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from June to August provided it can be done from the current quota ;
for what he is further in arrear for services with his soldiers at Bommel,
amounting to 2947 guilders, to provide conform to advice of His Exc y .

Sep. 22. The Scottish Cap. Smith to make affidavit of having again
provided for the vacancies (in his Comp^), and then for this time to let
him pass muster.

Oct. 7th. Col. Balfour to be paid by the Receiver-General 800 guilders
yearly for his services.

Oct. 18th. Col. Balfour to be paid 950 guilders for his voyage, on
reduction of what is due for former services, by Receiver Muys, from
the money of Cap. Mailsant.

1576

May 11th. The pay of the 3 enlisted Comp ies of Scots allowed on the
share (of Holland) in the general loan, to be repaid within a month by
the Union.

May 22d. Committee to treat with all captains, in the first place with
the Colonel of the Scots, to bring the pay from 32 days to 6 weeks or
48 days, with interest for the days thereby reduced, in proportion of the
pay and at the rate of 12%.

June 1st. The back pay due to the Scottish Col. Balfour to be pro-
vided for from the first loan with certain merchants of Dordrecht of 8 or
10 thousand guilders, under security of the revenue of the Mint at that
place.

June 19th. Mayors of towns to provide for the future payment, main-
tenance, and enlisting of soldiers at 42 days for a month, at the usual pay.

July 6th. The Committee to arrange with Col. Balfour.

July 10th. Cap. Cornille with his Comp^ to leave Woerden with the
Compy of Despontain, to be replaced by the Scottish Comp^ of Captain
Hector.

Aug. 7. Committee to inquire at Gouda, of Captain Michiel, into the
affair and fault of certain Scotchmen at Crimpen and Elshout, also (into
the complaints) against their Lieut, and officer ; the Committee to be
allowed an interpreter for the Scottish language.

Aug. 7th. The Committee to make proper provisions at Gouda for the
pay of the soldiers, and to have the Scottish and English Comp ies march
there.



40 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1577

Aug. 8th. On account of the understanding of certain Scots at Crimpen,
etc., with the enemy, resolved to divide them up.

1577

Feb. 22. All captains to pay their men 45 stivers each, half monthly,
while the engagement remains at 1100 guilders monthly for 100 men.

May 25th. Those of Finances to discharge first the Scottish and then
the English Comp ies in Holland, as soon as the necessary funds shall
be on hand.

June 9th. Cap. Cromwell (to be stationed) in the fort at Campen, and
Captain Nysbeth again at Dordrecht, and there to be discharged by
Commissioner Orteil.

1578
Aug. 27th. The pay of J. Cuningham of 150 guilders per month (to be
reduced) to 100.

1579

Sep. 14th. Cap. J. van Cuincham having accepted the office of L.t Gen.
(sic) of the Regt. of 10 Comp ies of Count Willem of Nassau at 200
guilders monthly from the nearer Union, his pay in Holland of 100
guilders monthly no longer to be paid.

Sep. 18th. To stop the pay of J. Cuningham because he draws from
the nearer Union 200 guilders as L.t Gen. of Count Willem of Nassau.

Sep. 24th. Those of Sevenbergen to deliver to the Secretary within
14 days the documents (required) for a settlement with Captain
Nysbeth, etc.

1581

Jan. 4th. Res. with reference to the back pay of Col. Stuart and
his Regt.

Jan. 19th. H. Exc y protesting against the order of the Committee
with reference to the payment of Col. Stuart in so far as the necessary
funds are not forthcoming, which endangers Brussel, Vilvoorden or
Malines, the towns give their opinion thereon.

April 26th. Col.'s Pension to the widow of Col. Balfour and his son
at 800 guilders yearly ; some raise difficulties.

April 29th. Final settlement for the services of the Scottish Captain
Mestertoin and the back pay of his soldiers.

June 7th. The Comp^ of J. Nysbeth to be sent from Geertruydenberg
to Amsterdam and employed against the enemy in Vriesland.

June 10th. Final settlement with the Scottish Captain Mestertoin for
his services and of his previous [claims].

July 4th. The States not being able to furnish for their share more
money than already granted, Regt. Stuart has as an exception to be pro-
vided for by the generality.

July 11th. 2000 guilders to Col. Stuart to take the field.






1586] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 41

Ditto. Cap. P.- Merlyn allowed a month's pay for 150 men and bounties,
provided it be deducted from Holland's quota to the generality as well as
the 2200 guilders for Col. Stuart.



1582

May 23. Committee to administer with Count Hohenlohe the oath to
the colonels and captains conform to the new ordinance of His Exc^.

June 22. To continue to insist to the Deputies of the States General
that Holland is not liable for back pay of Col. Stuart ; if hard pressed
to report.

1583

Sep. 19th. The Scots ordered by His Exc^* to The Clundert to be
allowed 3 stivers each, daily, for 14 days.

1585

Feb. 17th. Captain D. Charrete to allow Col. Koningham to stop at
Fort Noordam on his way to Geertruydenberg with his Comp^, where he
is ordered by Count Hoheulo.

April 24th. His Grace, the Council of State and Count Hohenlo
written to, regarding filling the vacant colonelcy of Smits.

Sep. 19th. The Captains, Lieutenants and Ensigns at Bergen to be
paid out of the 40,000 guilders, and to satisfy the Scottish Captains
before sending them to their garrisons.

Ditto. Councillor-Commissioners to Count Hohenlo to insist on prompt
payment to the Scottish Captains of one month's pay, that otherwise
payment shall be made on a certain draft.

Nov. 8. Agreement with the Deputies of Zeeland on the reduction and
the pay of the Comp^ of Scots under Balfour.

Nov. 15. All captains in gar. in Holland and Zeeland to discharge all
Scottish soldiers, on pain of not being paid.

1586

Jan. 14th. Cap. J. Balfour and others to have patience for what the
interest is behind, until the payment shall be provided for.

Nov. 26th. /Dec. 9th. The G<i Pensionary and the Committee to pro-

i ceed in every possible manner with the Council of State for the reduction

of the soldiery, as well of the English and Scottish as the Netherlander,

! horse and foot ; all superfluous salaries to be stopped, and likewise all that

1 are necessary to be reduced.

Nov. 10th. His Exc^' having ordered all soldiers garrisoned under his
i command in the towns of Holland to receive daily 3 stivers for their
I keep ; the Mayors of Schiedam to point this out to the Captain of the
: Scottish Comp>' there stationed, and that this must satisfy him.



42 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1587

1587

Feb. 13th. Distribution of the Scottish and English Comp ies and
transportation to their destination at the Country's expense, the magis-
trates to find accommodation for the Scottish Comp ies with maintenance
at 3 stivers per head.

Feb. 17th. Res. on the reception of the Scottish and English Comp ies ;
and how to act.

Feb. 18th. Res. on form of oath for Col s and soldiers.

Feb. 23d. For the Scottish Comp ies in gar. in the towns of Holland
by command of His Exc y , each to be maintained at 150 head, authority
to draw on the receiver Thomas at Dordrecht.

April 13th. J. Verbaas, 1 Scotchman, Ensign of Captain Trel, 50 glds
as recompence for the wound he received at Zutphen.

Aug. 4th. To also pay each of the Scottish Companies one month's
pay and to insist on the States General resolving on the cloth and the
settlement.

Aug. 19th. Commissioners to Count Hohenlo notified regarding the
pay of 5 squad s of horse and 7 comp ies of Scots for the expedition and
reception of German soldiery, etc.

Aug. 22d. The expenses incurred by Rotterdam, for the transporta-
tion of the Compy of Cap. R. Schotte to Haarlem, for supplies and
shipments, to be borne by the Country.



Probably Forbes, of which the local Aberdeenshire pronunciation is Forbes.



1579] PRELIMINARY EXTRACTS 43



II. STATES OF WAR

1579-1609
Extracts (without date)

Infanterie estant prtement en service pour servir en campaigne.
Item, le Regiment du Colonel Balfour 1 de 15 Enseignes a 150 testes
traites et armes comme dessus. 2



1 Colonel Hary or Henry Balfour served as a captain at Haarlem, and
colonel of the Scottish Companies from 1574 to his death in 1580. For his
services, see pp. 11 -21. Killed at Wassenaar, November 1580. Married
Cristian Cant, sister of Captain David Cant. (See P. C. Reg. ii. p. 676.)
Repeated recommendations in favour of his heirs, especially on July 5th, 1594,
and May 1603, and see representations and claims by his son, Sir William Bal-
four, in 1605. His will is recorded in the Edinburgh Commissariat Records on
3rd June 1587, with an ' eik ' on 5th August 1590, and a statement of ' omitted '
on 7th January 1593-4.

Sir Henry Balfour's widow, Cristian Cant, subsequently married Captain John
Balfour (Acta et Decreta, February 1584-85) of Wester Pitcorthie, who was
serving in Flanders in 1586, and had died before 17th November 1592. On
30th January 1598-9, a discharge was granted to 'Cristiane Cant, relict of
Capt. John Balfour, and Peter, Bishop of Dunkeld, now her spouse.'

It would seem that there were two Henry Balfours at an early period in the
service of the Low Countries. The colonel killed at Wassenaar was a younger
son of Bartholomew Balfour of Mackareston in Menteith, who was killed at
Pinkie in 1547, full brother of James Balfour of Boghall and Easter Tarrie, and
half-brother of Colonel Bartholomew Balfour, who subsequently commanded
the regiment. He had two sons, Sir William Balfour and Henry (described
in the Sinclair MS. as 'colonel,' but who does not appear to have attained
higher rank than that of captain or lieutenant), who seems to have died between
1605 and 1613.

Among the mss. of B. R. T. Balfour of Townley Hall, Drogheda, the
representative of Sir William Balfour, are the following documents : —

June 18, 1561 (sic) Dillenburg Castle.— Commission from William, Prince of
Orange, to Sir Henry de Balfour, a Scottish gentleman of prudence and experience
in warfare, to arm and equip a ship and to levy soldiers for the same, to go to
the coasts of Spain and Portugal, in order to attack the Prince's enemies and do
damage to their persons and goods. He is expressly forbidden to do damage to
any subjects of the Queen of England, the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, or
any other potentate well disposed to the Christian religion or the Prince.

June 15, 1574. — Commission from William, Prince of Orange, to Sir Henry
Balfour to be colonel and superintendent of all the companies of Scots foot-
guards in his service.

Nov. 5, 1575. — Order by the nobles and delegates of the cities of Holland for
the issue of a yearly pension of 800 florins of 20 stivers apiece to Henry Balfour



44 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1579

1500 Harqueboustiers ) n„s 500
750Picques . .) '
Le traictement du Colonnel Balfour, £1200.



for so long as he shall live and show himself friendly to the people of Holland,
in consideration of his services against the Spaniards.

Dec. 22. 1576. — Brussels, Commission from the King to Henry de Beaufort to
be colonel of 16 ensigns of Scots foot soldiers, at a yearly salary of 500 livres,
with suitable salaries specified for the inferior officers. — Hist. MS. 10 Rep. App.
vi. p. 255.

According to Douglas's Peerage, Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich (second son
of Andrew Balfour of Mountquhanny), who married the heiress of Burleigh, and
was the father of Sir Michael Balfour, created in 1606 Lord Balfour of Burleigh,
and Sir James, created in 1619 Lord Balfour of Clonawley, had a fourth son,
Henry, ' a general in Holland.' He is also said to have had a sixth son, David,
a captain in his brother's regiment, who was drowned in crossing to Holland ;
and it will be seen (p. 203) that there was also another son, John, who (men-
tioned as Captain John in the Sinclair MS.) in 1606 offered to raise a company,
and had apparently previously served.

The following pedigree (showing 'descent of the Balfours in Holland'), taken
from the Sinclair mss. at Crawford Priory, was communicated to the editor by Mr.
C. B. Balfour of Newton Don : — 1. Sir Henry Balfour, Knight, brother of Sir
Michael Balfour, first Lord Balfour of Burleigh, emigrated to Holland and
married Anne, daughter of Sir Paul Bax. He had issue. 2. Lieutenant-Colonel
James Balfour ; married Anne, daughter of Philip Stewart, and had issue.
3. Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Balfour ; married Elizabeth Fleming, and had
issue. 4. Lieutenant-Colonel John Balfour ; married Vincentia Moggo, and had
issue. 5. Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Balfour ; married Adriana Leydekken,
and had issue. 6. Captain John Adrian Balfour.

It would, however, rather seem that the Henry, brother of Lord Balfour of
Burleigh, has been confounded with the other Henry, who was really a colonel
if not a general ; and that he and his own brother David have also been trans-
posed, both by Douglas and in the Sinclair MS. According to an Irish MS. by
Bishop Reeves (communicated by Mr. B. T. Balfour of Townley Hall), it was
David and not Henry who married Anne Bax, while Henry married Maria de
Leon. The latter alliance appears to be confirmed by the Dutch Service Lists,
and the Henry who was the husband of Maria de Leon or van Leeuwen died
as a captain.

It is further confirmed by the following note from Holland, made by Baron
./Eneas Mackay, and communicated by Lord Reay : —

1 Anna Bax mar., 30 Oct. 1607, Captain David Balfour, and had four children.
I. daughter; 2. Paulus [Patrick?] Balfour, born II July 1610; 3. James
Michael Balfour, born 22 Nov. 161 1 ; 4. Marcelis Robert Balfour, born 6 March
1613. James Michael Balfour, captain at Gertruydenberg, mar., in Feb. 1637 at
de Klundert, Agatha [sic'] Stuart. They had children, David Balfour, born 10
April 1639 ; Jacoba Balfour, born 2 Feb. 1644, mar. Johan van Stapele.

' The brother of Anna Bax, Marcelis Bax, had a daughter who in 1632 married
Cornells van Stapele. She had two children, Johan, who married Jacoba Balfour,
and Anne Maria van Stapele (b. 1635), who married Patrick Balfour, and had
a son, Cornelis Balfour, born 24th Sept. 1669.'



1579] STATES OF WAR 45

Le Regiment de Stuart 1 de 10 Enseignes traites et armes comme
dessus.



Sic { "J 00 Harqueboustiersl £l7 000#
l 750 Picques . . J



750 Picques
Le traictement du Colonnel, £996.

Etat et recueil a quoy montent les Regiments et compaignies In-
fanterie estans en service comme presentem ils sont payes.

Le Regiment de 15 enseignes Ecossois soubz le Col. Balfour montent
y companys le traictem Colonnel a la somme de £29,629.

Les Regimens et compaignies ainsy remis et redresses a 150 testes
chaque compaignie comme cy devant est diet il semble a monseigneur
Le prince d'Oranges que se pourront repartir en deux trouppes l'une en
Geldres et l'autre en flandres puis que l'ennemy a la teste vers Geldres
ou Frize.

Pour Geldres, etc.
Item, le Regiment de Stuwart :
1000 Harqueboustiers.
500 Picques ... 10 Enseignes.
L'Infanterie qui servira en campagne pour Brabant ou Flandres.
Le Regiment de Balfour a 150 testes — 15 Enseignes.
1500 Harqueboustiers.
750 Picques.
Du nouveau pied eoiiceu par Monseig 1 " le Prince d'Oranges pour dresser



In a Brussels paper of 28th July 1808, ' Lieutenant-Colonel Balfour de Burleigh
is named Commandant of the Troops of the King of the Netherlands in the West
Indies.' The name Balfour of Burleigh has also been observed on a door-plate
in Utrecht in the present generation.

The difficulty in tracing the various officers of the name who served one or two
centuries ago must, however, be great, as Sir Robert Sibbald states that in his
time, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were no less than thirteen
landed proprietors of the name in Fife. (Note communicated by Major Balfour
of Fernie. ) The Balfours of Tarrie and Mackareston in Menteith were of the same
stock as the Lords Balfour of Burleigh, being descended from a younger son of
Sir Michael Balfour of Burleigh (1450), who married Elizabeth Douglas, and the
direct line of whose eldest son ended in the heiress of Burleigh who married Sir
James Balfour of Pittendreich (Sinclair MS.).

It seems therefore clear that the original Colonel Balfour was Sir Henry
Balfour of the Mackareston family, who was killed in 1580, being then 'General
of the Scots,' and that at a later period there were two Henrys in the Dutch
service, neither of whom appears to have attained a higher rank than captain,
one being that Colonel Henry's son, who died before 1613, and the other being
Henry, brother of the first Lord Balfour of Burleigh, who died in 1615 (see p. 61).

2 This refers to what is mentioned in a previous section with reference to the
English Regiment of Noritz :

' dont les 100 y compruys les officiers seront harqueboustiers et les restans
50 picques a raison de 1700 livres pour chaque compaignie.'

1 Sir William Stuart of Houston. See p. 115.



46 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1579

les compaignies d'Infanterie de 150 testes dont les cent y compruys les

officiers seront Harqueboustiers et les restans 50 armes portent picques

revenans pour ung mois de gages a 1700 florins.

Le cap ne par mois . £90 Quatre corporautz . £64

Lieutenant . . 45 Fourier ou clercq . . 12

Enseigne . . .40 Deux tambourins . . 24

Deux sergeants . 48 Ung chirurgin . .12

S a £335
Aussy reste encore 137 testes desquels il faut oster 50 corseletz reste

87 harqueboustiers lesquels seront traictez come sensuyt.

Les 45 a £8 . £360 10 a £20 . . £100



12



£360


10


a


£20


108


8


a


11


12 Mousquetiers






£72


2


a


£15


28


2


a


16



£656



6 a £12 . £72 2 a £15 . . £30

2 a 14 .28 2 a 16 . . 32

S a £162
Les 50 corseletz seront traictez come sensuyt :

14 a £9 . £126 2 a £14 . . £28

13 a 10 .130 2 a 16 . 32

9 a 11 .99 2 a 18 . 36
8 a 12 . 96

S a £547
Soma totale a quoy monte le mois degages pour 150 testes traictez et

armez come dessus, ...... £1700

Regiment of Colonel William Stewart.

[This is from Collection : Council of State.
Portfolio : ' Hoplieden ' (captains) 3.
Bundle : General settlement with Col. Morgan, and with other

captains, 1572-1581.
23 Folios : General settlement with Col. Stewart, and divers

documents pertaining thereto.]

Life Company 1 [i.e. the Colonel's] March 1st, 1579— April 18th, 1581.

Capt Dallachy ... „ „

Mangrief ... „ „

Penthone [Renton ?] ,, ,,






1 From the settlement which Colonel Stewart finally made in 1593, it would
seem that at 1st March 1579 there were five companies in his regiment, namely,
his own, James Stuart's, Andrew Stewart's, Thomson's, and Anstruther's.
(See also pp. 16, 19, and 20.) In December 1586 it was resolved that the Scots
should be divided into two regiments, one of ten companies under Balfour, and
one of four companies under Patton. In the following year Patton betrayed
Gueldres, and went over to the Prince of Parma, and in 1588 he appears
as colonel of a regiment of 'Scots mixed with Walloons.' (See note, p. 26,






1579]



STATES OF WAR



47



Trottar
Thomson
Amstratter, 1
Gordon, 2
Blayr

Haultain, now Patton,
The Col.'s staff.



1579



Exhibe par Monseig 1 " le Prince d Oranges en l'assamblee des Etats
gnaulx le 12 de decembre.

I/Estat quil semble a son Ex e pouvoir estre suyoy pour la Levee de
l'armee quil juge estre necessaire a estre mise sus pour l'annee qui vient.



also p. 96.) In 1587 Balfour's regiment consisted of twelve companies, includ-
ing those of Dallachy and Blair. Probably these were two of Patton's regiment,
which he did not take over, and which were joined with the ten under Balfour's
command. William Renton or Penton [Panton] appears in the general list of
1586, and his son Andrew, as drawing a pension, in 1595. Captain William
Moncrieff was killed on the Kowenstyn Dyke before Antwerp in 1585. See
petition of his widow, Bentgen Jansz, November 1618.

1 Anstruther. Probably one of the family of Anstruther of that Ilk. In 1578
six of them were serving at the same time in the Scots Guards in France. ' Peter
Anstruther, a captain in Flanders, who died in 1589,' is mentioned by Wood in
The East Nenk of Fife as probably a younger son of John Anstruther of
Anstruther, who married c. 1527 as his second wife Elizabeth Spens of Wormiston.
(Note communicated by Sir Ralph Anstruther of Balcaskie. )

2 'The year of God 1585 Captain Alexander Gordon (brother to William
Gordon of Gight) was Governor of the fort of Tour-Louis besyde Antwerp
when it was rendered to the Duke of Parma : which fort was manfullie defended
by Captane Alexander Gordon a long time against the Spaniards with the loss
of much of his owne blood and the lyves of many of his soldiers. Then was he
maid Governor of Bergen-op-Zoom, by Prince Maurice his excellence, and thair-
after maid colonell of a Scottish regiment. In end coming home to visit his
friends in Scotland he was slain in Menteith by some evil willers, who had
secreitlie layed an ambush for him. He married Jacobee Pedralis of Aungadere,
ane Italian gentlewoman by whom he had two sons, George Gordon and
Captain John Gordon. This captain John Gordon was slain in Holland, and
had a son called Alexander Gordon.' — Sir Robert Gordon's History of the
Earldom of Sutherland.

A Captain Gordon was killed before Antwerp on 13th August 1584. The
pedigree of the Gordons of Gight, given in the Thanage of Fermarty7t i states
1 that William Gordon, who succeeded to Gight on the slaughter of his kins-
man • on the shore of Dundee by the Master of Forbes and the Goodman of
J Towie,' had three brothers — (2) Captain John Gordon, who was killed at
1 Donibristle in the celebrated attack made on that house by the Earl of Huntly
I when the Earl of Moray was killed ; (3) Alexander, killed in the wars of
j Holland ; (4) George, killed by the Master of Menteith.



48 WAR OF INDEPENDENCE [1579

La quelle debvrait estre prest pour le printemps tant des gens de cheval
que de pied pionniers artillerie et esquippage.

Gens de cheval, etc.

Gens de pied pour la campaigne.

Ecossois. 2000 harquebousiers mil corpselets.



Exhibe p. le tresorier de guerre, van Beke, le 22 de Decembre.

Estat en brief a quoy revient ung mois de gaiges soldees et traictemet
des gens de guerre tant de cheval que de pied que Ton entendt pre-
sentemet entretenir pour le service de messieurs Les Estats ensamble les
traictements des chefs du camp avec les trains de vivres et de l'artillerie
coe il sens*.

Gens de piedt pour la Camp ne Asscavoir.

A deux milles Harquebousiers et mil corpselets Ecossois ils se pourront
mestre en 20 comp ies soubs 2 Regiments pour le d. mois aux pris chacune
comp ie et le traictement couronnel revenans ensemble a la somme
de £42480



1586

Rendered Nov. 28th.

Cavalier ie
Captain Wisschard. 1

Hollande Infanterie



Col. Balfour 2 £1800



1 Alexander Wishart received commission in March 1586 as cavalry captain
in recognition of his 'good service at the dyke of Kowenstyn.' Obtained on
7th June 1592 an Act discharging legal proceedings in Scotland at the instance
of the States or their Confederates against him and his spouse, until they are
paid the debts due to them by the inhabitants of Bommel in Guelderland
{P. C. Reg. ). On March 14th, 1616, a quarrel having broken out at Leith between
Sir William Balfour and Captain Alexander Wishart, Sir William offering a
stroke of a rod to Captain Wishart, and he, after his sword was broken, having
shot a pistolet at the said Sir William, they were warded in the Castle of Edin-
burgh, and formally reconciled by the Privy Council, to prevent 'distraction
and factions among the Scottis captains and commanderis in the Low Countries.'
See frequent references to him and his company, infra.

- Bartholomew Balfour, Colonel of the old Scots Regiment from 1585 or 1586
to 1594. Served at Antwerp and passim to 1594 (supra, pp. 24-28). He
was wounded near Groningen, and left the Dutch service in 1 594, on account of
differences with the Estates, receiving an honourable pension (pp.20, 56, and 114).
On 6th January 1603 an action was raised by Sir Michael Balfour of Burley and
Colonel Bartill Balfour, his factor. Sir Michael had imported arms from France
for the defence of the country, was charged for duty, and brought a suspension,
which was sustained ( P. C. Reg. ). Commission for his ' compagnie colonelle '






1586] STATES OF WAR 49



Gordon l


£1120


Cant 2 .....


1530


Waddel 3 reduit et estime' a 200 testes


2020


Blaire 4 .....


1720



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