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\



UNIVERSITY
OF VIRGINIA

CHARLOTTESVILLE

LIBRARIES




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THE STANDARD EDITION OF

THE COMPLETE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKS

OF SIGMUND FREUD


VOLUME IV



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r ■»• - -^T— -™



1



DIE



TRAUMDEUTUNQ



VON



D« SIGM. FREUD.



^FLECTERE SI NEQUEO SUPEROS, ACHERONTA MOVEBO.x



LEIPZIG UND WIEN.

FRANZ DEUTICKE.

1900.



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THE STANDARD EDITION
OF THE COMPLETE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKS OF

SIGMUND FREUD

Translated Jhm tht German under Ae General Editorship of
JAMES STRACHEY

Jn Colhdforation vaith

ANNA FREUD

Assisted ly

ALIX STRACHEY and ALAN TYSON



VOLUME IV
(1900)

The Interpretadcm of Dreams

(first part)



LONDON

THE HOGARTH PRESS
AND THE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS



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PUBLISHED BY

THE HOGARTH PRESS LIMITED

BY ARRANGEMENT WITH GEORGE ALLEN AND UNWIN LTD.

LONDON

«

CLARKE, IRWIN AND CO. LTD.
TORONTO



This Edition first Published in

^953

Reprinted with Corrections

igs8

Reprinted ig62y igSi^ 19/68 and iffji



ISBN o 7012 0067 7
f sych. Ub,

eF

r/3

.Fca/C

All rights reserved. No part of this publica-
tion may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form, or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-
copying, recording or otherwise, without the
prior permission of The Hogarth Press Ltd.



TRANSLATION AND EDITORIAL MATTER

© THE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS

AND MRS AUX 8TRAGHEY 1 953

PRINTED AND BOUND IN GREAT BRfTAIN
BY BUTLER AND TANNER LTD, FROME



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CONTENTS

VOLUME FOUR

THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS (1900)

Editor's Introduction pagiid

Preface to the First Edition zxiii

Preface to the Second Edition xxv

Preface to the Third Edition xxvii

Preface to the Fourth Edition xxviii

Preface to the Fifth Edition zxiz

Preface to the Sixth Edition xxix

Preface to the Eighth Edition xxxi
Preface to the Third (Revised) English Edition xxxii

Cht^Ur

I THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE
DEALING WITH THE PROBLEMS
OF DREAMS 1

(a) The Relation of Dreams to Waking Life 7

(b) The Material of Dreams — ^Memory in Dreams 11

(c) The Stimuli and Sources of Dreams 22

(1) External Sensory Stimuli 23

(2) Internal (Subjective) Sensory Excitations 30

(3) Internal Organic Somatic Stimuli 33

(4) Piychical Sources of Stimulation 39

(d) Why Dreams are Forgotten after Waking 43

(b) The Distinguishing Piychological Characteristics

of Dreams 48

(f) The Moral Sense in Dreams 66

(o) Theories of Dreaming and its Function 75

(h) The Relations between Dreams and Mental

Diseases 88

Postscript, 1909 93

Postscript, 1914 95



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vi CONTENTS

Chapter
II THE METHOD OF INTERPRETING
DREAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF A
SPECIMEN DREAM page 96

III A DREAM IS THE FULFILMENT OF

A WISH 122

IV DISTORTION IN DREAMS 134

V THE MATERIAL AND SOURCES OF

DREAMS 163

(a) Recent and Indifferent Material in Dreams 165

(b) Infantile Material as a Sotirce of Dreams 189

(c) The Somatic Sources of Dreams 220

(d) Typical Dreams 241

(a) Embarrassing Dreams of Being Naked 242
{fi) Dreams of the Death of Persons of whom

the Dreamer is Fond 248

M Other Typical Dreams 271

(o) Examination Dreams 273



VI THE DREAM-WORK 277

(a) The Work of Condensation 279

(b) The Work of Displacement 305

(c) The Means of Representation in Dreams 310

VOLUME FIVE

(d) Considerations of Representability 339

(e) Representation by Symbols in Dreams — Some
Further Typical Dreams 350

(f) Some Examples — Calculations and Speeches in
Dreams 405

(o) Absurd Dreams — Intellectual Activity in Dreams 426

(h) Affects in Dreams 460

(i) Secondary Revision 488

VII THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE DREAM-

PROCESSES 509

(a) The Forgetting of Dreams 512

(b) Regression 533



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(X>NTENTS vii

(c) Wish-Fulfilment pa^ 550

(d) Arousal by Dreams — ^The Function of Dreams —
Anxiety-Dreams 573

(e) The Primary and Secondary Processes — ^Repres-
sion 588

(f) The Unconscious and Consciousness — ^Reality 610

APPENDIX A A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled 623

APPENDIX B List of Writings by Freud dealing

predominantly or largely with Dreams 626

ON DREAMS (1901)

EDITOR'S NOTE 631

ON DREAMS 633



BIBLIOGRAPHY (a) List of Works Quoted and

Author Index 687

(b) list of Works on Dreams

Published before 1900 708

ADDITIONAL NOTES 714

INDEX OF DREAMS (a) Freud's Own Dreams 715

(b) Other People's Dreams 717

GENERAL INDEX 723



The Frontispiece is a reproduction of the title-page of the
First Edition



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THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS

(1900)

Flectcrc si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo



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EDITOR^S INTRODUCTION

(1)

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL

(a) GERAiAN Editions:

1900 Die Traumdeutung. Leipzig and Vienna: Franz Deuticke«
Pp. iv + 375.

and



1909

1911

1914

1919

1921
1922
1925



1930



1942



Same publishers.
Same publishers.
Same publishers.
Same publishers.



2nd ed. (Enlarged and revised.)
Pp. vi + 389.

3rd ed. (Enlarged and revised.)
Pp. X + 418.

4th ed. (Enlarged and revised.)
Pp. X + 498.

5th ed. (Enlarged and revised.)
Pp. ix + 474.

6th ed.1 (Reprints of 5th ed. except for new preface

7th ed.J and revised bibliography.) Pp. vii + 478.

Vol. II and part of Vol. Ill of Freud, GesammelU
Schriftm. (Eidarged and revised.) Leipzig, Vienna and
Zurich: Intemationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag.
Pp. 543 and 1-185.

8th ed. (Enlarged and revised.) Leipzig and Vienna:
Franz Deuticke. Pp. x + 435.

In Double Volume II & III of Freud, Gesammelte
Werke. (Reprint of 8th ed.) London: Imago Publish-
ing Go. Pp. XV and 1-642.



{b) Enoush Translations:

1913 By A. A. Brill. London: George Allen & Go.; New York:
The Macmillan Go. Pp. xiii + 510.

2nd ed. London: George Allen & Unwin; New York:
The Macmillan Go. Pp. xiii + 510.

3rd ed. (Gompletely revised and largely rewritten by
various unspecified hands.) London: George Allen
& Unwin; New York: The Macmillan Go. Pp. 600.



1915



1932



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xn EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION

1938 In The Bask Writings of Sigmund Freud. Pp. 181-549.
(Reprint of 3rd ed. with almost the whole of Chapter I
omitted.) New York: Random House.

The present, entirely new, translation is by James Strachey .

Actually Die Traumdeutung made its first appearance in 1899.
The &ct is mentioned by Freud at the beginning of his second
paper on Josef Popper (1932^): *It was in the winter of 1899
that my book on die interpretation of dreams (though its title-
page was post-dated into Uie new century) at length lay before
me.' But we now have more precise information from his
correspondence with Wilhelm Fliess (Freud, 1950a). In his letter
of November 5, 1899 (Letter 123), Freud annoxmces that
Vcsterday at length the book appeared'; and firom the preced-
ing letter it seems that Freud himself had received two advance
copies about a fortnight earlier, one of which he had sent to
Fliess as a birthday present.

The Interpretation of Dreams was one of the two books — the
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905i) was the other
— which Freud kept more or less systematically *up to date' as
they passed through their series of editions. After the third
edition of the present work, the changes in it were not indicated
in any way; and this produced a somewhat confusing effect on
the reader of the later editions, since the new material some-
times implied a knowledge of modifications in Freud's views
dating firom times long subsequent to the period at which the
book was originally written. In an attempt to get over this
difficulty, the editors of the first collected edition of Freud's
works (the Gesammelte Schrifien) reprinted the first edition of
The Interpretation of Dreams in its original form in one volume,
and put into a second volume all the material that had been
added subsequendy. Unfortunately, however, the work was not
carried out very systematically, for the additions themselves
were not dated and thereby much of the advantage of the plan
was sacrificed. In subsequent editions a return was made to the
old, imdifferentiated single volume.

By far the greater number of additions dealing with any
single subject are those concerned with symbolism in dreams.
Freud explains in his ^History of the Psycho-Analytic Move-
ment' {I9l4d), as well as at the beginning of Chapter VI^



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EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xiii

Section E (p. 350), of the present work, that he arrived late
at a full realization of the importance of this side of the subject.
In the first edition, the discxission of symbolism was limited to
a few pages and a single specimen dream (giving instances of
sexual symbolism) at the end of the Section on 'Considera-
tions of Representabilit/ in Chapter VI. In the second edition
(1909), nothing was added to this Section; but, on the other
hand, several pages on sexual symbolism were inserted at the
end of the Section on Typical Dreams* in Chapter V. These
were very considerably expanded in the third edition (1911),
while the original passage in Chapter VI still remained un-
altered. A reorganization was evidently overdue, and in the
fourth edition (1914) an entirely new Section on Symbolism
was introduced into Chapter VI, and into this the material on
the subject that had accumulated in Chapter V was now trans-
planted, together with a quantity of entirely fi*esh material. No
changes in the structure of the book were made in later editions,
though much further matter was added. After the two-volume
version (1925) — ^that is, in the eighth edition (1930) — some
passages in the Section on Typical Dreams' in Chapter V, which
had been altogether dropped at an earlier stage, were re-inserted.

In the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh editions (that is fix>m
1914 to 1922), two essays by Otto Rank (on 'Dreams and
Creative Writing' and *Dreams and Myths') were printed at
the end of Chapter VI, but were subsequently omitted.

There remain the bibliographies. The first edition contained
a list of some eighty books, to the great majority of which Freud
refers in the text. This was left unchanged in the second and
third editions, but in the third a second list was added, of some
finty books written since 1900. Thereafter both lists began to
increase rapidly, till in the eighth edition the first list contained
some 260 works and the second over 200. At this stage only a
mincnty of the titles in the first (pre-1900) list were of books
actua y mentioned in Freud's text; while, on the other hand, the
secona (po8t-1900) list (as may be gathered firom Freud's own
remarks in his various prefaces) could not really keep pace with
the production of analytic or quasi-analytic writings on the
subject. Furthermore, quite a number of works quoted by Freud
in tibe text were not to be found in nlher list. It seems probable
that, firom the third edition onwards, Otto Rank became chiefly
responsible for these bibliographies. (See also p. 714.)



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m EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION

(2)
HISTORICAL

The publication of Freud's correspondence with Fliess enables
us to follow the composition of The Interpretation of Dreams in
some detail. In his ^History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement'
(1914(/), Freud wrote, looking back upon his leisurely rate of
publication in earlier days: *TTie Interpretation of Dreams, for
instance, was finished in all essentials at the beginning of 1896
but was not written down until the summer of 1899/ Again, in
the introductory remarks to his paper on the psychological con-
sequences of tile anatomical distinction between the sexes
(1925/), he wrote: *My Interpretation of Dreams and my "Frag-
ment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria" [1905^] . . . were
suppressed by me — ^if not for the nine years enjoined by Horace
— at all events for four or five years before I allowed them to
be published.' We are now in a position to amplify and in
certain respects to correct these later recollections, on the basis
of the author's contemporary evidence.

Apart firom a number of scattered references to the subject —
which, in his correspondence, go back at least as early as 1882 —
the first important published evidence of Freud's interest in
dreams occurs in the course of a long footnote to the first of his
case histories (that of Frau Emmy von N., under the date of
May 15) in Breuer and Freud's Studies on Hysteria (1895). He is
discussing the fact that neurotic patients seem to be under a
necessity to bring into association with one another any ideas
that happen to be simultaneously present in their minds. He
goes on: *Not long ago I was able to convince myself of the
strength of this compulsion towards association fix>m some
observations made in a different field. For several weeks I
found m)aself obliged to exchange my usual bed for a harder
one, in which I had more numerous or more vivid dreams, or
in which, it may be, I was unable to reach the normal depth
of sleep. In tiie fiist quarter of an hour after waking I remem-
bered all the dreams I had had during the night, and I took the
trouble to write them down and try to solve them. I succeeded
in tracing all these dreams back to two Actors: (1) to the
necessity for working out any ideas which I had only dwelt
upon cursorily during the day — ^which had only been touched



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EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xv

upon and not finally dealt with; and (2) to the compulsion to
link together any ideas that might be present in the same state
of consciousness. The senseless and contradictory character of
the dreams could be traced back to the uncontrolled ascendancy
of this latter factor/

This passage cannot imfortunately be exactly dated. The
preface to the volume was written in April 1895. A letter of
June 22, 1894 (Letter 19), seems to imply that the case histories
were already finished then, and this was quite certainly so by
March 4, 1895. Freud's letter of that date (Letter 22) is of
particular interest, as giving the first hint of the theory of
wish-fulfilment: in the course of it he quotes the story of the
medical student's 'dream of convenience' which is included on
p. 125 of the present volume. It was not, however, until July 24,
1895, that the analysis of his own dream of Irma's injection —
the specimen dream of Chapter II-— established that theory
definitely in Freud's mind. (See Letter 137 of June 12, 1900.)
In September of this same year (1895) Freud wrote the first
part of his 'Project for a Scientific Psychology* (published as an
Appendix to the Fliess correspondence) and Sections 19, 20 and
21 of this ^Project' constitute a first approach to a coherent
theory of dreams. It already includes many important elements
which re-appear in the present work, such as (1) the wish-
fulfilling character of dreams, (2) their hallucinatory character,
(3) the regressive fimctioning of the mind in hallucinatiom and
dreams (this had already been indicated by Breuer in his
theoretical contribution to Studies on Hysteria)^ (4) the fact that
the state of sleep involves motor paralysis, (5) the nature of the
mechanism of displacement in dreams and (6) the similarity
between the mechanisms of dreams and of neurotic symptoms.
More than all this, however, the ^Project' gives a clear indica-
tion of what is probably the most momentous of the discoveries
given to the world in TTie IrUerfiretation of Dreams — ^the distinction
between the two different modes of mental fimcdomng, the
Primary and Secondary Processes.

This, however, is far firom exhausting the importance of the
'Project' and of the letters to Fliess written in connection with
it towards the end of 1895. It is no exaggeration to say that
much of the seventh chapter of TTie IrUerfiretation of Dreams, and,
indeed, of Freud's later 'metapsychological' studies, has only
become fully intelligible since the publication of the 'Project*,



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xvi EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION

Students of Freud's theoretical writings have been aware that
even in his profoundest psychological speculations little or no
discussion is to be found upon some of the most fundamental of
the concepts of which he makes use: such concepts, for instance,
as *mental energy', *sums of excitation', *cathexis', ^quantity',
•quality', •intensity', and so on. Almost the only explicit ap-
proach to a discussion of these concepts among Freud's pub-
lished works is the penultimate sentence of his first paper on
the *Neuro-Psychoscs of Defence' (1894^), in which he lays
down a hypothesis that •in mental functions something is to be
distinguished — a quota of affect or sum of excitation — ^which
possesses all the characteristics of a quantity (though we have
no means of measiuing it), which is capable of increase,
diminution, displacement and discharge, and which is spread
over the memory-traces of ideas somewhat as an electric charge
is spread over the surface of a body'. The paucity of explanation
of such basic notions in Freud's later writings suggests that he
was taking it for granted that they were as much a matter of
course to his readers as they were to himself; and we owe it as
a debt of gratitude to the posthumously published correspond-
ence with Fliess that it throws so much light precisely upon
these obscurities.

It is, of coiu"se, impossible to enter here into any detailed
discussion of the subject, and the reader must be referred to
the volume itself (Freud, 1950fl) and to Dr. Kris's illuminating
introduction to it.^ The crux of the position can, however, be
indicated quite simply. The essence of Freud's Troject' lay in
the notion of combining into a single whole two theories of
different origin. The first of these was derived ultimately from
the physiological school of Helmholtz, of which Freud's teacher,
the physiologist Briicke, was a principal member. According to
this theory, neurophysiology, and consequently psychology, was
governed by purely chemico-physical laws. Such, for instance,
was the Uaw of constancy*, frequendy mentioned both by Freud
and Breuer and expressed in these terms in 1892 (in a posthu-
mously published draft, Breuer and Freud, 1940): 'The nervous
system endeavours to keep constant something in its functional
condition that may be described as the ''sum of excitation".'
The greater part of the theoretical contribution made by Breuer

^Bemfdd's paper on Tread's Earliest Theories' (1944) is also of
great interest in this connection.



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EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xvii

(another disciple of the Helmholtz school) to the Studies an
Hystiria was an elaborate construction along these lines. The
second main theory called into play by Freud in his Troject'
was the anatomical doctrine of the neurone, which was becom-
ing accepted by neuro-anatomists at the end of the eighties.
(The term *neurone* was only introduced, by Waldeyer, in
1891.) This doctrine laid it down that the functional unit of
the central nervous sfystem was a distinct cell, having no
direct anatomical continuity with adjacent cells. The opening
sentences of the 'Project' show clearly how its basis lay in a
combination of these two theories. Its aim, wrote Freud, was
*to represent psychical processes as quantitatively determined
states of specifiable material particles'. He went on to postulate
that these 'material particles' were the neurones and that what
distinguished their being in a state of activity fi'om their being
in a state of rest was a 'quantity' which was 'subject to the
general laws of motion'. Thus a neurone might either be
'empty* or 'filled with a certain quantity*, that is 'cathectcd'.^
'rjervous excitation* was to be interpreted as a 'quantity* flow-
i]% through a system of neurones, and such a current might
eithdr be resisted or fiicilitated according to the state of the
'contact-barriers* between the neurones. (It was only later, in
1897, that the term 'synapse* was introduced by Foster and
Sherrington.) The fimcdoning of the whole nervous system was
sutgect to a general principle of 'inertia*, according to which
neurones always tend to get rid of any 'quantity* with which
they may be filled — a principle correlative with the principle
of 'constancy*. Using these and similar concepts as his bricks,
Freud constructed a highly complicated and extraordinarily
ingenious working model of the mind as a piece of neurological
machinery.

A principal part, was played in Freud*s scheme by a hypo-
thetical division of the neurones into three classes or systems,
differentiated according to their modes of fimctioning. Of these
the first two were concerned respectively with external stimuli
and inUmal excitations. Both of these operated on a purely
quanHtative basis; that is to say, their actions were wholly deter-

^ It must be emphasized that these speculations of Freud's date from
a period many years before any systematic investigations had been made
into the nature of nervous impulses and the conditions governing their
transmission.

s.F. IV — n



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xviii EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION

mined by the magnitude of the nervous excitations impinging
on them. The third system was correlated with the qualitative
differences which distinguish conscious sensations and feelings.
This division of the neurones into three systems was the basis