.-Colonel of
the Scottish Regiment, had the top of his head carried off by a
cannon-ball, the fragments of his skull wounded Colonel Brogh
in the face. When in December Sir Francis Vere, feeling him-
self unable to hold out longer unless reinforced, and anxious to
gain time, opened negotiations with the Archduke, it was to
Captain Sinclair of the Scots and two Zealand captains that
the duty of receiving the Spanish plenipotentiaries, Serrano and
Ottignies, was assigned. After the fierce assault which followed
the Christmas negotiations, the States resolved to relieve the
garrison, and to renew the change every four or six months,
and among the officers of rank sent to the city in January
1602 was William Edmond, now designed as ' Chevalier et
Colonel des Escossois. 1 1

Before the siege closed the States had permanently in their
pay another Scottish regiment brought over by the Lord
Buccleuch. 2 In May 1604 it is recorded 3 that His Excellency
sent five companies of the new Scots regiment, with Captain
Sinclair of the old Scots, and that soon afterwards Captain
Hamilton was wounded and retired, being succeeded in his
command by Captain Moore, while a little later Colonel
Sinclair was killed. 4 In August the Governor deputed Sir
William Brogh and Adolphe van Gelder to receive the in-



1 Edmond had, in August 1601, been sent with some cavalry to occupy
Mons, but was not admitted. The freedom of access by sea rendered a system
of relief possible, and allowed of considerable leave. In May 1604 the Governor
wrote that of five Scottish captains, only one, Captain John Brachton, was at his
post.'

2 ' His Majy hath been pleased to assent to the leavying of the new Regt s
in Scotland, for which purpose there is order already gone to the Lord of
Bucklugh, who is to command them.' — Sir R. Cecil to Winwood, August 12,
1603.— St. Pap. Holland.

3 ' Siege of Ostend ' (Huguenot Society), by Belleroche, Fleming's Diary.

4 According to the Hist. Acct. , at an earlier stage of the siege, when Sir Francis
Vere had resolved to abandon the outworks, Captain Sinclair undertook the
defence of part of thefaussebraye of his own accord, and a reinforcement arriving
the abandonment was countermanded. Sir John Ogle, however, in his continua-
tion of the ' Siege of Ostend,' added to Vere's Commentaries, denies this.

C



34 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

structions of the Government as to the course he should pursue,
in view of the impossibility of holding out long, even within
the inner defences of * New Troy/ The Schottenberg was
taken in September, and when the garrison finally marched out
on the 22nd of that month, the English and Scottish troops
formed the rear-guard, and were the last to leave the ground
so long and obstinately defended.

The Scots had not, during the long siege, been absent from
other operations of the war. A Captain Hamilton was mortally
wounded before Grave, and a detachment of 200 under Colonel
Edmond formed part of the picked force with which Count
Lewis made his dashing foray into Luxembourg in 1602, riding
as far as the Ardennes, and penetrating one hundred miles into
hostile country.

At a review held by Prince Maurice after the taking of
Grave, the Scottish companies present were — Edmonds (160),
Brogh's (120), Henderson's (100), Sinclair's (94), and Balfour's
(116). Scots troops were also engaged in the fight before
Bois-le-Duc in August of the following year, and in May 1604,
when Prince Maurice was besieging Ysendyke, the sudden
attack of the enemy upon Cadzand, which formed his base of
operations, was only defeated by the steadiness of two Scottish
companies, who taken by surprise, as they were, by a force
which had already landed 600 men, charged them at once with
such vigour that they routed them, drove them back to their
galleys, and took forty prisoners and eight of their vessels.
Had the design succeeded Prince Maurice would have lost all
his boats and ammunition ; and the expedition which took Sluys
would have ended in failure. In the campaign of 1605, it was
the firmness of Buccleuch's Scottish infantry and four English
companies (defying with their level pikes the utmost efforts of
the Spanish troops to break their formation) l that extricated
the cavalry of the Estates when committed to an unequal
combat with the masses of the enemy's horse, near Mulheim,
and enabled them to repass the river. In July 1606, half
of Edmond's cavalry company formed part of the force which



1 In this campaign there were also English, Scottish, and Irish regiments in
Spinola's army.



INTRODUCTORY 35

successfully resisted the attempt of the Spaniards to cross the
Waal into the Betuwe, and when in the following month
Spinola laid siege to Rheinberg, it is noted that ' in the Isle
and on the other side of the Rhine Sir William Edmond,
colonel of the Scots, was in command, because that was a place
it was above all necessary to guard well. 1 Spinola determined
to attack the entrenchments on the other side of the Rhine,
while Prince Maurice approached with his army from Wesel, and
entrenched himself on the opposite bank awaiting the arrival
of his bridge. But the Prince lost his opportunity to succour
these entrenchments, and on 3rd September Colonel Edmond
like his predecessor Murray received a wound in the head as
he was looking over the rampart, of which he died. ' Cetoit, 1
says Meteren, ' un vieux capitaine qui avoit long temps servy
les Etats. II estoit Colonel d'un Regiment Escossois, et homme
qui de bas lieu estoit par sa valeur parvenu a grand honneur. 1 1

After his death the besieged were disheartened, abandoned the
entrenchments the following night, and withdrew their troops
into the island and the city. Prince Maurice found himself
unable to relieve the place. It was surrendered, and on 12th
October the garrison marched out, bearing with them the body
of Colonel Edmond. 13o9461

The campaign of 1606 practically concluded the war, for
although the Twelve Years'" Truce was not signed till 9th
April 1609, there were no more military operations of magni-
tude, and none in which the share of the Scottish troops has
been recorded. The first chapter of the history of the Scots
Brigade closes dramatically with the bearing by the garrison
of Rheinberg through Spinola^ camp of the body of the
veteran colonel of the old regiment.



1 Sir John Ogle had written shortly before, ' I fear Sir Wm. Edmonds will
return in no tryumphe from that place, though for his particular, men doubt not
but he will deserve honourably. '



36



WAR OF INDEPENDENCE



[1573



I. PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS FROM THE
ARCHIVES OF HOLLAND

Extracts from the Archives of the States of Holland and
West Vriesland, illustrating the earlier history of the
Brigade, prior to the commencement of the Records of
the United Netherlands, after the separation of the
reconciled provinces.



"rom the
Archives of
5rand
'ensionnaries.



(1) From Accounts and Pay Lists showing personnel of officers

Statement op Totals of the 3d Account rendered by Franchoys
Valckesteyn deceased, formerly Treasurer of War of the Land of
Holland and that from the first of June anno 73 to the last of July
anno 74, in pounds, shillings and pence of 40 groots.

Paid Out
1st Payment to German soldiers, Walloons, Frenchmen, Englishmen. 1

Scots



l a


a


to Captain Baulfour






£8015








2 a


)>


to Captain Robinson






3837








3 a


S)


to Colonel Ormeston






50








4a


))


to Captain Pentlandt






6021


5


6


5 a


}}


to Alexander Cembell






3301








6 a


>>


to Captain Edmeston






2254








7 a


}>


to Captain Trell .






3427








8 a


)}


to Captain Melluyn






1925








9 a


>>


to Captain Oggelby






• 7746








10 a


>}


to Captain Adamsz






4394


15





5 a


Somma






. 40,970


6


6






Pay






20 a


>}


to Colonel Ormeston . . . 500








21 a


>>


to Johan Pentlandt, lieut.


200















1 Cap. Greve, Cap. Genffort, Thomas Morgan, Cap. Prys, Cap. Brandt,
Cap. Maurisz, Cap. Palmer, Cap. Lagan, Irish Captn.



1574-75] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS



37



Statement of Totals of the 4th and last Account rendered by the late
franchoys Van Valckesteyn, etc.

Paid Out
Scots

l a ,, to Captain Baulfour . . . £114

2 a ,, to Johan Pentlandt . . . 3973 6

3 a „ to Captain Oggelby . . . 3598 6 6

4 a ,, to Captain Cambel . . . 141 17

5 a „ to Captain Wm. Edmeston . . 29 16

6 a „ to the Compy of Robert Melluyn . 412

5 s Somma of payment made to Scottish Companies . 8269 5 6

Pay
15 a to Johan Edmeston . . . . 41 11

This account with the heirs of F. v. V. has been closed by Commis-
sioners for the State on Feb. 12th, 1577, new style.

Extract from the Account of Nicolas van der Laen of his Receivership-
General expiring on the last day of July anno 1574.

Paid Out
To Expenses (?) and to bring the soldiers from England and Scotland.
l a Somma ...... £8962 19

including for the soldiers of Cap. Trell. . . xij c xxix

Extract from the first general Account of Jacob Muys, Receiver-General
of Finances (Jan. 1st, 1575 — May 31st, 1577).



Paid Out






To Captains native, . . . Ditto foreign, . . .


Scottish and English.




547 lv Pentland


. £12,294 12





558 lvj Cambol ....


13,638 14


6


570 lvij Trel ....


16,469 4


6


under Beaufor l






576 lviij Ja. Kuyng or Smit


11,568 1





584 lix Wm. Emeston .


12,146 16





588 lx Thomas Robynsson


5,509 13





590 lxi Johan Edmeston in






Thomas Pluoist(?)


3,580





639 lxvj Paid to Discharged Captains


36,212 18





1st Grand Total of Payments to Captains


. 544,517 10






1 In Feb. 1577-78 a complaint was made to the Scots Privy Council by Capt.
William Yorstoun, who had served in March 1575 in Col. H. Balfour's regiment,
who maintained that Col. Balfour had received payment of his whole wages from
the Estates of Holland and Brabant.



38 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1574

Pay
663 viij Baulfour .... 6,421 8

Sundry Noblemen
686 xx Wm. Stuart . . . . 870

Sergeant-Majors
725 xliij John Edmeston . . . 680 11



(2) Extracts from the Manuscript Resolutions of the States
of Holland {Military Affairs)

1574

Aug. 28th. To offer de Noyelles the colonelcy of 5016 comp ies Walloons
and others at 100 crowns monthly. Accepted and promised to do good
service ; letters of appointment.

Sep. 2. The Scottish comp ies recently arrived in this country to be
stationed in the Crimpenerwaart under the colonelcy of Noyelles.

Sep. 4. Cap. Pentelan is ordered with his company to go to Delfshaven
in the place of the compy of Captain Morgan.

Ditto. Cap. J. Blaer, Scottish nobleman, on certain conditions allowed
to touch certain 100 guilders, now in the hands of Cap. Pentlin and
owing to Cap. Nielvinck.

Sep. 10. Treasurer-General to be advised on petition of J. Blaer, Scots.

Sep. 25. The Treasurer-Gen. of Finances J. Taffin to treat at Rotter-
dam with the Burgomasters about 15 or 1600 guilders required for the
departure of Cap. Ogelby and his compy of Scots, already discharged.

Oct. 5th. Mayor and Aldermen of Boskoop notified to receive 2
comp ies of Scots in garrison and to accommodate and lodge them without
hindrance.

Oct. 9th. Order on the Receiver-General in favor of Captain Oggelby,
Scotchman, for 1500 guilders, for what is owing to him and his compy, to
be paid from the excises at Rotterdam.

Oct. 21. Order for the payment and departure of the discharged Scottish
soldiers of Captain Oggelby.

Oct. 27. Capitaine Oggelbie Ecossois pour quelque contentement de
ses depens depuis qu'il est casse, s'adressera a ceux des Finances de S. E.
et le Thesaurier Tafin.

Nov. 1st. Order on C. P. Beaumont Mayor of Rotterdam for 18 Last
rye the proceeds to be used for the discharge of the soldiers of Cap.
Oggelby.

Nov. 26th. The 2 Scottish comp ies on board of vessel outside of Rotter-
dam and arrived there from Bommel, to be stationed the one at Dordrecht,
the other at Schoonhoven.



1576] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 39

1575

Aug. 20. Henceforth all captains appointed by H. Excy to take oath
before the Council (Landraat) and a proper record to be kept thereof.

Aug. 26. Captain Stuart allowed an order for 60 guilders, one month's
pay.

Ditto. Resolution on petition of Col. Balfour of the Scottish Regt,
whether entitled to the 2 chains of Robbeson.

Sep. 13. Receiver Muys to pay Col. Balfour 1500 glds. for his pay



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