Sir William Smith William Latham Bevan.

The student's manual of ancient geography online

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The Student's Manual of
Ancient Geography

William Latham Bevan, William Smith


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THE STUDENTS HUME ;^ A History of England prom the
iHVASios OF JuLiDs CiSSAB.' Bascd on the History of David Hume,
correcting his hiaccuracles, iind continued to the present time. AOth
Thousand, Woodcuts. Post 8vo. Is. 6d.

Times to the Establisumkkt of the Sboowd Empibe, 1852. Edited by
Wm. Smith, LL.D. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. U.M.

Times to the Komah Conquest, with the History of LiteiBture and Art.
By Dr. Wm. Smith. 2&Ui Thousand. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. Is. 6d.

Times to the Estadlishment of the Empibe. With the History of
Literature and Art. By Dean Liddblu 2btk Thousand. Woodcuts,
Post 8vo, Is. 6d.

THE STUDENT'S GIBBON : An Epitome of the History of
the Dbclinb akd Fall of Home. Incoiporating the researches of
recent writers. By Dn. Wk. SMrrs. lotk Thousand. Woodcuts. Post
8vo. 1s.9d.


By G. P. Marsh. Edited by De. Wm. Smith, Post 8vo. Is. 6d.

T. B. Shaw. Edited by Dr. Wm. Smith. Post 8vo. 7s. 6(2.

THE STUDENTS LATIN GRAMMAR, for the Use of Collies and
the Upper Forms in Schools, By Db. Wm. Smith. PostSvo. Is. ^

THE STUDENTS GREEK GRAMMAR, for the^se of Colleges and
tbe Upper Forms in Schools. Bv Pbofesbob Cdrtius. Edited by Dr.
Wm. Smith. PoetSvo. 7s. Bd,


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Thb following Manual is based upon the * Diotionary of Greek and
Boman Geography/ The original -work contains a great mass of
information derived from tiie researches of modem traTellers ahd
scholars, which have not yet been made available for the purposes
of instmction in oar colleges and schools. It has therefore been
thought that a Manual, giving, in a systematic form and in a
moderate ccmipaas, the most important results embodied in the
Dictionary would prove an acceptable addition to our school and
college literature.

It would, however, be doing injostice to Mr. Bevan's labours
to represent them as only systematizing the larger work. Besides
adapting it for a different class of readers, he has likewise made
many valuable additions, of which the most important are : — '

1. A history of Geography in Antiquity, containing an account
of the views of the Hebrews, as well as of the Greeks and Romans,
and tracing the progress of the science from the mythical aodounts
of the poets through the progressive systems of Herodotus, Erato-
sthenes, Strabo, Ptolemy, and intermediate writers. This portion
of the work is illustrated by maps of the world as known to the
poets, historians, and geographers. It concludes with a chapter
upon the Mathematical and Physical Geography of the Ancients.

2. As full an account of Scriptural Geography as was consistent
with the limits of the work. Not only is considerable space devoted
to Palestine and the adjacent countries, but information is given
upon all Other Scriptural subjects, such as the Travels of St. Paul,
which can be illustrated by a knowledge of Geography. In this
part of the work important assLstance has been derived from' the
recently published ' DictionMiipf the Bible.'

AHC. OBOo. i^V? ^

T/-^ \ > ^^ Digitized by Google


3. Numerous quotations from the Greek and Roman poets, which
either illustrate or are illustrated by the statements in the text.

These are the principal additions made to the original work. In
arranging the materials in a systematic form, great pains have been
taken to make the book as interesting as the nature of the subject
would allow. The tedium naturally produced by an enumeration
of political boundaries and topographical notices is relieved by
historical and ethnographical discussions, while the numerous maps,
plans, and other illustrations, give life and reality to the descrip-
tions. The Retreat of the Ten Thousand Greeks, the Expedition
of Alexander the Great, and similar subjects, are discussed and
explained. It has been an especial object to supply information,
on all points required by the upper classes in the public schools
and by students in the universities.

As regards the arrangement of the materials, the plan adopted
has been to descend by a series of gradations from the general to
the particulaf* description of each country, commencing with the
boundaries, character, climate, and productions; proceeding next
to the physical features, such as moxmtains and rivers; then
describing the inhabitants, political divisions, and principal towns ;
and concluding with a brief notice, of the less important places, of
the roads, and of the political history. This arrangement, which
has been unifoiToly followed, will enable a student to arrive at both
the kind and the amount of information he may require. Should he
wish to study the physical features alone, he will find them brought
together as a separate branch of the subject : should he, on the other
hand, desire topographical particulars, he will know at once where
to turn for them, both by the order observed in the treatment of
the subject, and by the alteration in the type.

A Manual of Modem Geography on a similar plan is. in course
of preparation.

November, 1863.


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CH;kP. Paob

I. The World AS KNOWN TO THE Hebrews 1

II. The World as known to the Greek Poets 15

III. The World as known to the Greek Historians .. 23

IV. The World AS KNOWN TO THE Geooraphers 42

V. Mathematical and Physical Geography op the Ancients 59



VI. The Continent of Asia 67

vn. AsLA Minor. — ^Mysia, Ltdia 83

Vin. Asia Minor, oantinued. — Caria, Lycia, Pamphyua, Cilicia 114
iX. Asia Minor, ocmimued, — Cappadocia, Lycaonia and Isau-
RiA, PisiDiA, Phryota, Galatia, Bithynia, Paphla-

gonu, Pontus 140

X. SnUA— PlKBKIOlA— ARABLA .. .. 161

•^-^XL Palestine 176

XII. Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Assyria, Armenla, &c . . • . 20?
XIII. The Provinces of the Persian Empire .. .. •• •• 232


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CiiAF. Pace

XIV. Africa 25o

XV. Eqypt. - ^thiopia 2ol

XVI. Marmarica, Ctrenaica, Syrtica, Africa Propria, Numi-

DiA, Mauretania, Libya Ijtterior 239"


XVII. Edeope 313

XVIII. TiiRACiA AND Macedonia 324

XIX. Northern Greece.— Thessaly AND Epirus 34«

XX. Central Greece. — Acarnania, ^Etolia, Western Ixkjris,

Doris, Phocis, Eastern LocRis, BcEOTiA 375

XXI. Central Greece, cowitmitfrf. — Attica, Meqaris ..'405

XXII. Peloponnesus: Corinthia, Achaia, Elis, Messenia .. 431

XXIII. Peloponnesus, con/»miec/. — Laoonia, Arqolis, Arcadia .. 453

XXIV. Italy. — Venetia, Istria, Gallia Cisalpina, Liquria .. 483

XXV. Italy, continued. — Etruria, Umbria, Picenum, Sabini,

Marsi, Vestini, Marrucini, Pelioni, Samnium .. .. .104

XXVI. Italy, con*mu«f.—LATiUM ,V2&

XXVII. Italy, continiied. — Campania, Apuua, Calabria, Lucania,

TUB Bruttii 562

XXVIII. Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and the adjacent Islands 589


XXX. Galua 627


xxxii TijE Daxubian I>rovince8. Illyricum. Mcesia, Daoia. and

^^hmatia .. r,67


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Epbesw itstortd .

Faoimspuos. \ Earopa Title Pack.

Sarrentnin .. .• .* Ix

Mount Anna 1

Hap of the DUtribaUon
of tbe Haman Race,
•ooording to the LOth
Cbspter of GenesU . . f
M«> to iUnttrate the
Q4>iUl8 of BabjloDia

•Dd Ajqrria 13

Map of the World, acootd-

^ ing to Homer . . . . 15

Map of tbe World, aooMd-

ing to Hecataetis . . . . 23
Map of tbe World, accord-
ing to Herodotus . . 30
Map of tbe Cbenonesns
Trachea, according to

Herodotoa 41

Map of the World, aocord-

mg to Eratoetbenes .. 47
Map of the World, accord-
ing to Strabo . . . . 69
Map of tbe Worid. aoooEd-

ioig to Ptoteoar . . . . 56, 57
Temple of the Winds ., 69
Tbs Mesopotamian Pbdn 67
SketdliMi^ of tbe ICoon-
tain Bangem Plateaus,
and Plains of Asia,
as Icnown to the An^

denta 73

Harboar of AJezandria

Troaa 83

Sile of Atqrdoa, l^om the

West ; 9%

Gbbi of Cyzicoa ..... 96
Gbart of the Oonotiy

about Troy »7

Ooin of LamDsacas,, . . 100
Goins or MItylene and

Tenedos 102

Ruins of Sardis ., .. 103
aitaof&>besa8 .. .. 107
OaiQofClasoDien».. .. 108
Coin of Epbesus .. .. 109
Coin of Smyrna .. ,. 110

Cbin of Chios 112

Coin of Samoa 113

^lins of Miletus .. .. 114
Coin of Miletus .. .. 118
Cbart of tbe Coast about

Milefcuft ib.

Plan of Cnidna, and Chart
of the adioljdng Coast 120



CoinofCbidus 120

CoinofCos 123

Coin of iUiodes ' .. ., 124
Kockcut Lydan Tomb. . 120
Coin of Pfaa^elis .. .. 129
Ionic Lydan Tctnb • . ib.
Chart of tbe Amanides

Pyias 133

Coins of Celenderia and

Tarsus 136

Copper coin of Cyprus
under the Emperur

Claudius 139

Mount Argaeus, Cappa-

docla 140

Hierapolis in Pbiygla .. 146

Azani 149

OateofNicna .. .. 154
Llbanus or Lebanon .. 161
Ruins of Palmyra .. .. 164

Damascus.. 166

Mount Hor 175

Jerusalem 176

Diagram, exhibiting the
elevation of Jerusalem
and tbe Mountains of
Moab, and tbe defn-es-
sion of tbe Dead Sea, in
relation to tbe sea-level 179

Jericho 184

Jerusalem, from tbe South 189
Planof Jernsalem.. .. I9l

Cesaiea 193

SeaofOaUlee 196

Babboib-Ammon (Phila-
delphia) 199

Qadara 2O0

Bosrah CBoatra) .. .. 203
Roman Remafais in the
South Wall of Harem
atJemsatom .. .. 206
Temple of Birs-KImrud

atBondppa 207

View of fiam from tbe

West 210

Plan of tbe Ruins of Ba-
bylon 212

View of the Kasr, or An-
dent Palace of Nebo-

diadnezzar 214

Portions of Anient Ba-
l^lon dtelinguisliable
in the present Ruins . . 216
Mound of Nimroud .. 216

Vaalied Drain beneatb

tbe Palace at Nimroud 218
Subterranean Excavations

atKouyumilt .. .. 219
Tbe Town and Bock of

Wan 223

Mw of tbe Route of tbe

Ten Thousand .... 226

Tbe Caucasus 228

Pass of tbe Caucasus . . 231

PersepolU 232

Tomb of Gyrus at Jtfur-
ghdb, tbe ancient Pa-

sargads 234

Mouiid of Susa . . . . 235

littins uf Susa 236

Tomb of Darius .. .. 237
Plan of EcbaUna .. ..239
Mons Bagistanus, Rock

ofBehistun 240

Sculptures on Rock of

Behistun ib.

March of Alexander . . 247
Tbe Nile during the In-
undation, with the two

Colossi of Tbebea . . 253
The little OasU .. ..258

Memphis 261

PaviUon of Ramases UL

at Thebes 275

Tbe Memnonium at
Thebes during the In-
undation 279

Tbe Ruins and Vicinity

ofPhllaa 283

Ruins of Qyrene .. .. 289
Ruins of Ptolemais, tbe

portofBarca .. ..292

Coins of Cy reneand Barca 293

ColnofLeptis 297

Map of the Site of Cut'

tbage 300

Coin of Cartbage .. ..302

Europe 313

Mount Athos 324

Map of Constantinople . . 329

CoinofAbdera .... ib.

Coins of £nusaiMlOardia 330

Coin of Byzantium.. .. 331

Coinoflmbros 334

ColnofTbasoe 336

PbiUppi 336

Coin of Macedonia . . . . 340

Amphipolls 342


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Coin of PhiUpDl .. .. 343
PUn of ibe Neighbour-
hood of AmpbipoUs .. 443
Goinn of Amphipolit and

Thessalonioi .. .. 344

Onin of Acanthas . . . . 346

HoimtsOlynipusandOsflft 348
Stetcfa Map of Greece,

showing the direction of

t he Mountain Rangee. . 350
Map of Thermopyle and

tbesurroundingCountry 358

OoinofTheasaUa .. .. 362

Coin of Larlssa 363

Coin of Pharaalus .. .. 364

ColnofEplms 369

Plan of Actium .. .. 371

CbhiofGorqrra .. .. 374

Delphi, from the West . . ib.
Mount Pamaasus and the

HiU above Delphi .. 375

Coin of Acamania . . . . 376

Month of the Acbeloua. . ib,
Cbin of Argos Amphilo-

chicnm 377

Coins of Anactorlum and

(Kniads 378

OobiofAljzia 379

ColnofLencaa .. .. 380

CoinofZacynthns .. .. 381

Coin of -«tolla .. .. 385

Map of Delphi 389

Mouth of the Corycian

Gave 390

Interior of the Corydan

Cave 391

Oohi of the Locrl OpunUl 395

Coin of Ordiomenus . . 400

Flan of Ordiomenua . . ib.

Coin of Thebes .. .. 401
Coina of Thosptas and

Tanagra 403

The Parthenon in Its pre-
sent state .. .. I. 406
Plan of Athens .. .. 409
Atbensand its Port-towns 410
Plan of the Acropolis . . 412
The Propylsea restored . . 413
Coin of Athens .. .. 417

Or)fnof£gina 421

CoUiofEuboea 422

Coin of Chalds in Kubosa 423
Coins of Eretrla and

Cnrystus 434

Cohis of Qy thnos, Siphnoa,

andParos 426

Coins of Naxos and Delos 427
View of Mtnoa, NU»a.

and Megara 429

Corinth 431

Plan of Corinth .. .. 434
Fountain of Peirene at

Corinth ib.

Coin of Corinth .. .. 435


Roman Cohi of Corinth . . 435

SiteofSlcyon 437

CoinofSlcyon 438

Map of the Nei^bour-

hoodofPhlius .. ..438

CoinofKlia 445

Plan of Olympla .. .. 446

Map of the Bay of Py lus 45 1

Cuin of MeMtenia .. .. 452
Gate of the Lions at My-

cen» 453

Sparta and Its Environs . . 467

PUiuofArgos 462

PlanofArgos 464

Colnof Argoe ib.

Plan of the Ruins of My-

oeusB 466

Gallery at Tbyns .. .. ib.
Ruhis of a Pyramid in

theAraela 468

Coinofftgea 474

Coin of Pheneus .. .. 477

CoinofCvdonia .. .. 480
Coins of Gor^rna and

Cnossus 481

Coinof Lyctus 482

Pentoniflcation of the

River Tiber 483

View in the Nei^bour-

hood of Veil 504

Coin of PopuI<»ilum .. 511
Coin of Ancona belonging

to the Greek colony . . 517

ColnofAdria 518

Coins of .fiaemia and

Beneventum .. .. 536

Benevenium 528

Alban Hills and Remalna

of Roman Aqueduct . . 629'

PtanoftheatyofRomulus 535
Map of Rome, showing

the Servian Walls and

the Seven HUls .. ..536
Temple of Jupiter Capi-

toUnus restored .. .. 537
Plan of the Forum during

the Republic .. ..538
Puteal Libonia or Scribo-

niannm 539

Temple of Vesta. (Fhim

a Coin.) 540

Arch of Septhnlus Severua ib.

Temple of Tn^an .. .. 541

Arch of ntus restored . . 542

Arch of Constantlne . . ib.
Temples of Hercules and

Pudidtia Patrida . . 544

Tomp of CRidlia Metella 545

Colosseum 546

Pantheon of Agrippa . . 548

Mole of Hadrian restored 660

Insula TIberina, with the •

Pons Fsbridus and Pona

Cestius 651


PlanofOstIa 552

Tivoli, the ancient Hber 555

Gateway of Slgnia . . . . 558

Ruina of Capua .. .. 563

ColnofCnras 566

Coin of NeapoUs .. .. 567
Temple of Y euus at Pom-
peii 568

Street of the Tombe at

Pompeii ib.

Coinot TeanumSldiclnum 569

Coins of Capua and Nola 670

Plain of Cannn .. .. 573

Coin of Vcnuaia .. .. 575

Brundusium 677

Plan of Brundusinm . . 678
€oins of Metapontum and

Heraclea 581

ColnofThurti 682

Plan of Paestum .. .. 683

Coin of the BruttU. . . . 684

CoinofCroton 585

Coin of Cautonia .. .. 586

Coin of Rhegtum . . . . 587

PlanofCanne .. .. 688

^(nraghe In Sardinia . . 689
Coins of Messana and

Naxos 694

Cbin of Leonttni .. .. 595

Map of Syracuse .. .. 697

Coin of Syracuse . . . . 598

Coin of Agrigentum . . 599

Coin of Panormus . . . . 601

CoinofHimera .. .. 603

CoinofEnha 603

CoinofMelita 606

Remains of the Great
Theatre, Saguntum,

Spain 609

Coin of ValentU hi Spain 630

Coins of llerda and Osca 633
Temple at Nemau8U^
now called the M<dtm

Carnfe 637

Slcetch map of the phsrsl-
cal features of OalUa
and the polHlcal divi-
sions in Caesar's time . . 628
Aqueduct of Nemausus,
now called the ParU

du Hard 636

The I^Mses of the Alps,
to Illustrate Hannibal's

Route 618

Map showing the position

of OBBsar'a Mums . . 643

coin of Nemausus . . . . 646

Remains of Roman Wall 647
The Court-yard of Dlo-
detlan's Palace at Sa-

lona 667

Coin of Panticapeeum . . 683

Arch at Velaterr». . . . 684


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Mount Ararat.




§ 1. Origina] abode of man ; rivers of Eden. § 2. Ante-diluvian era.
§ 3. Ararat ; Armenia. § 4. Shinar. § 5. Tripartite division of the
human race. § 6. Limits of the world as known to the Hebrews.
§ 7. Egypt. § 8. Ethiopia. § 9. Arabia. § 10. Syria. § 11.
Phoenicia. § 12. Mesopotamia. § 13. Babylonia and Assyria.
§ 14. Geographical ideas of the Hebrews. § 15. Biblical nomen-

§ 1. T\\e Bible contains the eariiest geographical notices, com-
mencing with the description of the original abode of man and
carrying us through a period long anterior to the rise of classicfil
literature. The primaeval abode of the human race was situated on



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one of the plateaus of Western Asia, but its precise position cannot
be fixed. The " garden of Eden " in which the first man dwelt, is
described (Gen. ii. 10-14) as having been situated in some central
and lofty district, whence four rivers issued in various directions,
viz, the Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Euphrates. With regard to
the two latter rivers, there can be no doubt that they are identical
with the Tigris and Euphrates ; with regard to the two former a
great variety of opinion exists.

Rivera of Eden. — ^Many ancient writers, as Josephus, identified the
Pison with the Ganges, and the Gihon with the Nile. Others, guided
by the position of the two known rivers, identify the two unknown ones
with the Phasis and Araxee, which also have their sources in the high-
lands of Armenia. Others, again, have transferred the site to the
sources of the Oxus and Jaxartes, and place it in Bactria; othera,
again, in the valley of Cashmere. Such speculations may be multiplied
ad infinitum, and have sometimes assumed the wildest character.

*§ 2. So long as the position of Eden remains undecided, so long
will it be futile to attempt any settlement of the other questions of
ante-diluvian geography. The human race appears to have been
divided into two great branches — the Cainites and Sethites — each
havinjg their distinct abodes and characteristics. The Cainites wfent
eastward (Gen. iv. 16) from Eden, and settled in the land of Nod
(=" exile"), which has been identified variously with Susiana,
Arabia, Parthia, Tartary, and India : their first capital was Enoch,
of equally uncertain position. The Sethites, we may infer, went
westward, descending to the districts with which the Hebrews were
afterwards best acquainted. The Cainites were agriculturists ; the
Sethites adopted the pastoral life. To the former are attributed the
establishment of towns, and the discovery of various useful and
ornamental arts ; the latter, we may assume, retained their habits of
primitive simplicity with the tenacity which, even to the present day,
characterises the pastoral nations of the Eastern world.

§ 3. With the subsidence of the deluge we enter upon a new era
in geography : the names of well-known localities appear in history.
The ark " rested upon the mountains of Ararat *' (Gen. viii. 4),
meaning the mountains of Armenia, for Ararat in Biblical geo-
graphy (2 K. xix. 37 ; Jer. li. 27) is not the name of a mountain,
but of a district — the central region, to which the name of Araratia
ia assigned by the native geograpl^er Moses of Chorene. This being
the esse, w^e are not called upoU t^ decide a point which the sacred
^,^^ ^^^^^^^If leaves undecide!? P^^^^^' ^^® particular mountain on

iJlie DeJuf:^^ ^'V/,— Zo a '^^tt© i<5^ ^®®P mt«rest as the narrative of

vjade to :^^ \^e Ci^^^^t b© Of A t^*^ attempts should have been

^^eivti,& ^^ fi,, tbe prec.* ^l|>^ *>^t^ong **the mountains of Ararat "

V^' axicj ^^ «d;^V^ ^''^^ """^ ^** regenerated world.



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Nicolaus of DamasotiB amigned a mountain named Boris, beyond the
district of Minyas (the Minni of Scriptiire), as the scene of that event.
Berosus, who lived at Babylon, fixed on the lofty ridge of the Car-
dnchian or Kiirdisk range, which overlooks the plain of Mesopotamia in
the neighbourhood of the Tigris: his opinion was followed by a large por-
tion of the eastern world, so much so that in several ancient versions
the name " Kardu " is substituted for Ararat, while the Koran gives
the modem name " Al-JudC The belief that the remains of the ark
exist amid the lofty summits of that range is still cherished by the
inhabitants of the surrounding district. Josephus, who notices these
opinions {Ant, L 3, § 6), further informs us, that Uie Armenians had
fixed on the fl|>ot where Noah descended from the ark, and had given
it a name which he translates Apcbateritem, i,e, "landing-place:" he
is supposed to refer to the place now called Nackchivan, which bears a
similar meaning, in the valley of the Araxes. Nothing would be more
natural than that the scene of the event should in due course of time
be transferred to thc^loftiest of the mountains of Armenia, and that
the name of Ararat should be specially affixed to that one : accordingly
all the associations connected with the ark now centre in the magnifi-
cent mountain which the native Armenians name Macis^ and the Turks
Aghri-Tdgh. This is the oiUminating point of the central range of
Armenia, the Abus of the ancients. It rises mi^estically out of the
valley of the Araxes to an elevation of 17,260 feet above the level of

Online LibrarySir William Smith William Latham BevanThe student's manual of ancient geography → online text (page 1 of 82)